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BIOLOGY 




-s t 




M 



MANUAL 



OF THE 



LAND AND FRESH-WATER 
SHELLS 



Cftt Britis* 



WITH 

FIGURES OF EACH OF THE KINDS. 

BY 

WILLIAM TURTON, M.D. 



THOROUGHLY REVISED AND MUCH ENLARGED, 
BY 

JOHN EDWARD GRAY, F.R.S., &c. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR 

LONGMAN, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS, 

PATERNOSTER-ROW. 
1840. 






V 

BIOLOGY 

LIBRARY 
G 



" Nothing can be unworthy of being investigated by man, which was thought 
worthy of being created by God." BOYLE. 

" Divine communications are alike vouchsafed to us by the Volume of Nature, 
and the pages of inspiration." BACON. 



LONDON : 

Printed by A. SPOTTISWOODE, 
New-Street-Square. 



DEDICATED TO 

THE MEMORY 

OF 

MRS. ARTHUR HILL, 

OF 

BRUCE CASTLE, TOTTENHAM, 

AS A SLIGHT MEMORIAL OF HER GREAT WORTH, 

BT 

THE EDITOR. 



A 2 

357914 



PREFACE. 



THE Introduction to this edition contains, 1st, an 
explanation of the means which I have used to 
improve the work ; 2dly, an account of the species 
which I have reason to believe had been, from various 
causes, erroneously introduced into works of this 
kind, and the grounds on which they have been 
here rejected ; 3dly, a sketch of the geographical dis- 
tribution of the species, as compared with the rest of 
the world, and with different parts of our own country. 
I fear that this part of the subject, which has been 
here taken up for the first time, from the poverty of 
the materials at my disposal, is not so perfect as it 
should be ; but it is to be hoped, that readers living 
in different parts of the country (now that their 
observation is directed to the subject) will pay more 
attention to it, so that in future editions of the work 
it may be carried out in a more complete manner. It 
should be observed, that the whole value of the lists, and 
of the table, must depend on the accurate determin- 
ation of the species, which is of the first importance ; 
while the extent of the list (which appears to be 
the general pride of the local collector) is of a very 
secondary consideration. Since this part of the work 
was printed, Mr. Forbes has presented to the British 



VI PREFACE. 

Association, at Birmingham, his Report on this sub- 
ject, which (judging from the abstract of it that was 
read at the meeting, and has since been printed in 
the Athenceum,) will doubtless contain much additional 
information. The Introduction also contains, 4thly, 
an account of the fossil species which formerly in- 
habited this country ; 5thly, the situations generally 
preferred by different species of shells ; 6thly, an out- 
line of the history of the various additions that have been 
made, from time to time, in this part of our Fauna ; 
and, lastly, a catalogue of the works and papers which 
treat on British land and fresh-water mollusca, and 
of the best works on European species. 

For the purpose of assisting the young student, or 
those who study the mere shell, without paying any 
attention to the animals that form them, an arti- 
ficial table of the genera has been framed, and to it 
is appended a definition of the more important and 
general terms used in the description of shells ; some 
of which have, until lately, been employed in different 
senses by even celebrated authors. The description 
of the species is preceded by a general outline of the 
distribution of molluscous animals; and the genera 
have been distributed into natural families from cha- 
racters taken from the consideration of the animal, 
which alone can be regarded as the proper subject 
for classification. Every day proves, to the scientific 
conchologist, that every modification in the structure 
of the animal impresses its character on the shell, 
and that the shells thus afford good subsidiary cha- 
racters for the distinction of groups. 



PREFACE. Vll 

In the observations appended to the characters of 
groups and species, there is added, as opportunities 
occurred, a physiological account of the mode of for- 
mation and structure of the different parts of shells.* 
It is to this part of the subject that I would especially 
direct the attention of my readers ; as, in the study 
of the structure, formation, developement, and colour- 
ing of the shells, and in the habits of the animals 
which form them, they will find a never-failing 
source of pleasure and instruction, which can be 
carried on without any expense. For these parti- 
culars are as easily to be observed in the most 
common snail, as in the finest and most expensive 
shells in the cabinets of the curious ; and the details 
are more easily followed out, from the very fact of 
the facility of observing many specimens at the same 
time, in different states of developement : so that, to 
the philosophical conchologist and reflecting stu- 
dent, the most common specimens may do more 
to illustrate the perfection and all-seeing wisdom 
of the Creator, than the most costly collection. In 
the description of the species, particular attention has 
been paid to dividing them into small groups, to 
facilitate their determination; and an attempt has 
been made to point out the different varieties that 
occur, not by describing each individual variety that 
may be found, but by indicating the points that have 

* For a larger exposition of my views on this subject, refe- 
rence should be made to papers published in the Philosophical 
Transactions for 1833, and in the first volume of the Zoological 
Journal. 



Vlll PREFACE. 

been observed to be most liable to variation, and 
also the monstrosities which, from the mode of forma- 
tion of the shell, and some peculiarities in the habit of 
the different species, are likely to take place in each 
of them. To illustrate the animals of the different 
families and genera, a series of vignettes has been 
given ; and further to assist in determining the spe- 
cies, some wood-cut figures of the shells have been 
interspersed in the text. 

All the new species introduced into the work, and 
the more remarkable varieties, have been figured, 
and added to the plates (except Vertigo angustior, 
which could not be procured) ; and the whole of the 
figures which were given in the former edition have 
been compared with the specimens, and corrected 
where required. There have also been added to these 
plates other figures of the same species, and enlarged 
details of those parts of the smaller kinds which are 
calculated to facilitate the determination of the spe- 
cies. Indeed, although this work has been called in the 
titlepage a new edition of Dr.Turton's Manual, it may 
be almost considered a new publication, as the only 
portions of the former edition that have been retained 
are the descriptions of the species, and a few of the 
general observations ; in so much that, on revising it in 
its printed form, it is a matter of regret to me, that it 
was not rather undertaken as an entirely new work, 
which would not have cost me nearly so much trouble 
as editing the present one. 

I have only further to return my thanks for the 



PREFACE. IX 

kind and friendly assistance which I have received 
from Mr. Jeffreys, Mr. Hincks, Mr. Philip Carpen- 
ter, Mr. D. Cooper, Mr. Carter, and especially from 
Mr. Thompson of Belfast, and Mr. Alder of New- 
castle, who have kindly sent me specimens for com- 
parison and figuring. Some apology is, perhaps, due 
to those who have been expecting the new edition of 
the work which has been so long advertised : this has 
partly been occasioned by the delay in the comple- 
tion of the plates, and partly by numerous engage- 
ments, which have only allowed me to pay attention 
to the subject at leisure moments, when not occupied 
by my official duties. 

Eliot Vale, Blackheath, 
Feb. 12. 1840. 



ERRATA. 



Page 12. line 21. add " t. 6. f. 69." 
79. line 6. omit "on." 

90, 91. 93, 94. 97, and 98. for " t. 8 " read "t. 10." 
127. line 19. add "t. 11. f. 129." 
133. line 3. add "t. 11. f. 130." 
135. line 5. for "f. 24." read " f. 34." 
139. line 7. for " 31." read " t. 11. f. 131." 
175. line 22. for " t. 4. f. 39." read " t. 12. f. 138." 
200. line 28. for " t. 140. f. 10." read " t. 12. f. 14O." 
205. at bottom, erase " f. 142." 
221. line 20. add " (t. 7. f. 77.)" 
227. line 26. add t. 12. f. 146." 
234. add to var. " t. 10. f. 101." a. b. d. 
239. line 4. for " pwlustris," read " palustris. " 

X. B. As the plates were not returned from the engraver until the 
greater part of the text was printed, there are unfortunately the above 
errors in the references to the figures in the text, and a few references 
to them have been left out ; but these can be easily added by the pen, 
space having been left for the purpose. 



A MANUAL 

OF THE 

LAND AND FRESH- WATER MOLLUSCA 

OF 

THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

THE great attention paid to the British land andfresh- 
water shells by Montagu; by my late friend and 
teacher in zoology, Dr. Leach; and more recently 
by Mr. Jeffreys, Mr. Jenyns, and Mr. Alder (more 
especially the latter), has left me little else to do, 
in revising this edition, than to embody their ob- 
servations. This is the more peculiarly the case, in- 
asmuch as they all, in a great measure, worked from 
the collection now under my charge, which contains 
the materials used by Dr. Leach in preparing his as 
yet unedited work on British Mollusca, and, among 
the rest, the various specimens which I had myself 
collected when actively engaged in the study of our 
British species. It is right, however, to add, that, 
before adopting the remarks of these authors, I have, 
in every instance where it was in my power (and 
that was almost universally), verified the facts myself; 
and, therefore, although I have used their words, from 



* INTRODUCTION. 

a desire to do justice to their labours, the conclusions 
are most frequently equally my own. 

In determining the names of the species, I have 
always acted on the only certain and just rule, that 
of priority, unless the name first used was de- 
cidedly objectionable, on account of its giving an 
incorrect idea. In so doing, I have been obliged to 
change some of the names employed by Mr. Alder 
and Mr. Jeffreys, who, from a desire to make our 
Fauna agree with the continental works which they 
have studied, have been induced to adopt several of 
the names given by French authors, although long 
posterior to those applied to the same species by our 
own most accurate observer and describer, Montagu. 
The work of this excellent zoologist (when we con- 
sider the period of its publication, and the difficulties 
which the author had to encounter from the pre- 
judices then in force) deserves to be placed in a very 
high rank ; and the marked attention which he paid 
to the animals of the species that had come under his 
observation proves that his views were far superior 
to those of his age. Mr. Alder gives as his reason for 
adopting these more modern French names in pre- 
ference, that they are almost exclusively used on 
the Continent by which, I presume, he means in 
France; for, if we study the works published in 
different European countries, and especially their 
Faunas, we shall find that each of them has its own 
peculiar favourite, whose arrangement and nomen- 
clature the naturalists of that country are most in- 
clined to adopt. Thus, though the names given by 
Draparnaud are commonly used in France, those of 
M'uller are almost exclusively adopted in Germany 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

and Sweden ; and the authors of the latter countries 
would as readily have adopted the names of Mon- 
tagu as those of Draparnaud, if they had been ac- 
quainted with the work of the former, which, it should 
be recollected, was published at a period when we 
were excluded from the Continent by an unhappy war. 

It ought to be, and, judging from the attention 
which our botanists and zoologists pay to continental 
works, I believe it is, the desire of the naturalists of 
this country to give to each author his just due, let 
him belong to what country he may; and, eventually, 
this high position must be taken even by those (if 
any such there be) who are now restricted by narrow 
national prejudices from consulting the works of their 
contemporaries in other countries. It is these con- 
siderations which have induced me to take the course 
I have adopted. I believe, moreover, that if I had 
followed that recommended by Mr. Alder and Mr. 
Jeffreys, I should have experienced continual diffi- 
culties in determining whether the name of a species 
used by German or French authors was the most 
generally adopted; and this difficulty would have 
gone on daily increasing, inasmuch as the Germans 
are paying more and more attention to natural sci- 
ence, and their language is becoming more generally 
studied in this country. 

A short description of the animals, and a few notes 
on their habits, have been added; and this new feature 
in the work might have been greatly extended, had 
it not been feared to add too much to its bulk. 

Great care has been taken in correcting such false 
impressions as may have been produced by over- 
sights in the works of preceding English writers on 
B 2 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

the subject, and reference has been made to such of 
their observations as have appeared to be of sufficient 
importance to find a place in a work which is in- 
tended only as a manual for the student. One ani- 
mal of each of the more typical genera of each of the 
families has been figured, and new plates have been 
added, containing the species not before figured, 
together with figures and details of some of the 
smaller species, which were not executed so well as 
might have been wished in the preceding edition. 

Wishing to make the work really what its title re- 
presents it, the species described are restricted to those 
which appear to be truly native, and only the two fol- 
lowing, viz. 

Testacella haliotoidea, t. 3. f. 19., and 
Driessina polymorpha^ 

have been admitted among those which are supposed 
to have been introduced in modern times. These have 
been admitted, because they have become truly natu- 
ralised, and propagate themselves in our climate in the 
open air. Indeed it is doubtful whether the first of 
them may not be as truly native as several other species 
commonly considered so ; such as, Helix Pomatia> H. 
holosericea, H. limbata, H. Carthusiana, and H. Pisana. 
Several other species were recorded and described in the 
first edition of this work, which have been introduced 
with foreign plants, either buried in the mould, or on 
the plants themselves, or which have most probably been 
brought to this country in the egg state. These are not 
truly acclimatised, and only propagate their species 
when they are kept in stoves or hot-houses ; they can 
therefore have no pretension to be considered as na- 
tives : among them must be recorded, the 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

1. TESTACELLA Maugei, t. 3. f. 18. 

Testacellus Maugei Fermsac, Turton, Man. ed. 1. 

27. f. 18. 

Testacella haliotidea Drap. 18. f. 4648. 
Testacellus europaeus Montfort, ii. 95. 

A native of Teneriffe. 

First noticed as having been introduced into this 
country by Ferussac, and then by Miller of Bristol. 

2. BULIMUS decollatusi t. 6. f. 6. 
Helix decollata Linn. s. n. 1247. 

Bulimus decollatus Drap. 76. t. 4. f. 27, 28. ; Tvrtov. 

Man. ed. 1. 77. f. 5. ; Eossm. Icon. f. 384. 

A native of France. 

Dr. Turton gives the following account of the 
reason why he included this shell in the British 
Fauna. It " was observed to breed in great abun- 
dance for many successive years in the green-house 
at Wotton, in South Devon, the seat of H. Studdy, 
Esq., lodged in the earth, under the woodwork, 
whence they wandered abroad in the summer. 
This woodwork and the earth were replaced with 
stone, by which the colony was lost." Zool. Journ. 
565., and Man. ed. 1. 77; where, he adds, "no fo- 
reign earth was ever known to have been admitted 
into the house ; and they were considered by the 
gardeners as natives. All that were preserved we 
owe to the diligence of Mrs. Griffiths and Miss Hill." 

The nucleus or newly-hatched shell is small, 
subglobose, and formed of 2^ whorls. The ani- 
mal elongates the shell without enlarging the size 
of the whorls, until it has perfected 6 or 8 whorls ; 
it then gradually enlarges the whorls, and rather 
B 3 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

contracts them again before it has completed its 8 
or 9 whorls, and forms its perfect mouth. When the 
animal has formed whorls enough of the tapering 
kind to contain that part of the body which was in 
the small whorls, it secretes a conical tapering 
septum between them and the slender ones, and 
the top falls off from want of connection with the 
animal. (This is well figured in Philippi, Sicily, 
t.8. f.14.) 
3. BULIMUS Goodallii, t.6. f. 61. 

Bulimus clavulus Turton, Man. ed. 1. 79. f. 61. 
Helix Bulimus Goodalii Miller, Ann. Phil. vii. 1822, 

381. 
Helix cochlicella clavulus Ferus. Prod. 52. 381. (not 

described) . 

Achatina clavulus Sow. Gen. t. f. 
B. clavulinus Potiez, Gal. 1. 136. 1. 14. f. 9, 10. 

Inhab. Guadaloupe ; naturalised in Bourbon and 
England. 

This shell was first introduced into the Fauna, 
and indeed first described, in 1822, by Mr. Miller, 
who found it in some pine-beds at Bristol ; it is 
also common in the same situations in the neigh- 
bourhood of London, especially in Kensington Pa- 
lace garden ; and has been found near Manchester 
by Mr. Williamson. It was first observed by the 
late Mr. Drummond, the botanist, in 1816, who 
was in the habit of feeding them; and when he 
wanted a supply, he merely placed a flat board 
upon the surface of the tan, and left two or three 
small dead worms beneath it, and never failed of 
finding it covered with them in a few days. Fleming, 
B. A. 266. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

To these may be added 

4. HELIX maculosa Born. Mus. 1. 14. f. 15, 16.; Ferns. 

Moll. t. 28. f. 9, 10. 
H. irregularis Ferussac, 1. c. t. 28. f. 58. 

A native of Northern Africa, Egypt. 

Some specimens of which were living for two or 
three years in my house at Blackheath, and in that 
of my friend Mrs. Mauger, at Clapton. 

5. BULIMUS zebra. 
Buccinum zebra Mutter. 
Bulimus undulatus Brug. * Lam. 

Bulla zebra Dittw., Lister, t. 580. f. 34. Chemn* ix, 

f. 1015, 1016. 

Helix zebra Ferussac, Moll. t. 114. f. 58. and t. 118. 
Bui. zigzag. Lam. (?) 

Inhab. S. America, Honduras. 
Is brought with the mahogany logs, and often 
lives for some time in this country. 

6. BULIMUS rosaceus King, Zool. Journ. v. 341. 

Inhab. S. America, Chili. 

Brought by Lieut. Graves, and lived some time in 
Mr. Loddiges' hot-house. See Zool. Journ. v. 342. 

7. BULIMUS oblongus Brug. 
Helix oblongus Mutter. 

Bulimus haemastoma Scopoli Lam. 

Inhab. S. America. 

A specimen of this animal lived for more than a 
year in the hot-houses of the Horticultural Society, 
and laid some eggs. Zool. Journ. v. 101. 

B 4 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

8. ACHATINA bicarinata Lam. Hist. vi. 
Bulimus bicarinatus Brug. 

Bulla bicarinata Dillw. Cat. 496. ; Lister, C. t. 37. 
f. 36. 

A native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

A specimen of which was given to me alive, by 
Capt. Sir James Alexander, who had it for some 
time living, and in whose possession it deposited 
an egg. 

For the same reason no notice is taken in the body 
of the work of the following species, which have been 
included among the British, by one or more preced- 
ing authors, on what I am inclined to regard as in- 
sufficient authority. 

Several of these have doubtless been introduced, by 
mistake, for some other nearly allied British species ; 
and others have been described from specimens which 
have been accidentally intermixed with British shells 
in the cabinets of careless collectors ; but it is also to 
be feared that some have been wilfully palmed upon 
us by unprincipled persons, who wished to gain credit 
for their discovery, and to enrich their cabinets with 
foreign species, for which they, at the same time, 
coined British habitats, sometimes not even consist- 
ent with their proper station. It is curious that the 
persons who have been most addicted to such prac- 
tices often overreached themselves; for not satisfied 
with adding to the Fauna species which, from their 
geographical distribution, might possibly be found in 
our island, they often fixed on such tropical shells as 
were most easy of access, without heeding that these 
must at once be excluded from our Fauna when their 
true locality became known. 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

Some of the species introduced, as I believe, by 
mistake, are natives of the Continent, especially of the 
south of Europe. Such are 

1. VITRINA elongata Drap. Moll .120., PfeiiFer, 48. t. 2. 

f. a 

Helicolimax elongata Fer. Moll. t. 9. f. 1. 

Inhab. France. 

Introduced by Mr. Jeffreys, who appears to have 
mistaken one of the varieties of V. pellucida for this 
shell. 

2. HELICOPHANTA brevipes Fer. 

Helix brevipes Drap. 119. t. 8. f. 30. 33., Turton, 
Man. ed. 1. 65. (f. 50. ?), Rossm. Icon. t. 2. f. 39. 
A native of the south of Europe. 
Introduced by Dr. Turton, who afterwards 
thought he might have mistaken a young spe- 
cimen of Vitrina for it ; his account is chiefly taken 
from Draparnaud's work. The figure has not the 
slightest resemblance to the shell, but is probably 
Helix radiatula ? According to Michaud, it is not 
found even in France. 

3. HELIX elegans Gmelin. 3642. 
Trochus terrestris Pennant. 

Carocolla elegans Lam., Kenyan, M. N. Hist. 

A native of Italy, and the south of France. 

M. Ferussac observes (Journ. Phys. 1820, 302.) 
that this species is not found in France to the north 
of Montpelier. It was said to have been found in 
Cumberland, by Mr. Hudson the botanist. 

4. HELIX explanata Miiller, Verm. ii. 26. 
Helix albella Drap. not Linn. 
Carocolla albella Lam., Kenyan. 

B 5 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

Inhab. Italy and the south of France, on the 
shores of the Mediterranean. 

Dr. Fleming inserted this in the Fauna : he says 
a single specimen was found, in 1810, at St. An* 
drews, Scotland. (Brit. Anim. 260.) On his autho- 
rity, I inserted it in my list of new British shells, in 
the Medical Repository for 1821, p. 239.; but there 
can be little doubt that he was mistaken in the 
species. 

5. HELIX conspurcata Drap. H. M. 105. t. 7. f. 23. 25.; 

Rossm. Icon. t. 26. f.351*.; Lam.n. 104. 

A native of France and Sweden. 

Introduced by Mr. Jeffreys as a synonym of H. 
hispida, but it is not allied to H. caperata Linn. 
Trans, xiii. 338. 510. 

6. HELIX Olivieri Ferussac, Prod. 255., not Pfeiffer, 

Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xiii., Rossmasler, Icon. t. 
27. f. 369. 

Inhab. south of Europe, Syria. (?) 
Introduced by Mr. Jeffreys, who thought one of 
the varieties of Helix Gibsii was this species. 

7. HELIX candidula Studer, Rossm. Icon. t. 26. f. 350. 

353. 
H. striata var. Drap. t. 6. f. 20., Pfeiffer, 4. t. 2. 

f.21,22. 

Inhab. France, Germany, and Switzerland. 

Introduced by Mr. Jeffreys (Linn. Trans, xiii.) as 
a synonyme of H. caperata. But I agree with Mr. 
Alder in believing that this species has not yet been 
found in Britain. Rossmasler refers to Turton, 
Man. f. 21., for this species, but this is a mistake. 




INTRODUCTION. 11 

8. HELIX sylvatica Drap. t. 6. f. 1. 
H. austriaca Rossm. Icon. t. 1. f. 7. 
IL vindebonensis Pfeiffer. 

Inhab. south of France near 
Lyons, and Switzerland. 

Introduced into the list by Mr. 
Kenyon. (Mag. N. Hist. i. 427.) 
Deshayes believes it is only a variety 
of H. nemoralis (Lam. H. ed. 2. 55.), but it is quite 
distinct. 

9. HELIX lucorum Linn. s. n. 1247., Muller, 46., 

Ferus. Moll. t.21. f. 2. 
H. castanea Olivier, Voy. t. 17. f. a. b. 
Helix mutata Lam. 

A native of Italy and the Levant. 

Introduced by Pulteney, who believed it was 
our H. aspersa. 

10. HELIX ccespitum Drap. 109. t. 6. f. 14, 15., Pfeiffer, 

17. t. 6. f. 11, 12., Rossm. Icon. t. 1. f. 16., t. 36. 

f.513, 514, 515 (not 516.). 

A native of the south of France, Spain, and 
Syria. 

Introduced by Mr. Jeffreys, who believed it to be 
the same as H. ericetorum, from which it differs in 
being rounder and higher. 

11. HELIX neglecta Drap. 108. t. 6. f. 12, 13., Rossm. 

Icon. t. 26. f. 355. 

A native of the south of France, Italy, and Syria. 

Introduced by Mr. Jeffreys as a variety of H. 
virgata. It is more like a variety of H. ericetorum, 
than of H. virgata, but is still distinct from either. 
B 6 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

12. HELIX plebeia Drap. 

A native of France, Switzerland, and Germany. 

Mr. Jeffreys introduced this shell as being some- 
times found with H. concinna, and probably another 
variety of H. hispida. 

13. BULIMUS detritus Deshayes. 

Bulimus radiatus Brug. E. M. 312., Drap. 73. 

t. 4. f. 21., Rossm. Icon. t. 2. f. 42. 
Helix detrita Mutter, ii. 101. 
H. sepium Gmel. 

Bui. sepium Hartmann, Lister, C. t. 8. f. 2. 
Helix radiata Ferus. 
Buccinum leucozonias Gmel. 
Inhab. France and Germany. 
This species was introduced into our 
Fauna by Baron Ferussac, who considered 
that the Helix detrita of English authors 
must have been described from a specimen 
of this species, their Helix detrita being a 
tropical shell, our Bulimus exilis, p. 17. 

14. BULIMUS ventricosus Drap. 78. t. 4. f. 31, 32., 

Rossm. Icon. t. 28. f. 377. 
Helix cochlicella ventrosa Ferus. Prod. 52. 377. 

A native of the south of France, Italy, Syria, 
and Spain. 

Introduced by Dr. Turton (Man. ed. 1. 86.), 
who believed that a variety of Bulimus acutus, which 
he had received from Cornwall, was referrible to this 
species. Mr. Jeffreys thought it was a variety of H. 
acutus (Linn. Trans, xiii. 347. 513.), and Rossmasler 
has referred to Turton's figure without a doubt, as 
belonging to that species. 




INTRODUCTION. 13 

15. BULIMUS pupa Brug. E. M. 349., Rossm. Icon. 

t. 28. f. 379. 

Pupa primitiva Menke, Cat. 34. 
Pupa normalis Menke, MSS. 
Bulimus tuberculatus Turton, ZooL Journ. 363. t. 

13. f. 4., Man. ed. i. 82. f. 64. 
Helix pupa Dilhcyn, 960. 
Inhab. Sicily, Italy, and North Africa. 
Introduced by Dr. Turton on the authority of 
Capt. Blomer, who stated that he found it in a 
wood about Pershore, Worcestershire ; but he has 
since doubted the accuracy of this information 
(Man. ed. i. 142.), and M. Ferussac says that it 
has never been found within 15 degrees of Britain. 

1 6. PUPA cinerea Drap. 65. t. 3. f. 53, 54., Rossm. 

t. 23. f. 336. 

Bulimus similis Brug. E. M. 96. 
Turbo quinquedentatus Dillicyn. 

Inhab. south of France, Italy, Switzerland, and 
South Germany. 

Introduced, in error, by myself, a specimen of this 
shell having been accidentally mixed by Dr. Leach 
with some specimens of other shells which I had col- 
lected at Battersea. Mr. Jeffreys has thought that he 
also had discovered a fragment of this species in the 
same locality, but this, too, is probably an error, like 
some of the other habitats of doubtful species in the 
same paper, which the author afterwards corrected. 

17. PUPA tridens Drap. 68. t. 3. f. 57., Brard, t. 3. f. 

11., Rossm. Icon. t.2. f.23. 
Bulimus tridens Brug. E. M. 90. 
Turbo tridens Gmel. 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

T. quadridens Alien. 
P. tridentata Brard. 

Inhab. the continent of Europe. 

Introduced, by mistake, by Baron Ferussac, 
who considered it the same as Turbo tridens of the 
English authors. Journ. de Phys. 1821, p. 295. 

18. PUPA obtusa Drap. 63. t. 3. f. 44., Rossm. Icon. 

19. t.23. f.337. 
Pupa germanica Lam. vi. 108. 
Cochlostyla obtusa Ferus. P. 48. t. 109. f. 4. 
A native of France and the Alps. 
Dr. Fleming (Brit. Anim. i. 269.) mistook the 
P. alpestris of Ferussac for this species. 

19. CLAUSILIA labiata Turton, Man. ed. 1. f. 57. 
Turbo labiatus Solander, Montag. T. B. 363. 
Clausilia solida Drap. 7. t. 4. f. 15., Rossm. Icon. 

t. 18. f. 267. 

Strombiformis perversus Dacosta, 107. t. 8. f. 15. 
Inhab. France (?), Malta. 
Introduced by Dacosta. It is said to have 3 
been found at Battersea and in Hyde Park in 
1790, by the late Mr. Swainson : most pro- 
bably it was carelessly placed in the cabinet 
for C. laminosa, which is common in these 
localities. 

20. CLAUSILIA papillaris Drap. t. 4. f. 13. ; Rossm. 

Icon. t. 12. f. 169. 

Clausilia bidens Turton, Man. ed. 1. f. 56. 
Bulimus papillaris Brug. 49. 
Helix papillaris Mutter, ii. 120. 
Turbo bidens Lin. Gmel 3069. 
Inhab. Sicily. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

Mr. Forbes furnished Mr. Alder with the fol- 
lowing account of the introduction of this species 
into the Fauna. He says, " I have lately ob- 
tained a manuscript copy of Laskey's North 
British Testacea, written by himself, which fully 
explains the history of the British Clausilia papil- 
laris. He states, that it was found by him in 
Granton Park, near Edinburgh, and that it was 
imported from abroad, in moss round the roots of 
some exotics." 

Nilson gives this as a Swedish species, but pro- 
bably his shell is our Clausilia biplicata, for that and 
many other species have whitish spots near the suture. 

21. CLAUSILIA ventricosa Drap. t. 3. f. 14., Rossm. 
Icon. t. 7. f. 102. 



Clausilia biplicata has been mistaken for 
this species. Rossmasler thought that Tur- 
ton's figure 57. represented it. 



i 



22. ACHATINA folliculus Lam. vi. ; Michaud, Compl. 

53. t. 15. f. 14, 15. 
Helix folliculus Gmel 3654. 
Helix gracilis Lowe Mol Mad. 61. t.6. f.28. (?) 
Young H. cochlitoma folliculus Ferussac, Bull. 

Zool. i. 7. 

Physa scaturiginum Drap. 56. t. 3. f. 14, 15. 

Lymneus scaturiginum Turton, Man. ed. 1. f. 104. 

Inhab. south of France, Sicily, under stones, &c. 

Dr. Turton, according to the remarks of Dr. 

Fleming (B. A. 274.), Mr. Jeffreys, and Mr. Alder, 

mistook the young of Lymneus glaber, according 

to the first, and L. stagnalis, according to the two 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

latter, for the young of this species, probably mis- 
led by Draparnaud, who had called it a Physa. 
How Draparnaud could have done so, I do not 
know, for it is a dextral shell (as is also the speci- 
men figured byTurton, f. 104.), who referred it to 
Lymneus. 

23. DIASTROPHA contorta. 

Physa contorta Michaud, Bull. Lin. Soc. Bord. iii. 

368. t. f. 15, 16., Comp. t. 16. f. 21, 22. 
Physa alba Turton, Zool Journ. ii.361., Man. ed. 1. 

f. 111. 

Physa rivularis Philippi, 146. t. 9. f. 1. 
Inhab. Sicily, Corsica, Algiers, and the Pyrenees. 
Introduced into the Fauna by Dr. Turton, on 
the same authority as Bulimus pupa, with about as 
much probability. Dr. Fleming does not think it 
distinguishable from Ph. fontinalis ; probably he 
had not seen a specimen. 

24. PHYSA acuta Drap. 55. t. 3. f. 10, 11., Brard, 

Conch. 169. t. 7. f. 5, 6. 

Inhab. France, Italy, and Sicily. 

This shell is introduced on the authority of Mr. 
James D. C. Sowerby, who believes it was found in 
Wales. Lamarck refers to Lister, Aug. t. 2. f. 25., 
for this species. 

25. PLANORBIS lutescens Lam. Hist. vi. 153. 

Inhab. France. 

Introduced by Mr. Jeffreys, who thought his 
P. disciformis was this species. 

26. CYCLOSTOMA ferrugineum Lam., Rossm. t. 28. f. 

396., Potiez, Gal. 1. 236. t, 24. f. 7, 8. 
Cyclost. productum Turton, Man. ed. 1. 94. f. 76. 
Turbo fulvus Wood, Cat. Supp. t. 6. f. 9. 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

Inhab. Minorca, Algiers. 

Introduced by Dr. Turton, who figures it for 
the next species. He says he found a single speci- 
men near the sea-coast in the West of Ireland ! 

27. CYCLOSTOMA sulcatum Drap. 33. t. 13. f. 1. (not 

Lam. n. 4.) ; Rossm. Icon. t. 28. f. 304. 

Inhab. Provence, South Italy, and Sicily. 

Introduced with doubt by Dr. Turton (Man. 
ed. 1. 94.), who believed that it was the foregoing 
species. Deshayes refers to Turton (Man. fig. 
76.) for this species. 

28. VALVATA minuta Drap. 12. t. 1. f. 36, 37, 38. 

Inhab. France. 

Mr. Miller (Annals of Phil. iii. 377.) introduced 
this species as found near Bristol, from two dead 
shells ! 

29. VALVATA spinorbis Drap. 41. t. 1. f. 32, 33. 

Inhab. France. 

Turton introduced this species in the Manual. 
See Mr. Alder's remark on it at Valvata cristata. 

30. CYCLAS lacustris Drap. 130. 1. 10. f. 6.7., Turton, 

Man. ed. 1. 14. t. 1. f. 4. 

Inhab. France. 

Mr. Miller and Dr. Turton give this as a Bri- 
tish species ; the latter copies Draparnaud's descrip- 
tion and figure. Mr. Alder informs me that the 
specimens which Dr. Turton described are only a 
variety of Cyclas calyculata. Mr. Alder observes, 
that the Cyclas lacustris of Draparnaud is cer- 
tainly unknown to British naturalists ; but as the 
species is described by most of the continental 
authors, we might conclude that they were well 



18 INTRODUCTION. 

acquainted with it. The contrary, however, appears 
to be the fact. M. de Ferussac, who,* from his 
extensive correspondence, might have been expected 
to possess the best information on the subject, gave 
Mr. Alder a variety of C. cornea (frequently found 
in this country), as the supposed C. lacustris Drap. 
This, though slightly rhomboidal in outline, does not 
agree very well with Draparnaud's description. Mr. 
Clark has a shell obtained in Devonshire, which 
comes nearer to it. 

The following introduced species are only found in 
tropical climates : 

1. ACHATINA octona Turton Man. ed. 1. f. 72. 
Cionella elongata Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xiii. 349. 
Bulimus octonus Brug. E. M., Chemn. ix. f. 

1264. 

Inhab. the West Indies, St. Vincent's. 

Placed in the list by Dr. Pulteney, probably by 
mistake for Lymneus glaber. Mr. Jeffreys (Linn. 
Trans, xvi. 349.) believed he had rediscovered this 
tropical species, but at length gave it up. Mon- 
tagu doubted its being British. (T. B. 307.) 

2. BULIMUS exilis Deshayes. f. 109. 
Bulimus guadalupensis Brug., Lam. 
Helix acuta Chemn. ix. f. 1124. 
Helix guadalupensis Dillw., Ferussac. 
Bulimus antiguensis Guild. MSS. 
Helix detritus Montag. T. B. 

Lymneus detritus Turton, Man. ed. 1. f. 109. 
Bulimulus trifasciatus Leach, Zool. Misc. 
Bulimulus acutus Leach MSS. 
Helix exilis Gmel, Lister, C. t. 8. f. 1. 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

Inhab. West Indies, St Vincent's. Rev. L. 
Guilding. 

Introduced by Montagu (T. B. 384.) on the 
authority of Mr. Byers, who stated he found it at 
Weymouth and at Dorchester ! Mr. Alder observes, 
that since Dr. Turton has withdrawn his statement 
of having found this shell in Ireland, Mr. Byers 
remains our only authority for considering it as 
British ; but, whatever the original shell found by 
Mr. Byers may have been, the specimens now in 
English cabinets appear all to belong to the genus 
Bulimus, and are most likely foreign. Capt. Blo- 
mer sent me, continues Mr. Alder, a foreign Palu- 
dina for this shell, a few years ago. The Bulimus 
radiatus of France, and B. exilis of the West 
Indies, are the species which generally occupy its 
place in the British cabinets. 

3. BULIMUS fragilis Lam. Hist. vi. ed. 2. 231. 

Inhab. 

Introduced by Lamarck, who received it from 
Dr. Leach as the Helix fragilis of Montagu ; but 
this must be a mistake, as Montagu's shell is cer- 
tainly, as his description and figure show, the young 
state of Lymneus stagnalis. The above-described 
may be only a bleached specimen of the next. 

4. BULIMUS fiiscus. 

Bulimulus fuscus Guilding, Zool. Journ.iv. 176. 
Helix fragilis Montagu, Cabinet (in Brit. Mus.) not 

in T. B. 
Helix lymnoides Ferussac (?) 57. 393. 

Inhab. West Indies, St. Vincent's. Rev. L. 
Guilding. 



20 INTRODUCTION. 

Introduced into the British Fauna by Montagu, 
who had a specimen mixed with his Lymneus fragi- 
lis, according to D. Leach. 

5. BULIMUS cylindrus Gray, Ann. Phil. 14. f. 68. 
Bulimus articulatus Turton, Man. ed. i. 85. f. 68. 

not Lam. 
Macroceramus signatus Guilding, Zool. Journ. iv. 

168. 
Turbo formosus Wood, Cat. Supp. t. 6. f. 26. 

Inhab. West Indies, Island of Tortola. Rev. 
L. Guilding. 

Introduced by Dr. Turton, who says he received 
it from Cornwall, and figures it for B. articulatus 
of Lamarck, which is only a variety of B. fasciatus. 
Deshayes refers to Turton's figure for Lamarck's 
species. (See Hist. ed. 2. 243.) 

6. CONOVULUS coffee. 

Voluta coffee Linn. s. n. 1187. 
Auricula coniformis Lam., Fer. 
Bulimus coniformis Brug. 

In Montagu's collection in the British Museum, 
mixed with Voluta bullceoides. It does not agree 
with the figure or description. 

7. DETRACIA bullceoides Gray. 

Voluta bullseoides Mont. T. B. t. 30. f.4. 
Auricula bullseoides Gray, Ann. Phil. 15. 
Auricula multivol vis Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xiii. 516. 
Tornatella bullaeoides Ferus. Prod. 1 08. 

Inhab. West Indies, St. Vincent's. (Guilding.) 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

Introduced by Colonel Montagu, who found it 
as British in the Portland Museum ! Mr. Jeffreys 
adds it to his list, at the same time expressing a 
doubt, as Mr. Clark had found it among W. Indian 
shells. It is one of the most common shells in the 
small boxes from the West Indies, and forms a par- 
ticular genus of Auricula, characterised by having 
only a single plait on the front of the pillar. 

8. TRALIA pusilla Gray. 

Auricula pusilla Desk., Lam. Hist. ed. 2. 332. 

Voluta pusilla Gmel 3436. 

Bulimus ovulus Brug. 71. 

Auricula ovula Ferns. P. 104. Portez, Gall i. 204. 

t. 20. f. 13, 14. 
A. nitens Lam. 

Voluta triplicate Donovan, B. S. 1. 138. 
Melampus ovulum Lowe, Zool. Journ. v. 289. 

Inhab. West Indies. 

Introduced by Donovan as found on the shores 
of Guernsey. This forms a genus (peculiar for 
having a simple internal lip, with a subposterior 
internal groove, where the notch occurs in Sidula 
felis Catti) between Sidula and Pedipes. 

9. APLEXUS rivalis f. 112., Maton and Racket, L. 

Trans, xiii. 126. t. 4. f. 2., Turton, Man. ed. 1. 

128. f. 112. 
Physa marmorata Guilding MSS. 

Inhab. West Indies, St. Vincent's. Rev. L. 
Guilding. 

Introduced by Dr. Maton and Mr. Racket. Said 
to have been found by Mr. James Hay, in Hamp- 
shire. 




22 INTRODUCTION. 

10. NERITINA virginea Lamarck, n. 18. 
Nerita virginea Linn. s. n. 1254. 
Neritina declivis Say, Cliemn. ix. t. 

124. f. h. i. 

Inhab. West Indies and N. America. 

Introduced by Dr. Turton, who says 
he found several of this shell on the coast of Ireland. 
Conch. Diet. 128. They most probably came from 
some wreck. 

11. TRUNCATELLA subcylindrica. 

Helix subcylindrica Pulteney, Dorset, 49., Gmelin 

(?) Mont. T. B. 393. 
Inhab. West Indies. 

Dr. Pultney introduced this shell as being ^ 
found on water-plants in ponds and ditches in JR 
Dorsetshire. Montagu justly doubts it, and - 
says it is a common West Indian species. See 
remarks on Truncatella truncata, by Lowe, ZooL 
Journ. v. 280., and Deshayes, Lam. Hist. ed. 2. 265. 

12. MELANIA Matonii Gray, Miscellany, 1. 
Murex fuscatus Maton and Racket, Linn. Trans, vii. 

150. t. 4. f. 6. 

An African river shell. 

Introduced by Dr. Maton and Mr. Racket, and 
said to have been found after a storm at Weymouth, 
by Mr. Byers. 

Thus have I felt myself called on to exclude from 
our Fauna no fewer than 50 species. 

In considering the geographical distribution of the 
British land and fresh-water Mollusca, we must look 
at them at least in two points of view ; first, as regards 
their bearing on the general distribution of Mollusca 



INTRODUCTION. 23 

in the rest of Europe, and, secondly, the extent to 
which the various species are diffused over the differ- 
ent parts of the island, which is influenced by the cli- 
mate, the elevation, and the nature of the subsoil, or 
of the rock of which the country is chiefly formed. 

All the species which appear to be really native, and 
are therefore noticed in this work, are found in 
France, or in different parts of Germany, except the 
following ; 

1. Assiminia Gray ana. 

2. Helix fasca Montagu. 

3. Vertigo angustior. 

4. Amphipeplea involuta. 

5. Planorbis glaber. 

6. Pisidium cinereum. 

7. nitidum. 

8. pulchellum. 

9. Henslowianum. 

Most of these are newly-described species, and may 
have been overlooked, or only considered as varieties 
of other well-known species, by the zoologists of the 
Continent. It is to be remarked that, in general, the 
British species, although they vary among themselves, 
attain a moderate, and nearly uniform, size, compared 
with those of the rest of Europe. Thus I have never 
seen Lymneus stagnalis^ Paludina achatina or crys- 
tallinay so large as those found in the south-eastern 
part of Germany ; or Helix nemoralis^ and other more 
common Helices, as those found in Portugal, or the 
Helix aspersa from Algiers ; nor, on the other hand, 
have I seen any English specimens of Helices so stunted 
in growth as the Alpine varieties of H. nemoralis and 
H. arbustorum, which I have received from the Swiss 
Alps. 



24 INTRODUCTION. 

Ferussac has observed (Journ. de Phys. 1820) that 
it is remarkable that in our more northern latitudes, 
as compared with France, there are found in abund- 
ance some species, such as Helix Pisana and Bull- 
mus acutus, which for their size and colour are only to 
be compared to the French specimens found on the 
banks of the Loire. 

On the other hand, there are many species, not 
found in our catalogues, that are common to nearly 
all the rest of Europe. 

Thus, according to Nilson, 73 of our British 
species are found in Sweden, and many of them, as 
for example, 

Helix pygmea. 

fulva. 

rotundata. 

pulchella. 

Zua lubrica, 

at its most northern extremity; and he has, in his 
Fauna, 16 species which have not yet been found in 
Britain or Ireland, viz : 

Limax tenellus. 

Helix Udentata Nilson, not Gmelin. 

* fruticum. 

* strigella. 

* incamata. 

* conspurcata. 

* ericetorum Nilson, not Linn. H. candidula 

Studer. 

Clausilia papUlaris, if it is not our C. biplicata. 

* Pupa costidata. 

Paludina Balthica^ if not our Littorina ulvce. 
octona. 
similis. 



INTRODUCTION. 25 

Cyclas lacustris. 

Unio ater. 

* crassus Nilson. U. littoralis Lam. 

limosus. 

And of these at least half (those marked with a star) 
are also common to France and to Germany ; and this 
may be the case with some of the others. Some of 
these species (of Helix for example) are of a size 
as large as H. hortensis and H. rufeseens ; and the 
largest, as H.Jruticum, H.strigella, and H.candidula, 
are found as far south as Vienna, and H. incarnata 
as far as Italy. Indeed, some of the continental con- 
chologists appear to upbraid our idleness in not having 
found them in England, where, probably overlooking 
our insular position, they assume that these species 
ought to be found. 

Nearly three fourths of our species, that is to say, 
91 out of the 126, are recorded by Pfeiffer as inhabit- 
ing Germany ; and the Germans have 80 species which 
are wanting to our Fauna ; but it is remarkable that 
they have not some of our larger species, as 

Limax carmatus^ 

Helix limbata^ 

fusca, 

Piscina, 

granulata, 

Amphipeplea glutinosa, 

Segmentina lineata. 
They also want some of our smaller ones, as 

Zonites purus, 

radiatulus, 

excavatus, 

Pupa umbilicata (?) 

c 



26 INTRODUCTION. 

Pupa anglica, 

Vertigo alpestris, 

angustior, 

palustrisy 

Planorbis Iceiris, 
and 2 or 3 Pisidiums. 

On the other hand, many of the British shells find 
their southern limits in France and Germany, for 
only 22 of them are found in Sicily, and only 17 in 
Corsica. Of these southern species, the greater part, 
viz., the 18 following, are common to those countries, 
Britain, and Sweden, viz., 

Paludina achatina, 

crystalling 

Bithinia impura, 

Succinea putris, 

Helix nemoralis, 

pulchella, 

ericetorum^. 

Zonites radiatus, 

cellarius, 

Acliatina acicula., 

Clausilia Rolphii (?} 

. rugosa, 

LimncBUS pereger^ 

. stagnalis, 

palustriS) 

fossarius, 

glober, 

Anodon cygneus* 

There are only a very few species of the British 
land and fresh-water Mollusca which appear to be 
eommon to the American continent. 



INTRODUCTION. 27 

According to Ferussac, 

Helix pulchella is the H. minuta of Say. 

Zonites nitidus is probably the H. arbor ea of Say. 

Say considered the 

Paludina vivipara of the two countries the same 
species. 

Mr. Lea considers, I believe truly, that the 

Unio margaritifera of the two countries is the same 
species. 

From the facility with which the land Mollusca 
can be transported during their torpidity, there have 
been introduced into Canada and the United States 
the following British species : 

Helix nemorcdis. Canada and U. States. 
- hortensis. Boston. 

aspersa. U. States. 

virgata. U. States. Ferus. 

Pisana. U. States. Ferus, 

Bulimus acutus. U. States. Lesueur. 

Bulimus decollatus has been introduced into gardens 
near Charlestown, S. Carolina. One of the species, 
H. aspersa, has also been introduced and naturalised 
in Brazil and some places in S. America. 

The facility with which these animals migrate and 
adopt a new country, as proved by the above instances, 
by those cited at p. 4., and by the naturalisation of the 
H. cantiana on the banks of the Tyne, will always 
make the study of the geographical distribution of the 
terrestrial Mollusca difficult. According to the ac- 
counts of the American authors, the species which have 
naturalised themselves retain their fondness for trees 
and hedges and herbage, and keep themselves quite 
distinct from the forest-living species of America. 

c2 



28 INTRODUCTION. 

The following table has been drawn out for the 
purpose of giving some idea (as good a one as the very 
imperfect materials at present at our disposal will al- 
low) of the general distribution of the British species 
over the islands; and the species which have been 
recorded as inhabiting Germany and Sweden (the most 
northern country of which we have a Fauna), and 
those of the islands in Mediterranean, have been added 
in similar columns, for the purpose of comparison. 
The first column indicates the species (marked No. 1 .) 
which have been found in the neighbourhood, or 
within a walk, of London : in this I have depended 
on my own experience, and have also referred to 
Mr. Daniel Cooper's list. 

The second indicates the species (similarly marked) 
found in the south, or south-eastern, part of Eng- 
land, including Kent and Dorsetshire, and the 
intermediate counties : of these Montagu has given 
many indications. 

No. 2. Those found in Guernsey, by Mr. Forbes. 
The third, the species found in the south-west and 
western part of our island : those marked 
No. 1. are found in Cornwall, Devonshire, and S. 
Wales. They are chiefly extracted from Mon- 
tagu and Jeffreys. 
No. 2. From Bristol and Wiltshire : these are 

marked from Miller and Montagu. 
The fourth column, the species found in the eastern 
part of England, as Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk: 
these are marked from the lists of Sheppard, Paget, 
and Bloxam. 

The fifth, those found in the north of England. 
No. 1. Newcastle, by Mr. Alder. 
^o. 2. Berwickshire, by Dr. Johnston. 



INTRODUCTION. 29 

No. 3. Preston, Lancashire, by Messrs. Gilbertson 
and Kenyon. 

No. 4. Scarborough, Yorkshire, by Mr. Bean. 

No. 5. Derbyshire, by Mr. Bloxam. 

No. 6. Nottinghamshire. 

This is the most complete list next to that of the 

London district The species are only marked 

with the other numbers when they do not occur in 

Mr. Alder's list. 
The sixth column, those found in Scotland, extracted 

from the notes of Laskey and Dr. Fleming : this is 

very imperfect. 

No. 2. lona, by Mr. Lowe. 

No. 3. Highlands, by Mr. Alder. 

No. 4. Glasgow, by Mr. Alder. 
The seventh, the species found in Ireland. 

No. 1. Dublin, from Capt. Brown's list. 

No. 2. Belfast, from specimens sent by Mr. Thomp- 
son and Mr. Hyndeman, to the British Museum 
collection : this is also very imperfect. 
The eighth column contains the species enumerated 

in Mr. Forbes's Mollusca Monensia, as inhabiting 

the Isle of Man. 
The 9th column is left for the collector to fill 

up with the shells of his own district or of any 

other which he may visit. 

The tenth, the species described by Pfeiffer, as inha- 
biting Germany. 
The eleventh column are the Swedish species noticed 

by Nilson. 
The twelfth column, the species mentioned by Phi- 

lippi as found in Sicily, marked 1, and by Payra- 

deau in the island of Corsica, marked 2. 
c 3 



30 



Numbers and Name. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


1. Neritina fluviatilis, f. 124. 
2. Assiminia Grayana, f. 127. 
3. Paludina vivipara, f. 118. 


1 


1 

1 


2 




- 


m 


1 
1 


m 




1 

1 

I 


1 
1 


1 
1 


5. Bithinia tentaculata, f. 1 20. - 
6. ventricosa, f. 128. - 
7. Valvata piscinalis, f. 114. 
8. cristata, f. 115, 116. - 
9. Arion ater 




1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


2 

2 
2 




3 
1 


- 


1 

1 
1 


1 
1 




1 

1 
1 
1 


1 

1 
1 

1 
I 


1 
1 


11. Limax maximus, f. 14. - 
12. flavus - - 
13. carinatus, f. 15. 
14. agrestis, f. 17. 




1 
1 


' 




1 

1 
1 






1 
1 




1 


1 




16. Vitrina pellucida, f. 21. 
17. Testacella haliotoidea, f. 19, 20. 
18. Helix aperta, f. 129. - 
19. aspersa, f. 35. 
20. hortensis, f. 23. 




1 

1 
2 
1 

1 

] 


1 

2 


1 
1 


1 

1 
1 


1 

1 


1 
1 


1 

1 
1 




1 


1 

1 


2 


22. nemoralis, f. 24. 
23. Pomatia, f. 34. 
24. arbustorum, f. 25. - 




1 
1 
1 


2 
2 
2 


1 
1 


1 
1 


1 


1 
1 


1 
1 








2 


26. lapicida, f. 51. 
27. pulchella, f. 49. 
28. limbata, f. 132. 
29. Cantiana, f. 26. 




1 
1 

1 


2 

2 

2 


1 
1 

1 


1 

1 


- 


2 
1 

1 


1 




1 

1 




2 
i 


31. fusca, f. 36. 
32. revelata, f. 133. 
S3. fulva, f. 47. 
34. aculeata, f. 33. - 
35. lamellata, f. 48. 
36. granulata, f. 29. 




1 
2 
1 

1 

1 


2 

1 
1 

1 


1 


1 

1 
1 
1 


1 
3 


2 

2 

1 


1 

1 




1 
1 

1 


1 




38. hispida, f. 41. 
39. rufescens, f. 28. 




1 

I 


2 
2 


1 

1 




- 




1 






1 




41. virgata, f. 31. - 
42. caperata, f. 32. - 




1 


2 
2 


1 
1 




2 
1 




1 






- 


2 

2 




44. ericetorum, f. 37. 
45. Zonites radiatus, f. 44. 
46. umbilicatus, f. 45. 




1 
1 




: 

2 


1 
1 

- 




1 




1 
1 
1 






1 


2 
1 
I 



31 



Numbers and Name. 


1 2 


3 4 


5 


6 


7 8 


9 1011 12 


47. Zonites pygmasus, f. 46. - - 
48. nitens, f. 40. 


1 
1 
1 


- 


2 




1 

1 


1 
5 

1 
1 
1 


- 


2 

2 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
2 

2 
2 


1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 




1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

I 
1 
1 
1 
I 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1? 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 


1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1? 
1? 
1 ? 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 


2 

1 
1 

? 
2 

2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 












51. nitidulus, f. 136. - 


1 


- 


- 


1 


53. lucidus, f. 38. 
54 excavatus f 138 - 


1 


- 


1 


- 


1 

1 
1 
1 
3 

1 


3 
4 

1? 

1 


55. crystallinus, f. 42. - 
56. Succinea putris, f. 73. - 
57. Pfeifferi, f. 74. 


1 
1 


1 

1 


2 
2 

1 
2 
2 


1 
1 
2 

1 


59. Bulimus Lackamensis, f. 62. - 
60. obscurus, f. 63. 
61 acutus f 67 69 


1 


1 
1 


62. Zua lubrica, f. 65. 
63. Azeca tridens, f. 52. 
64. Achatina acicula, 71. - 
65. Pupa umbilicata, f. 78. 
66 A.nfflica, f 8^ - - 


1 
1 
1 
1 


1 
1 


2 
1 

2 
2 


1 
1 
1 
1 


1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 


67. marginata, f. 79. - 
68. juniperi, f. 81. 
69. Vertigo edentula, f. 80. 
i 70. cylindrica, f. 140, - 
71. pygmaea, 83. - 
72. alpestris, f. 141. 
73. substriata, f 84. - 
74. palustris, f. 85. - 
75. pusilla, f. 86. 
76. angustior, f. 142. - 
77. Balea perversa, f. 70. - 
78. Clausilia bidens, f. 53. - 
79. biplicata, f. 55. 
80. Rolphii, 54. 
81 dubia, f 143 - 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 


1 
1 

1 
I 

1 
1 


2 

1 
2 
2 

2 
2 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 


1 


1 
1 


1 
1 


1 


- 


1 
























82. nigricans, f. 58, 59. 1 
83. Carychiura minimum, 77. - 1 
! 84. Acmefusca, f. 66. - - 1 
! 85. Conovulvus denticulatus, 144. - 
86. bidentatus, 145. - - - 


12 
1 2 
I 1 
1 2 
1 1 


1 
1 


1 

1 
1 


1 
1 
1 

I 


1 


1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 


| 88. Limnaeus auricularis, 10O. - 
89. pereger, f. 101. 
90. stagnalis, 102. 104, 105. 
91. palustris, f. 107. - 
' 92. truncatulus, f. 108. 


1 
1 
1 
1 
I 


1 2 

1 2 

1 2 
I 2 


I 
1 
1 
1 
1 





c4 



Numbers and Name. 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


93. Limnaeus glaber, f. 106. 
94. Amphipeplea glutinosa, f. 103. 


1 
1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 
1 


- 




1 


1 
1 




96. Ancylus fluviatilis, f. 125. 
97. Velletia lacustris,f. 126. - - 
98. Physa fontinalis, f. 110. 
99. Aplexus hypnorum, 1 1 3. - 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


- 


2 
2 
2 
2 


1 
1 
1 

1 


1 
1 
1 
1 


1 

9 


1 

1 

1 
1 
1 


1 






1 

1 
1 




101. albus, f. 92. 


1 


- 


2 


1 


1 

I 


1 


1 


1 










103. imbricatus, f. 94. - 
104. carinatus, f. 92. - - 
105. marginatus, f. 87, 88. 90. 
106. vortex, f. 91. 
107. spirorbis, f. 98. 
108. nitidus, f. 93. 
109. contortus, f. 96. 
110. Segmentina lineata, f. 99. 
111. Cyclostoma elegans, f. 75. 
112. Cyclas rivicola, f. 1. 
1 1 3. cornea, f. 2. 
114. calyculata, f. 3. 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 


2 

2 

2 
2 

2 
2 

2 

2 

o 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 


1 

1 

5 
1 
1 

1 

1 

6 
1 
1 


1 
1 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 


1 

1 
1 






1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
] 


2 


115 Pisidium obtusale f 149 


I 


, 
















1 


1 




116. nitidum, f. 150. 
117. pusillum, f. 7. - 
118. pulchellum, f. 151. 
119. Henslovvianum, f. 6. 
120. amnicum, f. 5. 
121. cinereum, f. 152. - 
122. Anodon cygneus, f. 8. - 


1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 


1 

1 
1 

1 


2 

2 
2 


3 
2 
3 

1 
1 

1 


1 
1 

1 

1 


1 

I 


1 

1 

1 


" 




1? 

1 

1 

I 


1 

1 
1 

1 
1 




124. Unio pictorum, f. 11. 
125. tumidus, f. 13. - 
126. ovalis 
127 Batavus f 10 - - 


1 
1 





2 


2 


1 











1 
1 

1 


1 
1 

1 




128. Dreissena polymorpha - 


1 


- 


- 


- 


7 


5 


- 


- 




1 







There are common to the north and south of England 78 species. 

to the west and north - 3 

peculiar to the south of England - - 33 

to the west, 41. 57. 60. 67 - - 4 

to the north of England - - 9 

. to Ireland, 95 - 1 



128 



INTRODUCTION. 33 

The mere inspection of this table will show that 
most of the species have a very extensive range, having 
been found in all parts of our island where there has 
been a zoologist who has taken any interest in 
searching for them. Thus we find, that out of the 
128 species recorded in this work, 107 species are 
found within a circle of about 15 miles of the metro- 
polis, and 89 in the northern district of England. 

Of the species which are confined to the southern 
half of the kingdom there may be noticed among the 
aquatic kinds 

Assiminia Grayana, only found in the Thames 
and the streams running into it, from its mouth to 
where the water is only slightly brackish, or nearly 
fresh, at the very highest tides, as at Greenwich, for 
example. 

Paludina vivipara and P. achatina are not found 
in the northern part of the island. P. crystallina is 
found in the rivers of Cambridgeshire, Oxfordshire, 
Essex, and Suffolk ; and P. achatina is very common 
in the Thames, and also in the rivers of some of the 
before-mentioned counties : they are found together 
in the river Colne, at Uxbridge. These species 
avoid the slightest degree of brackishness in the water, 
and are therefore only found in the upper part of 
the rivers. 

Bithinia ventricosa is very commonly found with 
this latter in the Thames, and in Suffolk; but it 
keeps in the smaller streamlets, and is not so parti- 
cular about the absence of brackishness, for it is found 
with B. impura and Assiminia in the streams of the 
Greenwich marshes. 

Neritina fluviatilis, and Planorbis corneus, are also 
c 5 



34 INTRODUCTION. 

confined, as far as I have had the opportunity of 
learning, to the southern part of the island. Mon- 
tagu says that Dorsetshire is the western limit of 
the Neritina ; this is curious, as it and the two species 
of Paludina are found in Ireland. 

Segmentina lineala has only been mentioned as 
found near London and in the south-west of Eng- 
land. Near London it is not uncommon. 

LimncBus acutus (if it is more than a variety of 
L.pereger] has only been recorded as found in South 
Wales. 

Cyclas rivicola is almost peculiar to the Thames : 
its northern limit is, I believe, the Trent in Not- 
tinghamshire : it is also found in Germany. 

Pisidium obtusale^ P. nitidum, and P. Henslow- 
ianum, have only been recorded as found near London, 
in Surrey, and in Cambridgeshire ; but this, perhaps, 
is because they have not been searched for elsewhere. 

The Uniones ( U. pictorum, U. tumidus, and U. 
Batavus) are not recorded as being found in the north 
of England, or in Scotland, as far as I know. 

Among the southern terrestrial species, Testacella 
haliotoidea seems confined to the gardens in the neigh- 
bourhood of London, Plymouth, Biddeford, and to 
the island of Guernsey. 

Helix obvoluta, to the chalk downs of Hampshire. 
This species is common to the north of France and 
Germany. 

Helix limbata has only been found in the hedges 
near Hampstead, Middlesex ; but it is very doubtful 
if these specimens had not been introduced: it is 
common in the southern part of France, and has 
been found as far north as Caen. 



INTRODUCTION. 35 

Helix Pomatia is nearly confined to the chalk dis- 
trict of the south of England : it has been found as 
far north as Wiltshire. Miller says it is rare in a 
park at Bristol (where it might have been intro- 
duced). According to Montagu, "it is not an 
aboriginal species in this kingdom, but was first in- 
troduced about the middle of the 16th century, either 
as an article of food, or for medicinal purposes. It 
is supposed they were first imported from Italy, and 
turned out in Surrey by a Mr. Howard at Albury. 
It is also said that Sir Kenelm Digby [about 1630?] 
dispersed them about Gothurst, near Newport Pagnel, in 
Buckinghamshire ; and Mr. Morton informs us they 
were turned out by Lord Statton, at Kerby in North- 
amptonshire." Dr. Turton observes that their having 
been used as food, as mentioned by Lister (to which I 
may add the fact of Merret having mentioned them 
without any note, as found in Sussex, in his Pinax, 
published in 1667), strongly militates against the idea 
of their being of foreign origin. They have been said 
to be found as far north as Devizes, in Wiltshire, and 
in Gloucestershire. I believe they are rather restrained 
by the limits of the chalk basin than by the climate, as 
they are abundant in the Botanic Garden, and the 
gardens of the nobles in the south of Sweden, where 
the climate is much more rigorous ; and I have no 
doubt that, if they could pass the other strata, they 
could live on the chalk in Yorkshire. " Some years 
ago they were introduced into Scotland by Patrick 
Neil, Esq., and placed in his curious and most inter- 
esting garden at Cannon Mills, but we believe they 
have not prospered, and are gradually disappearing." 
(Johnston, Mag. N. Hist. 47.) 
c 6 



36 INTRODUCTION. 

Helix Cantiana has been supposed to be almost 
confined to the four metropolitan counties, but it is 
also found in Suffolk, near Bristol, and near Dublin. 
It may have been introduced in these latter localities 
for it has been within these few years, according to 
Mr. Fryer, introduced with ballast by the colliers on 
the banks of the Tyne ; and is now rapidly spread- 
ing itself in the hedges of that neighbourhood. These 
circumstances would lead one to imagine that it might 
also have been introduced into England from the 
Continent ; but Ferussac, who has compared it with the 
continental species, regards it at least as a local variety 
of H. Carthusiana of Draparnaud (not of Muller), 
which is a native of the south of France and Italy. 

Helix Carthusiana Muller, is confined to the 
downs (especially those bordering the sea) of Kent 
and Surrey, where it is found in abundance on the 
short stunted grass : it is also found in the south of 
France, Greece, and Syria. 

Helix aperta and H. revelata have as yet only been 
found in the island of Guernsey, where they were 
discovered by Mr. Edw. Forbes. This island is 
nearer the coast of France than that of England, and 
is geographically part of the former country. The first 
species is a native of Provence, and is not yet recorded 
as found in the northern part of France ; Guernsey 
must be considered its northern limit, but it is a very 
shy species, and difficult to find, even in Provence, ex- 
cept after a shower of rain. The H. revelata is found 
in Normandy, and near Paris. 

Bulimus acutus is found in similar situations to 
H. virgata and H. Carthusiana^ especially in sandy 
places ; but it is confined to the south-western coun- 



INTRODUCTION. 37 

ties, South Wales, and the Isle of Man ; and its most 
northern limit is lona, one of the western isles of 
Scotland, where it has been found with H. virgata 
by Mr. Lowe. 

Helix Pisana is found with the last, but is still 
more local, having only been procured at St. Ives in 
Cornwall, Tenby in South Wales, and in Ireland. 
This is most probably the northern limit of this shell, 
which is not found in Germany or Sweden. 

Clausilia Uplicata is equally a southern species ; it 
is very common in several places near London, and 
Miller says its found near Bristol. 

Clausilia Rolphii is confined, as far as I have heard, 
to its original habitat in Charlton wood, near London, 
and to the neighbourhood of Hastings, Sussex. 

Succinea oblonga. This species has only been recorded 
as a native of South Wales and North Devon, but it 
has probably a larger range; I think it is indi- 
cated as a variety inhabiting Berwick, by Dr. Johnston, 
and it has lately been found at Glasgow and Preston. 

Pupa juniperi has always been believed to be 
confined to the south-western part of the kingdom ; 
but Mr. Laskey mentions it as occurring in Scotland. 
This requires verification. 

Vertigo palustris, and V. angustior, have only been 
yet recorded as found near London and in the west 
of England ; but they are probably common. 

The zoologists of the north of England have described 
eight species which have not yet been discovered in the 
southern portion of the kingdom ; some of which are 
probably peculiar to that district. 

1. Limax brunneus, noticed by Dr. Johnston at 
Berwick, and Mr. Alder at Newcastle. 



38 INTRODUCTION. 

2. Helix lamellata., discovered by Mr. Bean at 
Scarborough, and found by Mr. Alder at New- 
castle, and lately in North Germany. 

3. Zonites purus., discovered by Mr. Alder, near 
Newcastle, where it is not uncommon. 

4. 5. Zonites excavatus and Pupa Analica, also from 
Scarborough. 

6. Vertigo alpestris, found by Mr. Gilbertson of 
Preston, at Clithero, in Lancashire, and by Mr. 
Thomson near Newcastle. 

7. Clausilia dubia, common in Yorkshire, at New- 
castle, and in Lancashire. 

8. 9. Planorbis Icevis and Pisidium cinereum, both 
found in ditches, and often together, near North 
Shields. 

There are one or two species whose distribution 
appears more to depend on the nature of the country 
than the climate. Thus, the Alasmodon elongatus is 
found in the mountain streams of Wales, Cumber- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland, and the variety A. e. 
Roissyi is found in similar situations in Yorkshire and 
Scotland, 

In Irish lakes there has been found by Mr. Har- 
vey Amphipeplea involuta, which is very different 
from the English ones. It is to be hoped that this 
is only a forerunner of several other species which 
will hereafter be found in that very interesting and 
but little investigated country. 

It is probable that many of the species here indi- 
cated may have a much more extended range ; for 
had this sketch been written a very few years ago, many 
species, such as Helix fusca, H. depilata, Bulimus 
Lackamensis, Azeca tridens. Pupa edentula, Acmefusca, 



INTRODUCTION. 39 

Limn&us glaber^ Amphipeplea glutinosa, would have 
been inserted in the list of local species. The latter, 
though found in Sweden and France, is not recorded 
as a German species by PfeiiFer. Though very local 
where found, these and other species similarly circum- 
stanced have been found, dispersedly, in very different 
parts of the islands. 

Besides fewer species being found in the northern 
parts of our island than in the south, the specimens 
of the species are said to be much more rare. This is 
probably partly owing to the rigours of the climate, 
and partly to the country consisting of the older geo- 
logical formations, which are less favourable to the 
support of these animals than the calcareous rock, 
which appears to be their favourite habitation. 

M. D'Orbigny, who has paid great attention to the 
distribution of these animals, especially in South Ame- 
rica, says, the terrestrial Pulmonobranchiata are much 
more abundant in the warmer regions of the different 
quarters of the globe than in the more temperate parts, 
while the aquatic species are more abundant in the 
latter than in the former. 

He observes that the terrestrial species gradually 
diminish in number as we proceed from the warmer 
regions towards the pole ; and as we ascend from the 
plains to the tops of mountains. Out of the 156 spe- 
cies which he found in South America, 137 were found 
between the llth and 28th : 28 between the 28th and 
34th; and only 13 between the 34th and 45th degrees 
of south latitude; and 126 species were found under 
5000 feet, while only 4 were found above 5000 feet 
and below 11,000 feet, and 6 at more than 11,000 
feet, above the level of the sea. 



40 INTRODUCTION. 

It may be well to observe, that the fossil shells now 
found in the different strata show that a different 
geographical distribution of these animals existed in 
a former state of the globe ; for several genera were 
found in this country then which are now confined 
to warmer climates. Thus, there are in the most re- 
cent strata, mixed with existing recent shells, remains 
of species which agree with those now only found in 
other parts of Europe and the north of Africa. 

Mr. Morris, for example (Mag. N. Hist., 1836. 
262. n. s. ii. 544.), has recently found the follow- 
ing 36 species of recent British shells, along with re- 
mains of Mammalia, at Grays, Erith, Copford, Sut- 
ton, and Ilford, on the banks of the Thames, not very 
far from London. 

1. Limax , species not determined. 

2. Succinea amphibia. 

3. Pfeifferi (ollonga). 

4. Helix hortensis. 

5. rufescens. 

6 . paludosa. 

7. hispida. 

8. - trochiformis. 
9. fusca. 

10. Zonites lucidus. 

11. Zua lubrica. 

12. Pupa marginata. 

13. sexdentata. 

14. Carycliium minimum. 

15. LimncBUS auricularis. 

16. pereger. 

17. truncatulus. 

18. glaber. 



19. Planorbis carinatus. 




INTRODUCTION. 4J 



corneus. 

vortex. 

contortus. 

imbricatus. 

nitidus. 

Bithinia tentaculata. 

26. Paludina ? 

27. Valvata cristata. 

28. piscinalis, var. V. antiqua Morris (Loud. 

Mag. N. H., series 2., ii. 544., f. 26.). 

29. Velletia lacustris. 

30. Ancylus fluviatilis. 

31. Cyclas cornea. 

32. Pisidium obliquum. 

33. pusillum. 

34. amnicum. 

35. Anodon cygneus. 

36. Unio pictorum. 

All these species exactly agree with the specimens 
of the same species now found in the neighbourhood, 
except that some of the specimens of Valvata piscinalis 
are much larger and higher than those usually found 
in this country. Mr. Morris and Mr. G. B. Sowerby 
are inclined to consider them as a distinct species, and 
have called them Valvata antiqua ; but, on an accu- 
rate examination and comparison of Mr. Morris's spe- 
cimen, I believe that it is only a variety, as I have 
seen some specimens from the warmer parts of Europe 
which are nearly as large, and similar to these fossil 
ones. 

Besides these 36 species, there are found with 
them, 



42 INTRODUCTION. 

A Cyrena, the same as or very nearly allied to the 
Cyrena consobrina, which is common in the Nile, near 
Alexandria. Mr. G. Sowerby calls it Cyrena trigonula ; 
but I do not think it is the species so named by 
Lamarck. 

And, 

Unio littoralis Lam. (Mag. N. Hist.., series 2., 
548. f. 27.), which is common in the French rivers ; 
and is also found in the Swedish ones. 

There are also found fossil in the older strata many 
other species, which are all different from any of the 
existing ones. The land shells found in these strata 
are of a much larger size than those now found in 
Europe, and resemble more nearly the tropical species ; 
but still, as they are not the exact representatives of 
exotic species, this is no proof that they were inhabit- 
ants of that kind of climate. The following species 
among others, have been described : 

1. Helix globosa. Sow. M. C. ii. t. 170. 

2. Bulimus ellipticus. Sow. M. C. iv. t. 337. 

3. castellatus. Sow. M. C. iv. t. 366. 

4. Limnceus longiusculus. Sow. M. C. t. 343. 

5. fusiformis. Sow. M. C. t. 169. f. 23. 

6. minimus. Sow. M. C. t. 169. f. 1. 

7. maximus. Sow. M. C. t. 328. f. 61. 

8. - - columellaris. Sow. M. C. t. 328. f. 2. 

9. < pyramidalis. 

10. Ancylus elegans. Sow. M. C. t. 533. 

11. PlanorUs cylindricus. Sow. M. C. t. 140. f. 2. 

12. oltusus. Sow. M. C. t. 140. f. 3. 

13. lens. Sow. M. C. t. 140. f. 4. 

14. euomphalus. Sow. M. C. t. 140. f. 7 9. 

15. Melania fasdata. Sow. M. C. t. 241. f. 1. 



INTRODUCTION. 43 

16. Melania costata. Sow. M. C. t. 241. f. 4 2. 

17. Melanopsis carinata. Sow. M. C. t. 523. f. 1 

18. - brevis. Sow. M. C. t. 523. f. 2. 

19. Potamides ventricosus. Sow. M. C. t. 341. f. 1. 

20. acutus. Sow. M. C. t. 341. f. 2. 

21. duplex. Sow. M. C. t. 340. f. 3. 

22. Idnctus. Sow. M. C. t. 340. f. 1. 

23. ?pliculus. Sow. M. C. t. 340. f. 2. 

24. ? magnilucens. Sow. M.C. t. 339. f.4. 

25. Paludina lenta. Sow. M. C. t. 31. f. 3. 

26. condnna. Sow. M. C. t. 31. f. 4. 8. 

27. ? Phasianella orbicularis. Sow. M. C. 

t. 176. 

28. Paludina? Ph. angulosa. Sow. M. C. t. 175. 

29. ? Ph. minuta. Sow. M. C. t. 175. 

30. Nerita globosa. Sow. M. C. t. 424. f. 1. 
31. aperta. Sow. M. C. t. 424. f. 234. 

32. Cyclas pulchra. Sow. M. C. t. 527. f. 1. 

33. Unio Solandri. Sow. M. C. t. 517. 

All found in the fresh-water strata of the Isle of 
Wight, and the same strata at Hordwell, in Hamp- 
shire, with Myce, Psammobice, and CorbulcR : 

1. Paludina fluviorum. Sow. M.C. t. 31. f. 1. 
Is abundant at Petworth Martle. 

2. Paludina elongata. Sow. M. C. t. 509. f. 12. 
Perhaps a Bithinia. 

3. Paludina carinifera. Sow. M. C. t. 509. f. 3. 
Is found in Hastings sands. 

Unio Mantellii. Sow. Geol. Trs. iv. t. 21. f. 14. 
subtruncatus. Sow. G. T. iv. t 21. f. 15. 

- Gaulterii. Sow. G. T. iv. t. 21. f. 16. 

- Martini. Sow. G. T. iv. t. 21. f. 17. 
Cyclas media. Sow. M. C. t. 527. f. 3. 



44 INTRODUCTION. 

Cydas membranacea. Sow. M. C. t. 527. 
Neritina Fittonii. Sow. G. T. iv. t. 22. f. 7. 
Paludina Sussexensis. Sow. G. T. iv. t. 22. f. 6. 
Melanopsis ! tricar inata. Sow. G. T iv. t. 22. f. 4. 

? "attenuata. Sow. G. T. iv. t. 22. f. 5. 

Cydas parva. Sow. G. T. iv. t. 22. f. 7. 

subquadrata. Sow. G. T. iv. t. 21. f. 8. 

elongata. Sow. G. T. iv. t. 21. f. 9. 
angulata. Sow. G. T. iv. t. 21. f. 12. 

major. Sow. G. T. iv. t. 21. f. 13. 
In Wealden clay. 

Unio porrectus. Sow. M. C. t. 594. f. 1. 

compressus. Sow. M. C. t. 594. f. 12. 

ambiguus. Sow. M. C. t. 594. f. 3 5. 

aduncus. Sow. M. C. t. 595. f. 2. 

cordiferus. Sow. M. C. t. 592. f. 1. 

In sandstone of Tilgate forest. 

There are some other Paludince, Uniones, *c., figured 
in Mr. Sowerby's Mineral Conchology, but they appear 
to be properly referrible to the marine genera, as 
they are found with decidedly marine shells. It 
should be remarked, that all the recent species of 
Melania^ Melanopsis, and Potamides are confined to 
the warmer and nearly tropical parts of the world. 
A small species of Melania (M. helvetica) only has 
been found in the south of Europe ; and there is a 
larger species (Melania Virginica) found in North 
America. 

The situations chosen by the different species of 
land shells, are characteristic, and worthy of ob- 
servation. Thus 

Helix Pomatia is found on the ground. It buries 



INTRODUCTION. 45 

itself during the cold weather, as the tropical 
species do during the dry season. 
Arion antiquorum, 
Limax maximus, 

agrestis. 

Helix hortensis, 

hybrida, 

nemoralis, 

fusca, 

Cantiana, 

live in hedges and banks, walking about in the dew, or 
after rains. 
Helix virgata, 

caperatd) 

ericetorum^ 

Pisana, 

Carthusiana, 

Bulimus acutusy 

are found, after dry weather, sticking to the dry 
stunted vegetation on heaths. They go down to the 
root, and come out again after the summer rains ; and 
are so abundant that they are vulgarly believed to 
have come down from the clouds with the rain. 

The Helix rupestris is found between the brick or 
stone at the tops of walls, and in the earth in the 
higher parts of rock. 
Pupa marginata^ 
Achatina acicula, *c. 
are found in the moss at the roots of grass, &c. 

The Helix arbusforum, in wet shady situations near 
a black boggy soil, on the margin of ditches or 
rivers. 

Bulimus obscuniS) 



46 INTRODUCTION. 

Pupa juniperi, 

Clausilia Rolphii, 

bidens, 

Cyclostoma elegans, 

in shady situations under nettles, dog's mercury, &c., 
in woods, especially on a chalky soil. 

It may be interesting to give an outline of the his- 
tory of the various additions which have been made 
from time to time to this part of our Fauna. 

1. Merret, who, in 1667 published the first at- 
tempt at a British Fauna, in his Pinax, has recorded 
six species. 

1. Anodon cygneus (Mytilus, or Horse Muscle). 

2. Limneus (L. stagnalis ?). List. Ang. t. 2. f. 1. 

3. Limax maximus. 

4. Helix Pomatia, which he says is found in Sussex. 

5. Helix rufescens (Cochlea alba minor ubique in 
hortis). 

6. Helix nemoralis ( Cochlea vulgaris testa variegata}. 
List. Ang. t. 2. f. 3. 

2. Dr. Lister, in 1678, commenced a separate work 
on the British shells, and, as was to be expected from 
his accuracy and the extent of his researches, he may 
be considered as the originator of this part of the 
science. He described and figured in this work, and 
in his larger work on conchology (where he marked 
the British species with an A), the following species ; 
and has besides given a good account of their animals. 
He gave, in the appendix to his larger work, the dis- 
sections of many of them. 



INTRODUCTION. 47 

1. Neritina fluviatilis. Ang. t. 2. f. 20. Conch, t. 
141. f. 38. t. 607. f. 43, 44. 

2. Paludina achatina. Ang. t. 2. f. 18. Conch, t. 
126. f. 26. 

3. Paludina vivipara. Conch, t. 1055. f. 6., and 
Anat. t. 6. f. 5. 

4. Bithinia impura. Ang. t. 2. f. 19. c. t. 132. 
f. 32. 

5. Arion ater. Ang. t. 2. f. 17. Conch, t. 101. 
f. 102, 103. 

6. Limax flavus. Conch, t. 101. b. f. 1. 

7. agrestis. Ang. t. 2. f. 16. Conch, t. 101. 

f. 101. 

8. Helix hortensis. Conch, t. 57. f. 54. 

9. arbustorum. Ang. t. 2. f. 4. Conch. 56. 

f. 53. 

10. Helix lapicida. Ang. t. 2. f. 14. Conch, t. 69. 
f. 68. 

11. aspersa. Ang. t. 2. f. 2. 

12. Cantiana. Ang. 11. 12. var. p. 126. 

13. fulva. Ang. p. 123. n. 9. 

14. Helix virgata. Conch, t. 59. f. 56. 

15. ericetorun. Ang. t. 2. f. 13. Conch. 

t 78. f. 78. 

16. Zonites radiatus. Conch, t. 1058. f. 11. 

17. Succinea putris. Ang. t. 2. f. 24. Conch, t. 
123. f. 24. 

18. Zua lubrica. Ang. t. 2. f. 7. 

19. Bulimus acutus. Conch, t. ]9. f. 14. 

20. Pupa umbilicata. Ang. t. 2. f. 6. 

21. Ealea perversa. Ang. t. 2. f. 11. 

22. Clausilia nigricans. Ang. t. 2. f. 12. 
23. bidens. Conch, t. 41. f. 39. 



48 INTRODUCTION. 

24. Limnaeus palustris. Conch, t. 124. f. 24. 
25. auricularis. Ang. t. 2. f. 23. 

26. - - pereger. Ang. t. 2. f. 22. 

27. Ancylus fluviatilis. Ang. t. 2. f. 32. Conch, 
t. 141. f. 39. 

28. Physa fontinalis. Ang. t. 2. f. 25. Conch, t. 
134. 

29. Planorbis marginatus. Ang. t. 2. f. 27. 

30. vortex. Ang. t. 2. f. 28. 

31. corneus. Ang. t. 2. f. 26. 

32. Aplexus hypnorum. List Conch. App. f. 5. 
Pet. Gaz. 1. 10. f. 8. 

33. Cyclostoma elegans. Ang. t. 2. f. 5. 

34. Unio pictorum. Ang. t. 2. f. 30. 

35. - - tumidus. Ang. app. f. 6. 

36. Alasmodon elongatus. Ang. app. t. 1. f. 1. 

37. Cyclas rivicola. Ang. app. 22. Conch, t. 159. 
f. 14. 

38. - - cornea. Ang. t.2. f. 31. 

3. Petiver, in his Gazophylacium, figured the follow- 
ing species, which had not been noticed by Lister : 

1. Valvata obtusa. Gaz. 1. 18. f. 2. 

2. Helix hispida. Gaz. t. 93. f. 13. 

3. Zonites nitens. Gaz. t. 93. f. 14. 

4. Planorbis contortus. Gaz. t. 92. f. 8. 

5. - albus. Gaz. t. 92. f. 8. 

4. In 1777, Pennant, in his British Zoology, 
added 

1. Vitrina pellucida, noticed again by Capt. Brown 
in 1818. 

2. Helix Pisana, as H. zonaria. 

3. Limnaeus glaber. 



INTRODUCTION. 49 

5. Boys, in 1784, in Walker's Minute Shells, added 
the following small species, which had before been 
overlooked : 

1. Valvata cristata, f. 18, 19. 

2. Helix pulchella, f. 23. 

3. Bulimus obscurus, f. 41. 

4. Achatina acicula, f. 59, 60, 

5. Carychium minimum, f. 51, 

6. Acme fusca, f. 42. 

7. Conovulus denticulatus, f. 50. 

8. Planorbis imbricatus, f. 20, 21. 

9. Segmentina lineata, f. 28. 

6. In 1786, Mr Lightfoot the botanist, in the 
Philosophical Transactions, added 

1 . Helix pulchella, var. crenella, t. 3. f. 1 . 4. 
2. aculeata, t. 2. f. 1. 5. 

3. Planorbis nitidus, t. 2. f. 1 . 4. 

4. Velletia lacustris, t. 3. f. 1. 

7. Dr. Pulteney, in his catalogue of the Dorsetshire 
shells, adds 

1. Helix caperata. 

2. - umbilicata. 

3. Azeca tridens. 

4. Planorbis spirorbis. 

He added, however, to the list, at the same time, seve- 
ral exotic species. 

8. Dr. Maton and the Rev. Mr. Racket, in 1797, 
in the Linnean Transactions, added 

1. Pisidium amnicum. 

D 



50 INTRODUCTION. 

9. Montagu, in 1803, in his excellent work on the 
British Testacea, added 

1 . Helix fusca. 
2. granulata. 

3. Bulimus Lackamensis. 

4. Pupa juniperi. 

5. Vertigo substriata. 

6. angustior, as T. vertigo. 

7. Clausilia biplicata. 

8. Planorbis carinatus. 

9. Limnaeus truncatulus. 
10. Conovulus bidentatus. 
1 1 . albus. 

12. Amphipeplea glutinosa. 

13. Cyclas calyculata. 

14. Unio ovatus. 

15. Batavus. 

10. In June, 1819, Dr. Turton, in his Conchological 
Dictionary r , added 

1. Pupa marginata. 

11. Baron Ferussac, in 1820, in his Concordance of 
the British Land and Fresh-water Mollusca, first pub- 
lished as British, from specimens sent by Dr. Leach 
and Dr. Goodall, together with Testacella Maugei 

1. Helix Carthusiana. 

2. Clausilia Rolphii. 

12. In 1821, at the end of an outline of an arrange- 
ment of Mollusca, published in the Medical Reposi- 
tory, I added the following, among some others which 
"had been neglected by British authors. 



INTRODUCTION. 51 

1. Assiminia Grayana. 

2. Bithinia ventricosa. 

3. Arion hortensis. 

4. Zonites crystallinus. 

5. nitidulus. 

6. radiatulus. 

7. . lucidus. 

8. pygmaeus. 

13. In 1822, Dr. Turton, in his work on bivalves 
added 

1. Pisidium pusillum. 

14. In the same year, Mr. Miller, in his List of Shells 
about Bristol, with three noticed in the former list, 
added 

1. Zonites alliarius. 

15. In the same year, M. Ferussac, in his Prodro- 
mus, added, 

1. Pupa anglica, sent him by Mr. Bean. 

16. In 1825, the Rev. Mr. Sheppard, in his List of 
Suffolk Shells, added 

1. Vertigo edentula. 

2. Planorbis carinatus, var. deformis. 

3. Pisidium Henslowianum. 

17. In 1826, Dr. Turton, in his Conchological No- 
tices, in the Zoological Journal, added 

1. Cyclostoma simile Drap., if not Bithinia ventri- 



cosa. 



2. Cyclostoma acutum Drap. 

3. Limnaeus scaturiginumrzLim. stagnalis Junior. 
All shells which it is impossible to determine; and 

D 2 



52 INTRODUCTION. 

with them he introduced the foreign Bulimus decol- 
latus. 

18. In 1829, Mr. Jeffreys, in his paper in the Lin- 
nean Transactions, added 

1. Succinea oblonga. 

2. Helix concinna. 

3 lamellata, from Mr. Bean. 

4. Vertigo cylindrica. 

5. pygmaea, from my specimen in B. M. 

6. palustris, from my specimen in B. M. 

7. pusilla. 

19. In 1830, Mr. Alder, in his List of Newcastle 
Shells, added - 

1. Succinea Pfeifferi, distinguished as a variety 
by Jeffreys. 

2. Zonites purus. 

3. excavatus. 

20. In 1831, Capt. Brown, in the Edinburgh Journal 
ef Geographical Science, added 

1. Pisidium obtusale. 

2. pulchellum. 

21. In 1831, Dr. Turton, in his Manual, added 
5. Limax carinatus, from Dr. Leach's work. 

22. In 1831, Mr. Lindsay, in the Linn. Trans., added 
1. Helix obvoluta. 

23. In 1832, Mr. Jenyns, in his Monograph on 
Cyclas and Pisidium, added 

1. Pisidium iiitiduiru 

24. In 1834, Mr. Thompson, in a notice read at 
the Linnean Society, added 



INTRODUCTION. 53 

1. Amphipeplea involuta. 

25. In 1837, Mr. Alder, in his list of British land 
and fresh- water shells, added 

4. Helix hybrida, as a variety of H. hortensis. 

5. depilata. 

6. limbata, on the authority of Mr. G. B. 

Sowerby. 

26. In 1838, Mr. Alder, in a supplement to his 
paper on the Newcastle shells, added 

7. Helix sericea. 

8. Vertigo alpestris. 

9. Clausilia dubia. 

10. Planorbis Isevis. 

11. Pisidium cinereum. 

27. In 1838, Mr. Gilbertson, at the meeting of 
the British Association at Newcastle, added 

1. Alasmodon elongatus, var. Roissyi. 

28. In 1839, Mr. Edward Forbes and Mr. Good- 
sir gave me, for the Museum collection, from Guern- 
sey. 

1. Helix aperta, 
2. revelata. 



The following works and papers treat on British 
land and fresh- water Mollusca, and have been con- 
sulted in the revision of this edition. 
Joshua ALDER. 

Notes on the Land and Fresh-water Mollusca of 
Great Britain, with a revised List of Species, 
Mag. Zool. and Botany, ii. 101. (Aug. 1837.) 
D 3 



54 INTRODUCTION. 

Catalogue of the Land and Fresh- water Testaceous 
Mollusca found in the vicinity of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, with remarks. Newcastle, 1830. 4to. 
In the Transactions of the Nat. Hist. Soc. of 
Northumberland. 

Supplement to a Catalogue, &c. Newcastle, 1837. 

4to. 
William BEAN. 

Fusus Turtoni Bean, and Limnea lineata Bean ; 
two rare and hitherto undescribed shells, de- 
scribed and illustrated. London's Mag. N. Hist. 
viii. 1834. 

Rev. M. G. BERKELEY. 

Notice on the Rev. L. Guilding's Description of 

Ancylus. Zool. Journ. v. 269. 
Description of the Animals of Voluta denticulata 

Mont., and Assiminia Grayana Leach. Zool. 

Journ. v. 427. 
A Description of the Anatomical Structure of Cy- 

clostoma elegans. Zool. Journ. iv. 278. 

J. BERKENHONT. 

Synopsis of the Natural History of Great Britain 
and Ireland. 2 vols. 1789. 

Andrew BLOXAM. 

An Enumeration of the Land and Fresh- water 
Shell Snails of Norfolk and Derbyshire. Lou- 
don's Mag. N. Hist. vi. 324. 

The names of the species must be taken with caution, 
as the author says he found Valvata planorbis in 
Norfolk, and Helix brevipes in Derbyshire. Pro- 
bably, misled by Turton's figure, he mistook 
some of the smaller Zonites for the latter. 



INTRODUCTION. 55 

Thomas BLAIR. 

A Short Notice of the Habits of Testacellus scu- 
tulum. London's Mag. N. Hist. vi. 43. 

William BORLASE. 

The Natural History of Cornwall. Oxford, 1758. 

fol. 
Thomas BROWN. 

Account of the Irish Testacea. Mem. Wernerian 

Soc. ii. 1818, p. 501. 
Illustrations of British Conchology. 4to. 

J. CHILDREY. 

Britannia Baconica, or Natural Rarities of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Wales. London, 1660. 8vo. 

Daniel COOPER. 

A List of the Land and Fresh-water Shells found 

in the Environs of London ; extracted from the 

Flora Metropolitana. London, 1836. 12mo. 
On Succiiiea amphibia and its Varieties. Mag. 

Nat. Hist., n. s., ii. 476. 
List of Species found at Mickleham, Surrey. Mag. 

Zool. and Bot. ii. 471. 

Ch. CORDINER. 

Remarkable Ruins, and Romantic Prospects of 
North Britain. London, 1788-95. 4to. 

Emanuel Mendes DA COSTA. 

Historia Naturalis Testaceorum Britanniae ; or, the 
British Conchology, in English and French. 
Lond. 1778. 4to. 
J. DALE. 

A Natural History of the Sea Coast and Country 
about Harwich. London, 1732. 4to. 

D4 



56 INTRODUCTION. 

Edward DONOVAN. 

Natural History of British Shells. London, 1779. 
1802. 8vo. 

Baron de FERUSSAC. 

Concordance Systematique pour les Mollusques 
Terrestres et Fluviatiles de la Grande Bretagne, 
avec un Aper^u des Travaux Modernes des 
Savans Anglais sur les Mollusques. Journal de 
Physique, 1820, p. 213. 

Edward FORBES. 

Land and Fresh-water Shells of the Isle of Man. 
London's Mag. N. Hist. viii. 69. 

Malacologia Monensis. A Catalogue of the Mol- 
lusca inhabiting the Isle of Man, and the neigh- 
bouring Sea. Edinb. 1838. 8vo. 

John FLEMING. 

A History of British Animals. Edinb. 1828. 8vo. 
Philosophy of Zoology. Edinb. 1822. Svo. 2vols. 
Conchology. Edinb. Ency. vii. 55. 

John Edward GRAY. 

On Balea, in Zool. Journ. 1824, p. 61. 
Conchological Observations, being an attempt to 

fix the Study of Conchology on a firm basis. 

Zool. Journ. 1824, p. 204. 
On the Anatomical Difference between Helix hor- 

tensis and H. nemoralis. In Annals of Philosophy, 

x. (1825), p. 153. 
On the Natural Arrangement of the Pulmobranch- 

ous Mollusca. Annals of Philosophy, viii. (1824), 

p. 107., divided into Limacidae, Helicidse, Auri- 

culadae, Lymneadse, Onchidiadae. 
Some Observations on the Economy of Molluscous 



INTRODUCTION. 57 

Animals, and on the Structure of their Shells, 
in Philos. Transactions, 1833. 

A List and Description of some Species of Shells 
not taken notice of by Lamarck. Annals of Phi- 
losophy, 1825. 

On some new Species of Ampullariadae. Annals of 
Philosophy, 1824. 

On the Structure of Pearls, and the Chinese mode of 
producing them of a large size and regular form. 
Annals of Philosophy, 1824. 

New British Species of Mollusca. Medical Re- 
pository xv. (1821), p. 239. 

Remarks on the difficulty of distinguishing certain 
Genera of Testaceous Mollusca by their shells 
alone, and on the Anomalies in regard to Habit- 
ation of certain Species. London, 1835. 4to. 
In Philos. Trans. 1835. 
Charles HOY. 

Account of a Spinning Limaxor Slug. Linn. Trans, 
i. 183. 

S. HUTCHINS. 

The History and Antiquities of the County of 

Dorset. London, 1774. fol. 
J. G. JEFFREYS. 

A Synopsis of the Testaceous Pneumonobranchous 
Mollusca of Great Britain. London. 4to. 1820. 
Linn. Trans, xiii. 
Supplement to a Synopsis, &c., in Transactions 

Linn. Soc. xvi. 
Rev. Leonard JENYNS. 

A Monograph of the British Species of Cyclas and 
Pisidium. Cambridge, 1832. 4to. In Transac. 
Cambridge Phil. Soc. 
D 5 



58 INTRODUCTION. 

George JOHNSTON, M.D. 

A List of the Pulmoniferous Mollusca of Berwick- 
shire and North Durham. Trans. Berwickshire 
Nat. Hist. Soc. 1838, p. 154. 
Joseph KENYON. 

Land and Fresh- water Shells in the neighbourhood 
of Preston (Lancashire). London's Mag. Nat. 
Hist. ii. 273. 303. 
Remarks on British Land and Fresh-water Shells. 

London's Mag. Nat. Hist. i. 425. 
J. LASKEY. 

Account of North British Testacea. Mem. Wern. 

Soc. i. (1811) 370. 
John LATHAM, M. D. 

Observations on the Spinning Limax. Linn. Trans. 

iv. 84. 
W. E. LEACH, M.D. 

Synopsis of British Mollusca, &c. London, 1820. 

8vo. ; not yet published. 

Only two or three copies of this work are known 
to be in existence; one in possession of Mr. Curtis, 
and the other of Mr. Bell. I have not seen it, but 
quoted it after Dr. Turton. 
C. H. LEIGH. 

Natural History of Lancashire, Cheshire, and the 
Peak in Derbyshire. Oxford, 1700. fol. 

J. LlGHTFOOT. 

An Account of some British Shells either not duly 
observed, or totally unnoticed by authors. Phil. 
Trans. (1786) Ixxvi. 160. 
Martinus LISTER. 

Historise Animalium Anglise, &c. Lond. 1678. 4to. 



INTRODUCTION. 59 

Appendix ad Historiae Animalium Angliae, &c. 

Eboraci, 1681. 4to. 
Observations concerning the Odd Turn of some 

Shells' Snails. Phil. Trans, iv. n . 50. 10, 11. 

Rev. R. T. LOWE. 

On the Genera Melampus, Pedipes, and Trunca- 
tella, with experiments tending to demonstrate 
the nature of the respiratory organs of these Mol- 
lusca. In Zool. Journ. v. 280. 

W. G. MATON, M. D. and Rev. J. RACKET. 

A Descriptive Catalogue of the British Testacea, in 

Linn. Trans, viii. (1807). 

This paper contains some good figures of the land 
and fresh- water shells, 

W. G. MATON, M. D. 

On a species of Tellina not described by Linnaeus 
(T. rivalis). Linn. Trans, iii. (1797) 41. 

Christopher MERRETT. 

Pinax Rerum Naturalium Britannicarum, &c. 
Lond. 1667. 8vo. 

J. S. MILLER. 

A List of the Fresh-water and Land Shells occur- 
ring in the Environs of Bristol, with observations. 
Ann. Philos. vii. (1822) 377. 

George MONTAGU. 

Testacea Britannica. London, 1803. 4to. Sup- 
plement. London, 1808. 4to. 

Next to Muller, one of the best works on land 
and fresh-water shells. 

John MORTON. 

A Letter to Dr. H. Sloane, containing a relation of 
D 6 



60 INTRODUCTION. 

river and land shells, &c. near Hears Ashby, in 
Northamptonshire. Phil. Trans, xxv. 325. 
Natural History of Northamptonshire. London ? 
1712. fol. 

Thomas NUNNELEY. 

A Description of the Internal Structure of various 
Limaces found in the neighbourhood of Leeds. 
Trans, of the Phil, and Lit. Soc. Leeds, i. (1837) 
41. 

C. I. and J. PAGET. 

Sketch of the Natural History of Yarmouth, &c. 
Yarmouth, 1834, 8vo. 

Thomas PENNANT. 

British Zoology, 4th edit. 4 vols. 8vo., 1776, 1777. 

J. PETIVER. 

Musei Petiveriani, &c. London, 1695. 1703. 
Gazophylacei Naturae, &c. London, 1702. 171 ! 
Opera Omnia. London, 1764. fol. 2 vols. 

R. PLOT. 

Natural History of Staffordshire. Oxford, 1686. fol. 
Natural History of Oxfordshire. Oxford, 1676. fol. 

V. L. V. POTIEZ, and A. L. G. MICHAUD. 

Galerie des Mollusques du Museum de Douai. 

Paris, 1838. 8vo. 
Figures of some Irish Shells sent by Mr. Thompson 

from Belfast. 

R. PULTENEY. 

Catalogue of the Birds, Shells, &c., of Dorsetshire, 
in Hutchins's History. London, 1799. fol. 
Edited by Mr. Racket. London, 1813. fol. 



INTRODUCTION. 61 

It. READING. 

A Letter concerning Pearl Fishing in the North of 
Ireland. Phil. Trans, xvii. 659. 

J. RUTTY. 

Essay towards a Natural History of the County 
Dublin. Dublin, 1772. 8vo. 2 vols. 

Rev. Revett SHEPPARD. 

Descriptions of Seven New Species of Land and 
Fresh- water Shells, with Observations upon many 
other Species, including a List of such as have 
been found in the County of Suffolk. Linn. 
Trans, xvi. (1825) 148. 

On Two New British Species of Mytilus. Linn. 
Trans, xiii. (1822) p. 83. 

R. SlBBALD. 

Scotia Illustrata. Edinb. 1684. fol. 
An Account of Several Shells observed by him in 
Scotland. Phil. Trans, xix. 222. 321. 

Ch. SMITH. 

Ancient and Present State of the County and City 

of Waterford. Dublin, 1745. 8vo. 
Ditto of Cork. Dublin, 1750. 8vo. 2 vols. 
Ditto of Kerry. Dublin, 1756. 8vo. 

G. B. SOWERBY. 

On the Means of Distinguishing Fresh- water from 

Marine Shells. Ann. Philos. ii. (1821) 310. 
Genera of Shells. 8vo. 

John STARK. 

Elements of Natural History. 2 vols. 8vo. Edinb. 
1828. 



62 INTRODUCTION. 

C. STEWART. 

Elements of Natural History. 2 vols. 8vo. Edinb. 
1817. 

Hugh E. STRICKLAND. 

On the Naturalisation of Dreissena polymorpha in 

Great Britain. London's Mag. of Nat. Hist. n. 

s. 1838, p. 361. 
A List of some Land and Fresh-water Species of 

Shells found at Henley-on-Thames. London's 

Mag. Nat. Hist. viii. 494. 

W. TURTON. M. D. 

Description of some New British Shells, accompa- 
nied by Figures from the original Specimens. 

Zool. Journ. ii. 361. 
This paper contains the description of Physaalba 

and Bulimus tuberculatus, received from Mr. 

Blomer : Sicilian shells, and scarcely British. 
Conchylia Insularum Britannicarum. The Shells 

of the British Islands systematically arranged. 

Exeter, 1822. 4to. 
A Conchological Dictionary of the British Islands. 

London, 1819. 8vo. 
A Manual of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of 

the British Islands. London, 1831. 
George WALKER. 

Testacea Minuta Rariora nuperrime detecta in 

Arena Littoris Sandvicensis, a Gul. Boys ; multa 

addidit et omnium Figuras delineavit G. Walker. 

Lond. 1784. 4to. The text was written by 

Edward Jacob. 

<7. WALLACE. 

A description of the Isles of Orkney. London, 
1700. 8vo. 



INTRODUCTION. 63 

J. WALLIS. 

Natural History and Antiquities of Northumberland- 
London, 1769. 4to. 
W. WOOD. 

Observations on the Hinges of British Bivalve 
Shells. Linn. Trans, vi. 154. 

Index Testaceologicus, with 2300 figures. London, 
1825. 8vo. 

Supplement to Index Testaceologicus, with 480 
figures. London, 1828. 8vo. 

The following authors treat of European land and 
fresh-water Mollusca, and have been mostly con- 
sulted either for the geographical distribution or 
the Synonyma of the species. 
J. W. V. ALTEN. 

Systematische Abhandlung iiber die Erd und Fluss- 
Conchylien um Augsburg. Augs. 1812. 8vo., 
with 14 coloured plates. 
C. P. BRARD. 

Histoire des Coquilles Terr, et Fluv. qui vivent aux 
Environs de Paris. Paris, 1815. 12mo., with 10 
coloured plates. 
Collard de CHERRES. 

Shells of Finisterre. Act. Soc. Linn, de Bord, i. 4. 
J. Ph. R. DRAPARNAUD. 

Histoire Naturelle des Mollusques Terrestres et 
Fluviatiles de la France. Paris, 1805. 4to., with 
13 block plates. 
And. de FERUSSAC. 

Histoire Naturelle, generale et particuliere, des 
Mollusques Terr, et Fluv., &c. Paris, 1819. fol. 
Gottfr. GARTNER. 

Versuch einer Systematischen Beschreibung der um 



64 INTRODUCTION. 

der Wetterau bisher entdeckten Conchylien. 
Hanau, 1813. 4to. 
GOUPIL. 

Histoire des Mollusques dans le Departement de la 

Sarthe. 1835. 
S. GRATELOUP. 

Tableau Methodique des Mollusques Terrestres et 
Fluviatiles vivants observes dans 1' Arrondissement 
de Dax. Bull. Soc. Linn, de Bordeaux, 1829, 
p. 111. 
HARTMANN. 

Syst. der Erd und Flussm. der Schweiz. Stein- 
mtiller, Neuer Alpina 1. Winter thur, 1821. 8vo. 
KICKX. 

Synopsis Molluscorum Brabantiae. 
KLEEBERG. 

Molluscorum Borrussicorum Synopsis. Diss. Inaug. 

Regiomonte, 1828. 
KLEES. 

Characteristica et Descriptiones Testaceorum circa 
Tubingam indigenorum (Diss. Inaug.) Tubing. 
1818. 

A. L. C. MlCHAUD. 

Complement de P Histoire Nat. des Mollusques Ter. 
et Fluv. de Draparnaud. Paris, 1831. 4to., with 
3 lithog. plates. 

O. F. MULLER. 

Historia Vermium Terrestrium et Fluviatilium. 

Havnise, 1775. 4to. 
Suenome NILSON. 

Historia Molluscorum Sueciae Terrestrium et Flu- 
viatilium breviter delineata. Lundae, 1822. 
8vo. 



INTRODUCTION. 65 

B. C. PAYRAUDEAU. 

Catalogue des Annelides et des Mollusques de 
File de Corse. Paris, 1826. 

C. PFEIFFER. 

Systematische Anordung und Beschreibung Deut- 
scher Land und Wasser-Schnecken. Cassel, 1821. 
4to., with 24 coloured plates. 
R. A. PHILIPPI. 

Enumeratio Molluscorum Siciliae. 4to. Bresl. 1836. 
Risso. 

H. Nat. de 1' Europe Meridionale. 4 vols. 8vo. 
Paris, 1826. 

E. A. ROSSMASLER. 

Iconographie der Land und Susswasser Mollusken. 

Dresden, 1835. 8vo. 
The best and cheapest figures of European land 

and fresh- water shells. 
Diagnoses Conchiliorum Terrestrium et Fluviati- 

lium. Dresden, 1833. 8vo. 
Testaceorum Fauna Europaea. Dresden, 1834. 

8vo., with 5 plates. 
Thomas SAY. 

Description of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of 

the United States. Philadelphia, 1811. From 

Nicholson's Encyclopaedia, 4th Amer. edit. 
STUDER. 

System. Verz. der bis jetzt bekarmten Schweizer 

Conch. Berne, 1820. 8vo. 
J. STURM. 

Deutschland's Fauna, in Abbildungen nach der 

Natur, mit Beschreibungen, i iv. ]2mo. 
TROSCHELL. 

De Limnaeaceis seu Gasteropodis pulmonatis quae 

nostris in aquis vivunt. Bresl. 1834. 



66 



ARTIFICIAL TABLE 



OF THE GENERA OF BRITISH LAND AND FRESH-WATER 
SHELLS. 



THIS table is merely intended to assist the student in 
the discovery of the genera, without any reference to 
their natural relations. The numbers refer to their 
situation in the body of the work. 

I. UNIVALVES. Shells consisting of a more or less 

conical valve. 

A. Shell fiat, solid. 

7. LIMAX. Shell oval or oblong, without any visible spire. 

B. Shell conical. 

26. ANCYLUS. Shell conical, apex recurved rather to the right. 

27. VELLETIA. Shell conical, compressed ; apex subcentral, bent 

to the left. 

C. Shell ear-shaped, solid. 
9. TESTACELLUS. 

D. Shell conical spiral. 

a. Shell thin, edge of lips not thickened or rejlexed, peristome not 
continued. 

* Mouth transverse, lunate ; shell depressed, 

8. VITRINA. Shell imperforated ; mouth large. 

II. ZONITES. Shell perforated, or umbilicated ; mouth mo- 

derate. 

(Helices, Pupa, Clausilia, c., when young.} 



TABLE OF GENERA. 67 

* * Mouth longitudinal, dextral. 
f Pillar-lip smooth, not folded. 

12. SUCCISEA. Shell oval, amber-coloured; mouth large; front 

entire, rounded. 

13. BULIMUS (acutus). Shell turreted, white, variegated j mouth 

moderate ; front entire, rounded. 

16. ACHATINA. Shell turreted, white ; mouth moderate ; front 
truncated. 

f \ Pillar with an oblique fold. 

24. LIMN^US. Shell ovate or subturreted, perforated ; inner lip 

not expanded. 

25. AMPHIPEPLEA. Shell ovate, very thin, imperforated ; inner lip 

rather expanded. 

* * * Mouth longitudinal, sinistral. 
\ Pillar-lip smooth ; shell very thin, imperforated. 

28. PHYSA. Shell ovate; inner lip rather expanded. 

29. APLEXUS. Shell turreted ; inner lip not expanded. 

j- -j- Pillar-Up with an oblique fold. 
24. LIMN^EUS pereger lineatus. A monstrosity. 

b. Shell moderately thick ; peristome not thickened, continued. 

* Shell grooved, variegated, ovate ; mouth suborbictilar. 
32. CYCLOSTOMA. 

* * Shell smooth, olive ; mouth ovate or orbicular. 

o. VALVATA. Shell conical or depressed, umbilicated ; mouth 
orbicular. 

3. PALUDIXA. Shell ovate, conical, perforated, olive, banded ; 

mouth ovate. 

4. BITHIMA. Shell ovate, conical, perforated, transparent ; 

mouth ovate. 

2. ASSIMIMA. Shell ovate, conical, solid, brown ; mouth ovate. 
22. ACME. Shell subcylindrical, blunt, solid, brown; mouth 
ovate. 



68 TABLE OF GENERA. 

*** Shell smooth, half-ovate ; mouth half circular ; inner lip 

transverse, acute. 
1. NERITINA. 

c. Shell moderately thick ; edge of lips more or less thickened 
and reflexed. 

* Mouth transverse. 

1 0. HELIX. Shell suborbicular or conical ; mouth lunate, or ovate 
or circular. 

* * Mouth oblong, longitudinal. 

13. BULIMUS. Shell oblong, striated ; mouth toothless. 
14*. ZUA. Shell oblong, polished; mouth margined, tooth 

less. 
15. AZECA. Shell oblong, polished ; mouth margined, toothed. 

21. CARYCHIUM. Shell oblong, smooth, white ; mantle oblong, 
margined, sinuous. 

23. CONOVULUS. Shell oblong, smooth; mantle narrow; pil- 
lar obliquely plaited. 

17. PUPA. Shell subcylindrical, striated, blunt ; mouth margined, 

mostly toothed. 

18. VERTIGO. Shell subcylindrical, striated, blunt ; mouth 

dextral or sinistral, margined, mostly toothed. 

19. BALEA. Shell turreted, striated; apex acute ; mouth sinistral, 

not plaited. 

20. CLAUSILIA. Shell fusiform, striated; apex acute; mouth 

sinistral, plaited. 

E. Shell discoidal ; whorles revolving nearly on the same line. 
* Mouth lunate, sinistral, edge not continued. 

30. PLANORBIS. Cavity simple. 

31. SEGMENTINA. Cavity crossed with transverse ridges. 

* * Mouth circular, dextral, edge continued. 

% 
5. VALVATA. 



TABLE OF GENERA. 69 

II. BIVALVES. Shell formed of two valves, connected 
together by a ligament on the dorsal edge. 

* Shell with diverging hinge-teeth ; inside not pearly. 

33. CYCLAS. Shell oblong, nearly equilateral. 

34. PISIDIUM. Shell ovate, inequilateral. 

* * Shell with irregular hinge-teeth ; inside pearly. 

37. UNIO. Shell with distinct posterior lateral laminar teeth. 
36. ALASMODON. Shell without any lateral teeth. 

* * * Hinge toothless. 
35- ANODON. Shell ovate, pearly ; umbones (dorsal) blunt. 

38. DREISSENA. Shell triangular, not pearly ; umbones (anterior) 

acute. 



In describing shells, they should be regarded in their 
natural position ; that is to say, in the way in which 
they are placed on the animal ; thus, the part of the 
shell over the head of the animal is called the front, and 
that over the tail the back, of the shell ; and the left 
and right sides of the shell correspond with the left 
and right sides of the animal. 

This is exceedingly easy to be determined in the 
univalve shells, because the apex of the shelly cone, 
whether it be simply conical or spiral, in all univalves 
(except Patella and Lottia) is over the hinder part of 
the animal ; therefore, if a shell is placed on its mouth, 
with the apex towards the spectator, the parts of the 
shell will correspond with the position of the person 
who is looking at it. 

As all shells are formed of a shelly cone (which, 
when very long, is generally rolled round an imaginary 
axis, for the purpose of diminishing the space that 



70 TABLE OF GENERA. 

it occupies ; but when it is short, is sometimes only 
slightly recurved, as in the Ancylus and Velletia), in 
order to maintain a similarity of terms for the same 
thing in these two forms, all the lines or grooves which 
pass from the apex of the cone to the mouth, and which 
are caused by some permanent modifications of the 
edge of the mantle, are called longitudinal or spiral, 
and all the lines which are parallel to the edge of the 
mouth of the shell, and which, in fact, are generally 
marks of its growth, or are caused by some periodi- 
cal development of the margin of the mantle, are de- 
signated as concentric or transverse. Thus the striae 
on the Cyclostoma elegans and Planorbis albus are 
longitudinal or spiral, and the lamellce on Helix la~ 
mellata and H. aculeata are concentric or transverse. 

But when we speak of the spiral shell as a whole, it 
is usual to call it short or elongate, according to the 
length of the imaginary axis on which the whorles are 
rolled ; and when we speak of the length of the mouth, 
it extends from the line which forms the front to the 
hinder edge of the mouth, which, in the Ancylus, occu- 
pies the whole length of the shell : the breadth is the 
line which crosses this at a right angle. 

It is equally easy to determine the natural position 
of the bivalves without the presence of the animal; for 
the ligament is always placed on the dorsal surface of 
the animal, and the mouth is placed on that side of 
the apex of the valve, or umbo, which is before the liga- 
ment. Consequently, if a bivalve shell is placed on 
the table, with its hinge-side uppermost, and with the 
ligament towards the observer, the shell will be in its 
natural situation, and the sides of the shell will agree 
with the sides of the observer. 



TABLE OF GENERA. 71 

It is to be remarked that Linnaeus, and the natu- 
ralists of his school, described what is here called the 
front of the shell as the back, the left valve as the 
right, and vice versa ; and Lamarck, in general (but 
not universally), followed the same rule. The method 
above described is, however, so obviously correct, and 
every other so liable to confusion from the want of a 
sound foundation, that it cannot fail, sooner or later, 
to be universally adopted. 



SYSTEMATIC DISTRIBUTION. 



MOLLUSCA is the name given to that large division of 
the animal kingdom which is characterised by having 
a soft fleshy body, destitute both of a bony skeleton 
supporting jointed limbs, and of a hard ringed skin. 

They are covered with a muscular coat, called a 
mantle, endued with a glairy humour, and are gene- 
rally furnished with a calcareous envelope called a 
shelly which is secreted by this coat for the protection 
of the body or of the more vital organs of the animal. 

They are generally elongate, walking on a single 
central foot or disk, and furnished with one or more 
pairs of organs on the head and sides. Their ner- 
vous system, which furnishes the most distinctive cha- 
racter of the larger groups of the animal kingdom, 
merely consists of a certain number of medullary 
masses distributed to different parts of the body ; one 
of the masses being placed over the gullet, and enve- 
loping it like a collar. 

This division of the animal kingdom is subdivided 
into five classes in the following manner : 

A. Crawling oil a foot placed under the body. 
I. Gasteropodes, which have a distinct head, furnished 
with eyes and tentacles, and are usually protected 
by a conical spiral shell. 



SYSTEMATIC DISTRIBUTION. 73 

II. Conchifers. Having the mouth placed between 

the gills, they and the body enclosed between the 
two leaves of the mantle, which are covered with 
two shelly valves united by a cartilage. 

B. Destitute of any foot. 

III. Brachiopodes. Having the mouth placed at 
the base of two spirally twisted ciliated arms, 
between the two leaves of the mantle, which are 
covered with two separate shelly valves : they 
live attached to other marine bodies. 

IV. Pteropodes. Having a prominent head, with 
one or two pairs of fins on the sides of the neck, 
by which they swim about in the ocean. The body 
is often covered with a thin glassy conoidal shell. 

V. CcphalopodeS) which have a large distinct head, 

furnished with eight or ten arms, by means of 
which they walk head downwards. 

Linnaeus refers all the animals inhabiting shells 
to five different genera ; viz., Limax, Ascidia, AJIO- 
mia, Clio, and Sepia. These genera may be re- 
garded as the types of the classes proposed by Cuvier. 
Poli had, before his time, considered three of them as 
orders, under the names of Mollusca Reptantia^ Sub- 
silientia, and Brachiata. (i. 27.) 

The terrestrial or fluviatile Mollusca, of which alone 
we have to treat in this little work, are confined to the 
two first of these classes. 

The shell, which is peculiar to this division of the 
animal kingdom, may be seen covering the young 
animal in the egg, before it has gained all its organs, 





74 SYSTEMATIC DISTRIBUTION. 

as was observed by Swammerdam, and verified by 
the more extended observations of PfeifFer, Turpin, 
and others. They are easily seen in the egg of the 
Limncei) Phys& 9 Ancyli) and Bithinice, which have a 
transparent coat. (See Phil. Trans^ 1833.) 

The shells of the newly-hatched animals have been 
frequently considered as distinct species, and some 
very thin shells of land Mollusca, such as Vitrina, 
have been taken for the young of other well-known 
species, as H. hortensis* These young shells are easily 
known by their always being of a pale horn colour ; 
the whorles are generally rather irregular, and en- 
large very rapidly ; and the apex of the whorl which 
was first formed is generally large and blunt, com- 
pared with the size of the shell. They are always 
destitute of colour, for the animal does not deposit 
the colouring matter until after it has been hatched ; 
and it is therefore generally easy to distinguish in the 
young shell (and sometimes also in the adult) that part 
of the top of the spire which formed the shell of the 
animal when in the egg. 

The shell is formed by the hardening of the animal 
matter, which is secreted by certain glands on the 
surface of the body, by means of chalky matter, which 
is also secreted by similar glands. It has been stated 
that the unhatched animal, very shortly after it is 
formed, begins to make its shell; and when it is 
hatched, deposits on the edge of the mouth of the 
little shell which covered its body in the egg a small 
quantity of the mucous secretion. This dries, and is 
then lined with some mucous matter, intermixed with 
calcareous particles ; and when this hardens, it again 
places on its edge another very thin layer of the mu- 



SYSTEMATIC DISTRIBUTION. 75 

cous secretion, and again lines it as before. The mu- 
cous secretion first deposited forms the outer coat 
of the shell, and is of use in protecting it from injury, 
while the mucous matter mixed with lime, which is 
placed within it, forms the substance of the shell itself. 
This deposition of mucus, and of mucus mixed with 
calcareous matter, goes on as the animal grows and 
feels the want of a larger shell for its protection : the 
shell is, in fact, moulded on the body of the ani- 
mal itself, as the body grows; and for this reason 
any irregularity in the body is moulded in the 
shell. 

The animal has the faculty, also, of mending any 
break or injury that its shell may have received, if it 
is not of such a magnitude as to derange all the func- 
tions of the animal itself; and it mends them in the 
same manner as it forms its shell ; that is to say, 
by depositing first a coat of animal matter, and then 
lining it with mucous matter, mixed with chalk, to 
harden it. But as the animal is usually very desirous 
of getting the repairs done as quickly as possible, and 
is most probably damaged by the injury it has re- 
ceived, these repairs are generally much more roughly 
executed than the shell itself, and commonly destitute 
of regular colour. 

The particles which vary the colour of the surface 
of the shell are deposited while the shell is being 
increased in size, immediately under the outer mu- 
cous coat ; and as these particles are also secreted by 
peculiar glands, the colour is always situated in a 
particular manner on each species, the glands being 
gradually enlarged, and gradually separated, but 
not changed in position by the growth of the shell. 
E 2 



76 SYSTEMATIC DISTRIBUTION. 

All the variations exhibited in the colouring of the 
different species, or in the different individuals of the 
same species, are produced by the permanent or tem- 
porary interruption of the action of these glands. 
But for a more detailed account of these phenomena, 
I must refer the reader to my papers on the subject 
in the Philosophical Transactions for 1833. 



OF CRAWLING MOLLUSCANS. 



CLASS I. GASTEROPODA Cuv. 

THE animal is furnished with a distinct head, two or 
four tentacles, and a broad expanded foot for locomo- 
tion; and is generally protected by a straight, oblique, 
or spirally-twisted conical univalve shell. This class is 
divided into orders, according to the form of their re- 
spiratory organs ; thus : 

A. The gills comb-like, formed of a ridge of plates or 
filaments, on the inner side of the mantle, over the 
back of the neck. (Ptenobranchiata.) 

I. Zoophaga, the edge of the mantle produced into 
a siphon. 

II. Phytophaga, the edge of the mantle simple. 

B. The gills variable, arborescent, or the respiratory 
organs in the form of lungs. 

III. Pleurobranchiata, the gills on the side of the 
body, under the edge of the mantle. 

IV. Gymnobranchiata, the gills naked on the back, 
or round the inner edge of the mantle. 

V. Pneumobranchiata, the respiratory organs con- 
sisting of a bag formed by the mantle, and lined 
with the pulmonary vessels, 

E 3 



78 



PHYTOPHAGA. 



The last order consists almost entirely of terrestrial 
or fluviatile Mollusea, their organisation being only 
adapted for respiring free air ; and there are a few 
fluviatile species found in the second order : the rest 
are all marine, and therefore excluded from our con- 
sideration at present. 



ORDER!. PHYTOPHAGA. 




1. 3. Neritina fluviatilis. 
4. 6. Assiminia Grayana. 
7. 8. Paludina vivipara. 



9. 1 1 . Bithinia tentaeulata. 
12.14. Valvata cristata. 
3. 8. II. 14. The opercula. 



THE gills are in the form of one or more comb-like 
ridges of plates or filaments on the inner side of the 
mantle over the back of the neck. The edge of the 
mantle is entire, and destitute of any syphon. They 
respire water, or more properly air, through the water, 
and they are unisexual, and have only two tentacles ; 
their mouth is usually at the end of a short proboscis, 
and they live chiefly on vegetable food. 

The shells have an entire roundish or semilunar 



TODOPHTHALMA. 79 

mouth, without any canal in front. They are pro- 
vided with an operculum, which covers the mouth of 
the shell upon the animal, and which, from its position 
and the manner of its formation being similar to 
that of the shell, may be considered as a free second 
on valve. 

This order is divided into groups, by the position 
of the eyes, and the absence or presence of tentacles 
on the side of the body. 

Sect. I. Podophthalma 

Have the eyes placed on a separate pedicel at the 
hinder edge of the tentacles : the heart is generally 
traversed by the rectum, as in the Conchifera. 

Fam. 1. NeritidcB. The sides of the body simple: 
shell ovate; mouth half-ovate, with an acute inner 
lip; operculum appendaged. (f. 1 3.) 

Sect II. Eriophthalma. 

Eyes of the animal sessile at the base of the tentacles : 
dioecious. 

Fam. 2. Melaniadce, animal ; trunk elongate : shell 
ovate ; mouth ovate, not continued ; operculum 
horny, ovate, spiral, (f. 4 6.) 

Fam. 3. Paludinidce, animal ; gills enclosed : shell 
conical ; mouth ovate, continued ; operculum an- 
nular, (f. 711.) 

Fam. 4. Valvatida, animal ; gills exserted : shell coni- 
cal ; mouth round, continued ; operculum horny, 
orbicular, many-whorled. (f, 12 14.) 

E 4 



SO PHYTOPHAGA. 



Fam. 1. NERITDXE. 

The sides of the body simple, without any elongated 
filaments; tentacles awl-shaped, eyes on short 
pedicels at the outer side of their base (p. 78. f. 1* 
2.) ; the shell ovate-conical; mouth half-ovate, with 
a flattened transverse sharp-edged inner lip ; the 
operculum spiral, half-ovate, and furnished with 
two internal processes on its front edge, forming a 
kind of hinge on the sharp edge of the inner lip 
of the shell. See p. 78. f. 3. 

The peculiar structure of the operculum makes this 
family more closely resemble the bivalve shells : the 
processes appear to answer the same purpose (that of 
keeping the two parts in their proper situation) as the 
teeth of the hinges in the bivalves* 

In the exotic genus Navicella, which, on account of 
its large mouth, has been confounded with the Patellce^ 
the processes occupy the greater part of the oper- 
culum. 

There is only a single fluviatile genus of this family 
found in Britain. 

1. 1. NERITINA Lam. (Neritine.) 

Shell half-ovate, thin ; inner lip slightly toothed ; oper- 
culum only slightly calcareous, and furnished with a 
sharp flexible outer edge ; foot short, rounded at each 
end. This genus is separated from the marine 
Nerita by the pillar being sharp, only slightly 



NERITID.E. 81 

denticulated, and the outer lip not being toothed 

within. 

Neritina is the diminutive of Nerita, the ancient 

name of a sea-shell. 

The greater part of the species are confined to fresh- 
water streams, but one of the North American species 
is found for 200 miles up a river, from the mouth 
where it is quite salt, to beyond the reach of the tide, 
where the water is perfectly fresh. One species (Xc- 
ritina viridis) is only found in the sea. ( See Phil. Trans. 
1835.) 

M. Deshayes and several other conchologists, espe- 
cially those who only study the external form of shells, 
have proposed to unite this genus to the Nerites, be- 
cause some of the species are marine, and some of the 
fluviatile species have a tooth on the pillar lip. The 
genera are, however, very distinct ; and they may be 
well characterised by the structure of the operculum. 
(See Phil. Trans. 1833, p. 814.) The operculum of 
the Neritince is solid, shelly, and furnished with a thin 
flexible outer edge; that of the Nerites is horny, 
covered on both sides with a hard shelly coat. 
The position of the horny operculum is shown by a 
groove in the edge between the two coats ; and if a 
knife is inserted, the coats can be separated from the 
operculum. 

As the periostraca is essential to the structure of the 
shell, and is always present, some shells being formed 
of scarcely any thing else, so it is with the operculum, 
the horny part similar to the periostraca of shells 
being always present, and forming its essential part, 
and a shelly coat being in some instances added to 
the outer surface, as in Turbo and Phasianella, or to 
E 5 



82 PHYTOPHAGA. 

the inner surface, as in this genus, in which the horny 
part is very thin and scarcely visible, except where 
the shelly coat is very thin, as at the flexible edge. 

These animals absorb the septa which separate the 
whorls of the spire, when they have arrived at their 
full size, so as to allow more room for the spiral 
body, without increasing the size of the shell ; and 
this can be done without endangering the strength of 
the shell, as only a very small part of the whorl is 
exposed on the surface. A similar absorption is to 
be observed in many AuriculidcB^. and to a less extent 
in the Cones, where the septa are only reduced in 
thickness. (See Phil Trans. 1833, p. 798.) 

This absorption is only superficial, and produced 
by that portion of the surface of the mantle which lies 
close to it, and is not to be confounded with the ab- 
sorption of the bones of vertebrated animals, where it 
is produced by vessels which ramify in the substance 
of the bone, and which are accompanied by other 
vessels to replace with new portions the part which 
has been removed. 

The apices of the spires of these shells are some- 
times eroded ; those are more so which live in stag- 
nant or nearly stagnant waters. The late Mr. Sowerby 
(Mm. Conch, iv. 49.) supposed that this was produced 
by " some acid developed during the fermentation 
of vegetable matter in marshes or at the bottoms of 
the rivers." Others, who were not aware how the 
animals walked, have said that this erosion of the apex 
was produced by the animal rubbing it against the 
ground in progression ; explaining also the erosion of 
the umbones of the Uniones in the same manner. 



NERITID.E. 83 

1. 1. NEnmxAjftuviatilis. River Neritine. (t. 8. f. 124.) 

Shell convex, dilated, tessellate, with variously 

coloured spots ; spire short, lateral. 
Neritina fluviatilis. Lamarck, vi. ii. p. 188.; Flem. 

B.A. 321. ; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 138. 
Nerita fluviatilis. Linn. S. Nat. 1253. ; Mutter, ii. 

194. ; Drap. p. 31. 1. 1. f. 114. ; Brard, p. 194. 

t. 7. f. 9, 10. 12. ; Mont. p. 470. ; Turt. Diet. 127. 
Theodoxus Latetianus. De Montfort, ii. p. 351. 
Neritina fontinalis. Brard, Hist. C. 196. t. 7. f. 11. 

13. ; Pet. Gaz. t. 91. f. 3. ; List. Conch, ii. 1. 38. ; 

Swamm. B. N. 80. 1. 10. f. 2. 
Neritina Dalmatica. Sow. C. Illus. 57. 

In slow rivers, adhering to stones. 

Animal white ; head and back of the neck blackish ; 
hinder part of the foot sometimes black spotted ; ten- 
tacle long, white, with blackish line. 

Shell about three eighths of an inch long, and two 
broad, convex above and flat underneath, obscurely 
striate transversely, of a greenish or whitish colour, 
variously checquered with spots or bands of white, 
brown, purple, or pink ; spire consisting of three vo- 
lutions, the first very large, oblong, and oblique, the 
others small and lateral ; aperture horizontal, semiel- 
liptic, with the margin sharp and entire ; pillar white, 
transverse, sloping down to a sharp edge, and quite 
entire ; operculum semilunar, yellowish, with an orange 
border, and underneath is a strong raised grooved 
spire at one end. 

The shells are often covered with calcareous incrust- 
ations, deposited by the water, which make them 
E 6 



84 PHYTOPHAGA. 

look like pieces of dirt, and thus escape being seized 
on by the fish. 

The continental conchologists have described several 
species allied to the above. Rossmasler reduces them 
to three ; but, from the specimens which I have re- 
ceived under different names, I greatly doubt if they 
are more than mere local varieties of our species. 
Nilson found a small variety or species in Sweden, 
on the shores of the Baltic, with Mytilus edulis, Cardi- 
um, &c. Our species has been founcl in similar situ- 
ations in Loch Stennis, Orkney, by Mr. Edward 
Forbes. 



85 



Fam. 2. MELANIADJE. 

Shell ovate, turreted ; mouth ovate; operculum free, 
horny, ovate, spiral. The trunk of the animal is 
more or less elongate, with 2 subulate tentacles, 
with the eyes sessile on the outer sides of their base. 

This family contains only one rather anomalous 
British fresh-water genus among its numerous marine 
ones. There are several other fluviatile genera, as 
Melania, Melanopsis, and Potamides, which are now 
only found in the warmer parts of the world, that were 
once inhabitants of these regions, as they are found in 
the fossil beds of the Isle of Wight, and the coast of 
Hampshire. 

2. 1. ASSIMINIA Leach MSS. (Assiminia.) 

Shell ovate, conical, solid; mouth ovate; tentacles 
very short, scarcely larger than the tubercles on 
which the eyes are placed, and united to their side, 
(p. 78. f. 4, 5, 6.) 

The animal differs from Littorina in the ap- 
parent position of the eyes, which is an anomaly 
among the water or Ptenobranchous Mollusca. 

This animal was first indicated, and its peculiarites 
pointed out, in my paper above quoted, in 1821 ; when 
I made the following remarks on its structure. " The 
animal of this shell differs from all others of the order 
(to which it belongs), by the eyes appearing to be placed 
at the end of the tentacle ; but I believe that they are 



86 PHYTOPHAGA. 

placed on a peduncle as long as the tentacle, and the 
peduncles and tentacula are soldered together." 

Mr. Berkeley, in his description of the animal (ZooL 
Journ. v. 429.), observes, " The most remarkable 
circumstance in this animal is the position of the eyes 
at the tip of the tentacle, as in Helix and its allies, 
and not at the base. It would appear as if there 
were in reality no tentacula, and only the tubercle, 
common to many Mollusca, at the base of the tenta- 
cula, a little more developed than usual." I am in- 
clined to retain my former theory; for if the pedicel 
of the eye of this genus is minutely examined, it will 
appear to be formed of two parts united by a suture. 

A shell which I described from India, under the name 
of Turbo Francesia (Wood, Supp. t. 6. f. 28.), has been 
found by Mr. Benson to have the same kind of animal, 
and to be a second species of the genus. 

2. 1. ASSIMINIA Grayana. Liver-coloured Assiminia. 

t f. 127. Shell ovate, acute, solid, liver-brown ; 

suture slightly impressed ; mouth ovate. 
Nerita Syncera hepatica. Gray, Med. Repos. 1821 , 

p. 239. 
Assiminia Grayana. Leach, MSS. 1816; Flem. 

B. A. 275.; Berkeley, ZooL Journ. v. 429. t. 19. 

f. 4. 
Lymneus Grayanus. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 

378. 
Paludina Grayana. Potiez, Gal i. 251. t. 25. f. 23, 

24. 

Inhab. the mouths of rivers and small streams con- 
nected with them, seldom out of the reach of brackish 
water. 



MELANIAD;E. 87 

Foot broadly obovate, obtuse, compressed, evi- 
dently of two distinct laminae, the lower projecting 
beyond the upper, and separated from it by an accu- 
rately defined line; above fuscous, beneath olivaceous, 
shaded with cinereous ; tentacles very short and obtuse, 
fuscous, eyes at their tips ; muzzle porrect, not truly 
proboscidiform, deeply notched in front, fuscous, 
strongly annulated ; the edge of the lips paler : on 
each side is a groove running backwards from the 
base of the tentacula. 

Shell about J inch long, ovate, solid, bright, shining, 
liver-brown, with a conical spire, and slightly impressed 
suture. The axis is imperforated. Operculum horny, 
ovate, black-brown. 

Very like the small Littorince, but more solid, and 
differs in the animal; it is curious that so abun- 
dant a shell should have been overlooked by Mon- 
tagu and his correspondents. 

There may be noticed two marine species, some- 
times found with the former. 

1. LITTORINA anatina. 

Paludina anatina. Drap., Michaud, Alder, Mag. 
Zool and Bot. ii. 116. 

Sometimes found in the marshes at Greenwich, 
with the Assiminia Grayana. The shell is ovate, 
perforated, thin, transparent; the whorles are ven- 
tricose, rounded, and the mouth ovate ; the operculum 
is horny, brown. It is like Bithinia ventricosa y but 
smaller and shorter, and has a horny spiral opercu- 
lum, like the periwinkle ; the peristome is continued ; 
the shell is often covered with green Alga. 



88 PHYTOPHAGA. 

2. LITTORINA muriatica. 

Turbo muriaticus Linn. 

Cyclostoma acutum Drap. 

Which has been placed by the latter author as a 
fresh-water species, is abundant on many parts of our 
coasts. It is nearly allied to Littorina ulvce. Hart- 
mann has formed a genus called Uydrobia from these 
small Littoringe. 



89 



Fam. 3. PALUDINIME. 

The tentacles elongate, slender, with eyes sessile at 
the outer side of their base (p. 78. f. 7. and 9.) ; 
the gills are always enclosed in the gill cavity. 
Shell conical, thin, covered with an olive perios- 
traca ; mouth ovate, entire, angular behind ; the 
peristome continued ; operculum horny or shelly, 
formed of concentric laminae, with a subcentral 
nucleus, (p. 78. f. 8. and 11.) They are all 
fluviatile. 

The animals were confounded by Lamarck, in his 
first works, with the genus Cyclostoma ; and Drapar- 
naud has placed in this genus some marine species which 
belong to Littorina ; Cuvier, overlooking the cha- 
racter of the operculum, and some other peculiarities 
in the animal, confounded them with the animals 
of that genus. (See Reg. Anim. and Mem. Moll.) 

This family, unlike most of the families of Pteno- 
branchous Mollusca, consists entirely of truly fluvi- 
atile animals. 

It has many characters in common with the exotic 
family of apple-snails (Ampullariadce)^ which also 
have an annular operculum ; but these have pedicelled 
eyes, very long tentacles, very long subulate lips, and 
are furnished with an air-bag on the side of their gills. 

It contains two British genera, which, though very 
distinct and easily characterised, have been generally 
confounded, viz. : 



90 PHYTOPHAGA. 

1. Paludina. Operculum horny; mouth of the 
shell thin. 

2. Bithinia. Operculum shelly; mouth of the 
shell thickened internally. 

3. 1. PALUDINA Lam. (Marsh Shell.) 
Operculum horny, the nucleus rather on the inner 

side (p. 78. f. 8.); shell conoid or oblong; mouth 

roundish, slightly angular behind ; peristome united 

all round, thin. (p. 78. f. 7.) 

They are called Paludina from their being found in 
marshes and ditches. 

The animals are viviparous, the young being 
hatched while the eggs are in the oviduct of the 
mother. 

The shells of the newly-hatched individuals are 
covered with spiral bands of cilia. 

3. 1. PALUDINA vivipara. Crystalline Marsh Shell. 

(t. 8. f. 118.) Shell thin, oval, acute, volutions 

five, much inflated, with three brown bands; 

the suture deeply impressed; spire blunt mu- 

cronate. 
Helix vivipara. Linn. Fauna Su. 529. ; List. Aug. 

t.2. f. 17.; Petiv. Mus. 84. n. 814.; Montagu, 

T. B. 386. 
Paludina crystallina. Gray, Med. Rep. 1821, p. 

239. 
Nerita fasciata. Mutter Verm. ii. 182. part. 

vivipara. Mutter, ii. 182. 

Cyclostoma viviparum. Drap. 34. 1. 1. f. 16, 17. 
Paludina vivipara. Lam. vi. 173.; Nilson, 88.; 

Turton, Man. ed. 1.133. f. 118. ; Brard, 174. t. 7, 

f. 1.; Eossm. f. 66.; Desk, viii.511. 



PALUDINIDJE. 91 

Viviparus fluviorum. De Montf. ii. 247. 

Paludina achatina. Sow. Gen. f. 1. 

Cyclostoma contectum. Millet, Milf. 5. 

In still waters and slow rivers. 

Shell an inch and a quarter long, and an inch 
broad, thin, transparent, finely striate longitudinally, 
of an olive colour, with three brown bands on the 
larger volution ; spire composed of five inflated and 
deeply divided volutions, the last very large, the first 
a mere point; aperture pear-shaped, a little pro- 
duced at the upper angle ; the inner lip a little re- 
flected so as to half close the umbilicus. The young 
shells are subglobose, pellucid, obscurely banded, rather 
flattened above, and furnished with five ciliated lines. 

4.2. PALUDINA achatina. Common Marsh Shell, 
(t. 8. f. 119.) Shell rather thin, conic-oval, 
acute; volutions six, rather tumid, with three 
olive-brown bands ; the sutures well defined. 

Helix vivipara. Linn. S. N. part. 

ventricosa. Oliv. Ad. 178. 

Paludina vulgaris. Gray, Med. Rep. 1821, p. 239. 

fasciata. Desk., Lam. vii. 513. 

Lymnea vivipara. Flem. 

Nerita fasciata. Muller, Verm. 182. 

Cyclostoma achatinum. Drap. 36. 1. 1. f. 18. 

Turbo achatinus. Sheppard, Linn. Trans, xiv. 125. 
t. 1. f. 18. 

Paludina achatina. Brug. E. M. t. 458. f. 1.; Lam. 
H. vii. 174.; Rossm. 109. f. 66*.; Turton, Man. 
133. f. 119. 

Helix vivipara b. Gmelin, S. N. 36. 46. 

Nerita fasciata. Sturm, Faun. vi. 2. t. 12. 



92 PHYTOPHAGA. 

Young shell with numerous hairy bands : 
Helix compactilis. Pulteney. 
Very young shell. 
Vitrina femorata. Auctor. 

Inhab. rivers. 

Shell resembling the last, but of a more oblong 
shape, with six volutions, which are not so much 
swollen, and consequently the sutures are not so deep. 
The young shells are furnished with numerous close 
ciliated spiral lines. Lister gives the anatomy of the 
former species, and Cuvier of this (t. 6. f. 1. 4.), in the 
Mem. Mollusques. 

Though Lister has figured the two species as found 
in Britain, they had been confounded by English 
conchologists until I noticed them in the Medical 
Repository for 1821, when I also pointed out that they 
were known to Lister, and that the young shell of the 
two species offered the very different characters noticed 
in their descriptions. They are sometimes found to- 
gether in the same river, as at Uxbridge, Middlesex. 

Miiller, in his figures of this animal, in the Zooloyia 
jDanica, represents two small processes at the hinder 
part of the opercular mantle, as in the animal of 
Lacuna. Can he have represented a specimen of that 
genus, by mistake, for he has figured the animal as 
red? 

4.2. BITHINIA Gray. (Bithinia.) 

Operculum lined internally with a thick shelly coat ; 
nucleus subcentral (p. 78. f. 11.) ; the mouth of the 
shell ovate, continued, rather angular behind, with a 
slightly thickened internal rib. (See p. 78. f. 9, 10.) 



PALUDINIDJE. 93 

"These animals are oviparous, their eggs being de- 
posited in oblong groups, like the Limnai or Pond 
Snails, on the stems and leaves of fresh- water plants. 
(See Pfeiffer, Moll t. 6. f. 10, 11, 12.) 

5. 1. BITHIXIA tentaculata. Tentacled Bithinia. (t. 
8. f. 120.) Shell oval-oblong, yellowish horn- 
colour, smooth, semitransparent, with five rather 
flat volutions, and without umbilicus. 
Helix tentaculata. Linn. Fauna Suec. 531. (List. 

Any. t. 2. f. 19.) ; Gmel 3662. ; Mont. 389. 
Bulimus tentaculatus. Poiret, 61. 
Lymnea tentaculata. Flem* 
Nerita jaculator. Miiller, Verm. ii. 185. 
Turbo nucleus. Da Costa, t. 5. f. 12. 
Paludina tentaculata. Flem. 

impura. Lam. vi. 175.; List. Conch, t. 

132. f. 32. ; Brard, 183. t. 7. f. 2. ; Turton, Man. 
134. f. 120. 
Cyclostoma impurum. Drap. 36. t. 1. f. 19. ; 

Sturm, Fauna, t. vi. 3. 1. 
Young. 

Turbo Isevis. (?) Walker, f. 33. 
Nerita sphaerica. Miiller. 
Var. 1. Shorter, less, and more conical. Drap. t. 1. 

f.20. 

In ditches and canals ; common all over Britain. 
Animal blackish, with golden dots ; foot two-lobed 
in front, narrow and subacute behind ; tentacle seta- 
ceous, long ; the eyes black. 

Shell half an inch long, and three tenths wide, 
often covered with a blackish foul coat ; spire com- 
posed of five volutions, the first very tumid, the others 
hardly raised ; pillar without umbilicus. 



94 PHYTOPHAGA. 

6. 2. BITHINIA ventricosa. Ventricose Bithinia. (t. 
8. f. 121.) Shell conic, yellowish horn-colour, 
smooth, semi-transparent, with five very tumid 
volutions, and a small oblique umbilicus. 

Bithinia ventricosa. Gray, M. Rep. 1821, p. 239. 

Turbo Leachii. Sheppard, Linn. Trans, xiv. 152. 

Paludina acuta. Fleming. 

Cyclostoma simile. Drap. 31. t.4. f. 15.? 

Paludina ventricosa. " Leach, MSS. ; " Sheppard, 
Brown, Brit. Shells, t.41.f.74, 75. 

Paludina humilis. N. Boubee, Cat. 

similis. Turton, Man. 135. f. 121.; Al- 
der, Mag. Zool. and Bot. ii. 116. 

In ditches and canals ; south of England. 

Shell a quarter of an inch long, and two lines 
broad, with four or five very tumid volutions ; aper- 
ture dilated, nearly circular, projecting more out- 
wardly, or out of the line of the columnar axis, with a 
small umbilicus behind it. 

The lower volutions are sometimes decussated, the 
horizontal striae being the deepest. See Linn. Trans. 
xiv. 152. 

The fry, or mass of egg, of this species, are dis- 
posed on a tough strap-shaped green membrane, in a 
double row, consisting of six or seven pairs placed 
opposite to each other ; and this elongated receptacle 
is fixed to the under surface of aquatic plants. 

This species was first added to the list, in the 
Medical Repository for 1821. Mr. Sheppard received 
it from Dr. Leach, under my name, but he changed 
it to T. Leachii. I do not think it is C. simile of 
Draparnaud : in Dr. Turton's figure, the volutions are 
scarcely sufficiently ventricose. 



PALUDINIDJE. 95 

Dr. Beck tells me that this shell is Nerita globulosa 
of Miiller : it does not well agree with his description. 
We have received it from Tarbes in France, from M. 
N. Boubee, under the name of P. humilis. 

Mr. Alder observes (Mag. ZooL and Bot. ii. 116.), 
"The Paludina viridis of Turton's Manual (ed. 1. 135, 
f. 122.) I take to be the young of P. similis (Bithinia 
ventricosa), judging from specimens in Mr. Clark's 
cabinet." Most probably this idea is correct, as I 
have not been able to find any authority for Drapar- 
naud's species being found in this country ; and it is 
to be remarked that Turton's account is taken from 
Draparnaud, and Dr. Turton does not give any habi- 
tat for the species. M. N. BoubeVs specimen of Pal. 
viridis proves it to be a Hydrobia or minute Littorina : 
it has a horny subspiral operculum. 

Mr. Alder also thinks that the Paludina stagno- 
rum Turton, Man. (ed. 1. 336. f. 123.) may probably 
be a mere slender variety of P. similis. (Mag. ZooL 
and Bot. ii. 116.) I think it is much more probably 
a Littorina, as he considers it the same as Paludina 
acuta of Drap. In the absence of specimens, it is im- 
possible to decide ; and, as Dr. Turton does not give 
any locality, it is even doubtful if the whole account 
of the species and figures were not derived from Drapar- 
naud's work. If intended for any British species, it 
must be Littorina ventricosa, which is common in the 
ditches with Cardium edule, &c., near Tilbury Fort. 



96 PHYTOPHAGA, 



Fam. 4. VALVATID^. 

The tentacles are elongate, tapering, rather blunt, 
with the eyes on small tubercles at the outer 
hinder side of their base; mouth rather pro- 
boscidiform; the foot truncated and slightly 
lobed in front, rounded and slightly nicked be- 
hind; the gills are exserted when the animal 
is expanded, and are formed of an elongate, 
tapering, conical process, furnished on each 
side with a series of spirally-twisted laminae, 
placed opposite to each other, (p. 78. f. 13.) On 
the hinder part of the right side, near the suture 
of the whorls, is an exserted filiform member 
(p. 78. f. 12.) like a tentacle, but rather shorter 
and thicker, which is called the branchial thread 
by Lamarck. 

The shell conical, thin, covered with an olive peri- 
ostraca ; the mouth round, with a continued peri- 
stome. 

The operculum is horny, suborbicular, formed of 
many gradually enlarging whorls, which have a 
raised membranaceous outer edge, forming a 
spiral ridge on the outer surface, (p. 78. f. 14.) 
The shells are known from Paludinae by the shelly 
cone being circular, and not bent in in any part by 
the proximate whorls. They are like the marine 
genus Skenia of Fleming, which, however, has a dif- 
ferent animal, very like that of Rissoa and Hydrobia. 



VALVATID^:. 97 

These animals have been well described by M'uller, 
Montagu, Nilson, Hartmann, and others. Montagu 
showed that Turbo fontinalis, which Miiller had refer- 
red to Nerita, should be placed in the genus which 
Miiller had established under the name of Valvata. 

5. 1. VALVATA Miiller. (Valve Shell.) 

- 

Shell with the spire a little elevated, or flat and disk- 
like ; aperture quite circular, united all round, and 
furnished with a horny operculum marked with a 
single raised spiral membranaceous line. (p. 78. f. 14.) 
So named from the valve or lid which covers the 
orifice of the aperture. 

7. 1. VALVATA piscinalis. Stream Valve Shell, (t. 8. f. 

114.) Shell globular, with an elevated obtuse 

spire, and a deep central umbilicus. 
Nerita piscinalis. Miiller, 172. 
Valvata obtusa. Brard, p. 190. t. 6. f. 17. ; Turton, 

Man. ed. 1. 130.; Pfeiffer, 198. t. 4. f. 32. t. 1. 

f. 13. 

Cyclostoma obtusum. Drap. p. 33. 1. 1. f. 14. 
Turbo fontinalis. Mont. p. 348. t. 22. f. 4. 
thermalis. Dillwyn, p. 852. 
Helix piscinalis. Gmel. 3627. 
Valvata piscinalis. Lam. vi. 172. ; Kenyan, Mag. 

N. Hist. iii. 425. f. b. c. d. ; Alder, Mag. Zool. and 

Bot. ii. 116. 
Lymnea fontinalis. Flem., Ed. Ency. 

Young rather depressed, umbilicus rather wider. 
Helix fascicularis. Alien Syst. 74. t. 8. f. 16. 
Valvata depressa. Pfeiffer. 
minuta. Pfeiffer. ? 

F 




98 PHYTOPHAGA. 

In canals and ponds; common to all parts of 
England. 

Animal whitish ; trunk grey rugose. 

Shell nearly a quarter of an inch long and as much 
broad, globular, thin, light horn-colour, very finely 
spiral-striate, and marked with some obscure concen- 
tric lines ; spire of four volutions, tumid, and deeply 
defined, and having much the appearance of a Trochus, 
with a deep central umbilicus ; operculum dull grey- 
ish white. 

Mr. Alder states that he received specimens of V. 
depressa of Pfeiffer, from Lancashire, 
some years ago, by Mr. Kenyon. 
They are exactly similar to those in 
M. Ferussac's cabinet, received 
from Pfeiffer himself; but it can 
scarcely, he observes, be considered more than a 
variety of V. piscinalis. I think this opinion is fully 
borne out by the examination of some specimens 
which Mr. Kenyon has kindly sent to the British 
Museum collection. Nilson and Forbes agree in this 
opinion, and as the former justly observes, all conoid 
shells are more depressed in their young state, from the 
peculiarity of their formation. (See f. a. b. c.) 

The animal and operculum are well described by 
Montagu (Test. Brit 351.), who justly compared the 
animal to that of the next species, though in his ar- 
rangement one shell is a Turbo and the other a Helix ; 
but he saw the difficulty of this arrangement. See his 
note at p. 367., and also at p. 461., where he describes 
the animal of V. cristata. 

8.2. VALVATA cristata. Crested Valve Shell, (t. 8. f. 



VALVATIDJE. 99 

115.) Shell discoid, flat above, and umbilicate 
beneath ; whorls 3. 
Valvata cristata. Mutter ', Verm. 198.; Alder, Mag. 

Zool. and Bot. ii. 116. 

Valvata spirorbis. Drap. p. 41. t. 1. f. 32, 33. ; 
Brard, p. 187. t 6. f. 15, 16. ; Turton, Man. ed. 
1. 131. f. 115. 

Xerita valvata. Gmel. 3675. 
Helix cristata. Mont. p. 46. ; Vign. 1. f. 7, 8. 
Turbo cristatus. Turton, Diet. p. 227. 
Valvata planorbis. Drap.\. t. 1. f.34, 35.; Tur- 

ton, Man. ed. 1. 132. f. 116. (?) 
Junior. Valvata minuta. Drap. 42. t, 1. f. 36 38. ; 

Turton, Man. ed. 1. f. 117. 
In ditches and canals, on aquatic plants. 
Shell about the tenth of an inch in diameter, pale 
horn-colour, striate transversely, with three volutions ; 
the upper surface a little sunk, the under side umbi- 
licate, so as to expose the interior volutions. 

Mr. Alder observes (Mag. Zool. and Bot. ii. 117.), 
"Dr.Turton has introduced two other species, V. plan- 
orbis Drap. (f, 116.), and V. minuta Drap. (f. 117.). 
into his Manual, but no specimens of them are now to 
be found in his cabinet." Mr. Alder says he took some 
pains to investigate these two species when in Paris, 
on examining three of the principal collections there ; 
those of the Jardin des Plantes, the Baron de Ferus- 
sac, and the Duke de Rivoli. " In the latter only. 
I found any thing under the name of V. planorbis. 
The specimens (which were originally Lamarck's) 
were J . cristata Miiller. M. de Ferussac had speci- 
mens, under the name of V. minuta^ from two differ- 

F2 



100 FHYTOPHAGA. 

ent individuals. Those from M. Pfeiffer are, I 
think, the young of V. cristata, and the others (I for- 
get from whom, but with the name of Draparnaud) 
the young of V. piscinalis. Mr. Miller introduced 
V. minuta into his catalogue of the land and fresh- 
water shells of the environs of Bristol, but no speci- 
men of it is preserved in the Bristol Museum. Dr. 
Turton says, that his V. minuta is the Helix serpu- 
loides of Montagu. This is well known to be a marine 
shell, referrible to the genus Skenea of Fleming. Mr. 
Thompson - of Belfast has, however, favoured me," 
continues Mr. Alder, " with the examination of a shell 
which may possibly turn out to be the V. minuta 
Drap., though I suspect it to be marine." 



101 



ORDER II. PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

THE respiratory organs consisting of a number of 
pulmonary vessels spread over an open or closed bag- 
like cavity on the back of the neck, they breathe free 
air, and either live constantly on the land or in the 
water, in which latter case they come periodically to 
the surface to respire. 

The shell is rarely wanting. 

This order is divided into families in the following 

manner : 

Sect. I. Inoperculated. Edge of the mantle adherent 
to the back of the neck, forming a closed pulmo- 
nary chamber, leaving a hole for the entrance and 
exit of the air ; operculum none ; hermaphrodite. 

A. Terrestrial. Tentacles cylindrical, retractile; 
upper pair having the eyes at their tip. 

Fain. 1. Arionidce. Head and tentacles re- 
tractile ; end of the tail truncated, bearing a 
mucous gland. 

Fam. 2. Helicidce. Head and tentacles retractile ; 
end of tail simple, conical. 

B. Aquatic. Tentacles contractile, with the eyes 
at or near their base. 

Fam. 3. Auriculida. Head elongated into a 

F3 



102 PNEUMONOBKANCHIATA. 

rugose muzzle ; tentacles subcylindrical, eyes 
near the inner side of their base. 

Fam. 4. Limnceidce. Head bifid ; tentacles com- 
pressed, with the eyes on the outer side of 
their base. 

Sect. II. Operculated. Mantle edge separate from 
the back of the neck, leaving the pulmonic cavity 
open ; tentacles contractile ; dioecious ; operculum 
distinct. 

Fam. 5. Cyclostomidce. Muzzle ringed ; tentacles 
two ; operculum spiral. 

Sect. I. INOPERCULATED. (Inoperculata.} 

The edge of the mantle adherent to the back of 
the neck of the animal, forming a closed pulmonary 
chamber, leaving only a hole for the entrance and exit 
of the air, which is closed by an external valve on 
the side of the cavity. 

They are all destitute of any operculum, but close 
the shell, during the torpidity of the animal, with a 
lid or epiphragm formed of its inspissated humours, 
and sometimes hardened with a little calcareous 
matter. 

They are all hermaphrodite, but require mutual 
impregnation, and feed on vegetables ; but some few 
have carnivorous propensities, and others, when they 
live near man, acquire bad habits, and eat paper and 
dead animal matter. 

They may be divided into two groups, by the form 
of their tentacles, which conform to their more or less 
aquatic habits. 



INOPERCULATED. 



103 



A. The terrestrial animals have cylindrical retractile 
tentacles, the upper pair the longest, having the eyes 
at the tip ; the lower pair smaller, sometimes wanting. 
They are truly terrestrial, and are divided into two 
families. 




1. Arion ater. 

2. Limax antiquorum. 

3. Vitrina pellucida. 



4. 5. Testacella haliotoidea. 

6. Helix Cantiana. 

7. Clausilia bidens. 



F 4 



104 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 



Fam.1. ARIONID^E. 

Head and tentacles retractile* into the skin, which 
covers them as a sheath, being drawn into the ca- 
vity of the body; the end of their tail is as it were 
truncated, and furnished with a gland on its upper 
edge ; the respiratory cavity is in the front of the 
body, with the hole in the front of the mantle's 
edge ; and the orifice of the generative organs is 
placed on the right side, near, or immediately 
under, the respiratory aperture, (p. 103. f. 1.) 
The shell is presented in very different degrees of 
development in the different genera, it is very 
rudimentary in the only English one. 

6. 1. ARION Ferus. (Land Soles.) 

Body elongate, lanceolate, united its whole length to the 
foot ; mantle shield-like, anteriorly ovate, granular ; 
the orifice of the generative organs is immediately 
under the respiratory aperture. Shell distinct, ob- 
long, sometimes only spongy, or only a few granules 
in the subtance of the mantle. 

* Shell none, or hemispherical and spongy. 
9, 1. ARION ater. Black Arion. Tentacles black; the 

* Ehrenberg proposes to call the tentacles of snails tentactila, 
and those of pond snails, which do not bear eyes, vibracula. 



ARIOXIDJE. 105 

side of the foot marked with transverse black 
lines; body with interrupted longitudinal grooves ; 
shield minutely granular ; shell spongy, hemi- 
spherical. 

Limax ater. Linn. Faun. Suec. 507. ; Mutter, Verm. 
2. ; Drap. 129, t. 9. f. 36. ; Sturm, Faun. ; 
Nunneley, Trans. Phil. Soc. Leeds, 46 t. 1. f. 1. t. 27 
f. 1. t. 3. f. 1. 36. t. 4, & 5. f. 1. 

Limax rufus. Linn. F. Suec. 507. Razoum. Drap. 
123. t.9. 6.; Sturm, Fauna, t. 

Limax succineus. Mutter, Verm. 1. 203. 

luteus. Razoum. 

marginellus. Schrank. 

Anon empiricorum. Ferns. Hist. Moll. 60. 17. 1. 1, 
2, 3.; Alder, Mag. Zool and Bot. ii. 105. 

Inhab. damp woods and hedges. 

They vary greatly in colour, from black to brown- 
ish rufous, yellow, and yellowish white; the keel is 
sometimes greenish ; the edge of the foot is generally 
the same colour as the back ; but in some of the dark 
varieties it is scarlet or yellowish : it is always lined 
with black. Some naturalists have considered these 
varieties as species ; hence the number of synonyma. 

Mr. Nunneley believes that the variation of co- 
lour is " occasioned by habitation and food, as in fields 
it is nearly always of a deep black, while in gardens, 
where the food is more various, it is found of various 
colours." This does not agree with my experience, for 
I have found them of very various colours in woods, 
and under exactly similar circumstances, and at the 
same period. 

The calcareous particles, particularly of the red 
variety, sometimes form an irregular sub-hemispheri- 
F 5 



106 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA, 

cal spongy shell. We have specimens in the British 
Museum, from Bath, presented by S. P. Pratt, Esq. 

It has a great geographical range, being found 
equally in Ireland and Norway, and Italy and Spain. 
They deposit their bluish eggs in a cluster in May, at 
the roots of plants. 

They feed on dead and living vegetables, and some- 
times, according to Mr. Power (Linn. Trans, ix. 323.), 
on dead earth-worms. 

The country people consider the appearance of this 
slug as an indication of approaching rain ; but this is 
rather to be accounted for by the moisture of the 
ground and of the plants. It is seldom, indeed, to be 
observed abroad during dry weather, for this would 
deprive the body of the moisture which is requisite 
for its existence. (Bingley.) 

The inferior cesophageal ganglion, according to 
the excellent observations of Mr. Nunneley, is " of a 
square form ; and being slightly fissured, both trans- 
versely and longitudinally, it apparently consists of 
four ganglia united together : it also consists of two 
laminae." 

Lister (Anal. t. 5. f. 1,2, 3.), Swammerdam (Bib 
Nat. 1. 162. t. 4.), Cuvier (Annals Mus. Paris, vii., 
and Mem. Mollus.}, and more lately Mr. Nunneley 
(Trans. Phil, and Lit. Soc. Leeds, i. 41.), have pub- 
lished the anatomy of this animal. 

Dr. George Johnston has indicated a species under 
the name of Arion subflavus, in his list of Berwick- 
shire Mollusca, which he says inhabits woods and shady 
places in that county. I cannot find any species de- 
scribed under this name. Draparnaud describes a 
Limax subfuscuS) which Ferussac refers to this genus, 



107 

and he and Deshayes think it may prove to be a va- 
riety of A. ater ; Nilson thinks it is a variety of A. 
hortensis. 

* * Shell distinct, oval, concave. 

10. 2. ARION hortensis. Garden Arkm. (t. 1. f. 16.) 

Black ; with grey longitudinal streaks ; edge of 

the foot orange ; shell oval, concave. 
Arion hortensis. Ferus. Hist. Moll. 6. 5. t. 11. f. 4 

6. viii. a. f. 2, 3,4., Tabl Syst. 18.; Gray, 

Med. Rep. 1821. 

Limacella concava. Brard, Hist. 121. (Shell.) 
Limacellus variegatus. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 25. 

t. 3. f. 16. (Shell.) 

Limax subfuscus. Pfeiffer, Syst. Ind. 4. 20. (?) 
hortensis. Blainv. Gratel. Moll. Dax. 55. 

f. 4. ; Michelen, 6. 

Var. 2. Grey, with a black streak on each side. 
Limax fasciatus. Nilson, Faun. Suec. 3. 
Arion circumscriptus. Johnst. Edirib. Phil. Journ. 

1828. v. 77. 
Arion hortensis, var. (B. Alder, Mag. Zool. and Bot. 

iii. 105. 

Inhab. woods, hedges, and gardens. 

The variety is greyish, spotted with black, and 
with a black fascia round the shield and body ; the 
respiratory hole is anterior. The young is yellow or 
white, with black head and tentacles. 

This animal was first noticed as English by Dr. 
Leach, who determined the species, and placed se- 
veral named specimens, from Cobham and other 
parts near London, in the British Museum collection 
in 1817. 

F 6 



108 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

I first indicated this species as being a native, in 
1821, and Dr. Johnston, in 1828, and Mr. Alder, 
more lately, have informed me that the variety is not 
un common in the north of England, It is equally 
common in my garden at Blackheath, found in com- 
pany with Limax agrestis. 

Dr. Johnston more recently, in his list of Berwick- 
shire Mollusca, stated that he believes his A. circum- 
scriptus is merely a variety or immature state of A. 
ater. He thought that it was probably the Limax 
agrestis of Dr. Latham (Linn. Trans, iv. 85. t. 8. f. 
1 4.), or the Limax marginatus of Miiller. It 
may be the young state of A. ater, for I do not recol- 
lect ever to have seen any small specimens which 
agreed with that species. 



109 



Fam. 2. HELICID^E. 

Head and tentacles retractile, like the former, but 

the end of the tail is tapering, and destitute of any 

gland. The pulmonary cavity is generally in 

the front of the body ; the respiratory hole is on 

the hinder part of its edge ; and the orifice of 

the generative organs is placed near the hinder 

outer base of the right tentacle. 

This family contains more than half of the British 

land and fresh- water shells, that is, 72 out of 128 

species. It has been divided into several genera, and 

there are many more exotic ones. They have been 

distributed into sections in the following manner. 

I. Body elongate, attached by its whole length to the 
foot ; mantle shield-like. 

* Mantle shield-like, simple, entirely enclosing the 
shell. (Limacina.) 

1. Limax. (p. 103. f. 2.) 

* * Mantle shield-like, with a partly external, thin, 
central, spiral shell. (Vitrinina.) 

2. Vitrina. (p. 103. f. 3.) 

II. Body spiral; mantle thin with a thickened edge, 
lining the inside of an external shell. 

* Body with two longitudinal grooves ; lips cylindrical, 

retractile. (Testacellina.) 



110 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

3. Testacella. Shell ear-shaped, on the hinder part 
of the body. (p. 103. f.4, 5.) 

* * Body granular, without any grooves ; lips short, 
compressed. ( Helicina. ) 

4. Helix. Shell subglobose or depressed ; mouth 
semilunar ; peristome rather thickened and re- 
flected, (p. 103. f.6.) 

5. Zonites. Shell depressed ; mouth semilunar ; 
peristome thin, acute. 

6. Succinia. Shell oblong, elongate ; mouth very 
large, oblong; peristome thin. 

7. Bulimus. Shell oblong, elongate, striated ; 
mouth moderate, ovate, toothless. 

8. Zua. Shell oblong, elongate, polished ; mouth 
moderate, ovate, with a thickened internal edge. 

9. Azeca. Shell oblong, elongate ; mouth mode- 
rate, toothed, with a thickened internal edge. 

10. Achatina. Shell turreted, elongate; mouth 
ovate; inner lip truncated in front; peristome 
thin. 

11. Pupa. Shell cylindrical, blunt; mouth sinuous ; 
peristome reflected. 

12. Vertigo. Shell cylindrical, blunt ; mouth 
toothed ; peristome thickened behind. 

13. Balea. Shell fusiform, elongate ; mouth ovate, 
clausium none. 

14. Clausilia. Shell fusiform, elongate; mouth 
toothed, with an elastic clausium. (p. 103. f. 7.) 



HELICID^E. Ill 

I. Body elongate, attached to the whole length of 
the foot ; mantle shield-like, with a small internal 
or sub-internal shell. 

A. Mantle simply shield-shaped^ entirely enclosing 
the internal shell. (Limacina.) 

7.1. LIMAX Fer. (Slug.) 

Body elongate, lanceolate, granular, keeled behind; 
mantle shield-like, ovate, concentrically lined; 
shell sub-quadrate, flat, nail-like. 

These animals have very much the external ap- 
pearance of Arion, but they are destitute of the gland 
on the end of the tail ; their mantle is marked with 
circular striae instead of being granulated, and they 
have a different nervous system ; for, according to Mr. 
Nunneley, the infra-oesophageal ganglion is like that of 
Arion, but the underside, instead "of having one 
transverse fissure, has two ; so that it presents, on each 
side of the medial line, three gangliform eminences 
instead of two only." 

They have generally been united with the Arions ; 
but it has lately been discovered that there are ani- 
mals with well-developed shells that agree with the 
Arions in character, as the Helices do with the Slugs ; 
and it has therefore been thought better to separate 
them by the above character into two groups, rather 
than follow Lamarck in dividing these animals into 
group?, by the gradually and greatly varying form of 
the body. 

The shells are covered with a distinct periostraca. 
It has generally been believed that shells which 
are covered with a reflexed portion or imbedded in 



112 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

the mantle, are destitute of this covering; and they 
have been separated from other shells for this reason. 
But this is an error arising from the theory that the 
periostraca of shells is analogous to the scarf-skin of 
vertebrated animals, instead of its being merely the 
part, consisting almost entirely of animal matter, that 
is first deposited by the animal when it is about to 
enlarge its shell, and which forms the basis of the 
new part of the shell, afterwards strengthened and 
thickened by the addition of the chalky matter 
within it. 

These animals sometimes suspend themselves by a 
kind of thread formed from the viscid secretion which 
covers their body ; hence one of the smaller ones has 
been called Limax flans. 

Swammerdam (Bib. Nat. i. 158. t 8.) gives 
some details of the anatomy of one of the species, but 
recently Mr. Nunneley, in the Leeds Transactions, 
has given an excellent paper on the comparative 
anatomy of three of the species, and has shown that 
there exists a considerable difference in internal or- 
ganisation between them and the Arion ater. 

I have great pleasure in referring the reader to this 
paper for the details, and cannot help expressing a hope 
that other persons residing in the country will be 
induced to follow Mr. Nunneley's excellent example, 
and give to the world similar papers on the animals in 
their neighbourhood. 

* Mantle produced behind ; shell flat. 

11.1. LIMAX maximus. Spotted Slug. Animal ash, 
variously spotted, with a long white acute keel ; 
he tentacles vinous coloured, and the hinder 



HELICID^. 

part of the mantle produced, buckler-shaped. 
Shell thin, flat, oblong, a little concave, with a 
membranaceous edge. (t. 3. f. 14.) 
Limax maximus. Linn. S. N. 108. 

maculatus. Leach, MSS. Brit. Mus. ; Nun- 

neley, Trans. Phil Soc. Leeds, i. 46. t. 1. f. 2., 
and Anat. 
Limax cinereus. Mutter, H. K. 5. ; Drap. 124. t. 

7. f. 10.; Sturm, Fauna, t. 5. 
Limax ater. Razoum. 

fasciatus. Razoum. 

cinereo-niger. Nikon, 7. ; Sturm, Fauna, t. 

6. 
Limax antiquorum. Ferus. Hist. 68. t. 4. t. 8. 

a. f. 1. t. 4. f. 4. (Shell.) 
Cochlea nuda, s. domestica. Swam. B. Nat. i. 158. 

t. 8. ; Lister, Aug. t. 1. f. 151. 
Limacella Parma. Brard, 110. t. 4. f. 1, 2. 9, 10. 

Shell. 
Limacellus Parma. Turton, Man. ed. 1. t. 3. f. 

14. (Shell) ; Lister, Aug. t. 1. f, 15. 
Inhab. cellars. 

The skin has small rugosities placed in lines con- 
verging towards the tail. The foot is divided into 
three nearly equal bands. 

The animal is very variable in its colour. 1. Red- 
dish brown, with four longitudinal, black, interrupted 
stripes, and the shield black-spotted. 2. Brown, 
black-spotted, back with three yellow, and two black 
lines. 3. Brown, with rather darker streaks. 4. 
Brown, black-spotted. 5. Ash, with a black shield ; 
and 6. Black with a white keel : the latter is L. 
cinereoniger of Nilson. 



114 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Shell about six lines long and four broad, thin, 
semi-transparent, yellowish-white, concave on the 
inside, which is sometimes sprinkled with minute 
crystal-like shining particles, a little convex and 
transversely wrinkled on the outside ; with the edges 
membranaeeous ; on the top, or broader extremity, 
is a small central prominence, or apophysis of ad- 
hesion, by which it is attached to the animal ; the 
lower extremity very thin and rounded. 

When irritated, they dilate their shields. Their eggs 
are white, and deposited in spring under stones, &c. 

These animals (especially the larger slug) are often 
infested with mites, which were discovered by Reaumur, 
in the Mem. Acad. des Sciences, 1710, and called by 
Gmelin Acarus Limacum. They have been well de- 
scribed, with some interesting details of their habits, 
by Mr. Jenyns, under the name of Philodromus 
Limacum, in the Mag. Nat. Hist. iv. 538. f. 109. 

* * Mantle short and rounded behind ; shell flat. 

12. 2. LIMAX flavus. Yellow Slug. Yellowish, 
tessellated with brown; tentacles bluish; the 
hinder part of the mantle rounded ; shell thin, 
concave, mammillated externally at its posterior 
extremity, (t. 5. f. 16.) 

Limax flavus. Linn. Fauna Suec. 363. 

variegatus. Drap. Hist. Moll. 127.; Fer. 

Prod. 21., Hist. 71. t. 5. f. 16. ; Nunneley, 1. c. 
47. t. 1. f. 3. ; Leach, Brit. Mus. 

Yellow Slug. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 41., from Lister. 

Limax succino colore. List. Conch, t. 101. f. 6. 

Limacella concava. Brard, 121. t. 4. f. 5, 6. 13, 
14, 15. (Shell.) 



HELICID^. 115 

Limacellus variegatus. Turton, Man. ed. 1. t. 3. 
f. 16. (Shell.) 

Inhab. cellars and damp places in and near London, 
Plymouth, and Oxford. 

In spirits, it is dark olive, mantle and back yellow- 
spotted, sides rather paler; the number and size of 
the yellow spots vary in the different specimens ; the 
young have sometimes a yellowish dorsal streak ; the 
end of the tail only is keeled, by which it is known 
from Limax maximus ; and the central band of the 
foot is generally rather narrower than the side ones. 
The shell is very like that of Limax maximus, but 
it is smaller, and the front edge is generally more 
rounded. 

Lister did not mark this species as English, but 
this was probably an oversight of the engraver. 

When touched, it becomes covered with a white mu- 
cus. It has the power of forming a thread, by which 
it suspends itself from trees, &c. This fact was first 
noticed by Lister (Anim. Aug. iii.), and since by Dr. 
Latham and others (Linn. Trans, i. 182. and iv. 85.). 

* * * Mantle short, truncated behind ; shell oval, thick, 
convex beneath. 

13.3. LIMAX carinatus. Keeled Slug. Yellowish, tes- 
sellated with brown ; head and tentacles black ; 
mantle granulous and with a furrow near its mar_ 
gin ; the ridge or keel of the back very obvious, 
and of an amber colour; the sides pale; shell 
oval, often thickened, and very convex beneath, 
(t. 1. f. 15.) 

Limax Sowerbii. Fernssac, Hist. Moll. t. 8. D. f. 7, 
8. ; Denson, London's Mag. N. Hist. vi. 694. f. 
120. a. b. ; Alder, M. Z. B. ii. 105. 



1 1 6 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Limax carinatus. Leach, Moll. 73. t. 8. f. 1. ; Tur- 

ton, Man. ed. 1. n. 15. ; Alder, M. Z. B. ii. 

105. 
Limacella unguicula. Brard, 116. t. 4. f. 3, 4. 11, 

12. (Shell.) 
Limacellus unguiculus. Turton, Man. ed. 1. t. 3. 

f. 15. 

Inhab. gardens near London and Chelsea. 

The central band of the foot is broader than the 
side ones, and the keel, which is very prominent, ex- 
tends the whole length of the back. (See fig. a. b. 
from Mr. Denson's paper.) 




The eggs are oval, soft, elastic, nearly r 2 n of an inch 
long, as transparent as ground glass, but of a yellow- 
ish hue ; the two coats of the egg are clouded with 
very minute white freckles, producing the appearance 
of ground glass. 

This species was first noticed by Dr. Leach, who 
received it from Chelsea, and named and put it in 
the British Museum collection in 1817, 

Mr. Alder considered L. carinatus and L. Sowerbii 
two different species instead of synonyma of the 
same. 

They sometimes, like many of their congeners, feed 
on animal food, and even devour the dead remains of 



HELICID^. 117 

each other, leaving only the skin of the back ; and 
they will also sometimes attack sickly individuals of 
their own species. 

14.4. 'LiM.&n agrestis Linn. Milky Slug. Reddish or 
grey, often spotted with brown ; body furrowed 
with interrupted lines, with a short oblique keel ; 
the mantle large, ovate, with circular lines, 
rounded behind ; sheh 1 small, very thick and hard, 
variously formed, and rarely concave, (t. 3. f. 17.) 

Limax agrestis. Linn. S. N. ; Nunneley, 1. c. t. 1. 
f.4. 

Limax filans. Hoy, Linn. Trans. ; List. Aug. t. 
3. f. 16. 

Limacella obliqua. Brard, 148. t. 4. f. 7, 8. 17, 
18. (Shell.) 

Limacellus obliquus. Turt. Man. ed. 1. t. 3. f. 17. 

Inhab. fields. 

Varies greatly in size and colour, from white to 
pale reddish, and from grey to blackish, but is easily 
distinguished by its short keel, which is always placed 
obliquely. When irritated, it pours out a milky white 
mucus, which leaves a white streak when it is dry. 



* # * * 



15. 5. LIMAX Irunneus. Brown Slug. Blackish brown, 
rather rugose, longitudinally ridged; mantle 
paler, yellow behind, marked with fine trans- 
verse-ridges ; tentacles short ; neck longer than 
the shield. 
Limax brunneus. Drap. Tabl. 104., Hist. 128. ; 



118 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Fer. Tab. 23. ; Johnst. Rep. Berw. Nat. Hist. 
CM. 

Inhab. shady woods, and is comparatively rare in 
Berwickshire. 

Dr. Johnston observes, that this differs from every 
variety ofLimax agrestis in its darker colour, its colour- 
less mucus, in the abrupt termination of the tail, in 
the position of the shield, which is nearly central 
when the animal is fully extended, and in the size of 
the shield, which is as long as the posterior half of the 
body ; nor is there any keel on this part. 

Dr. Johnston adds, that, as a native, its discovery 
is due to his friend Mr. J. Alder of Newcastle, who 
pointed out its peculiar character to him in specimens 
taken in Dunglass Dean; and Mr. Alder thought it 
was the Limax brunneus of Draparnaud. 

Draparnaud discovered his specimen near Mont- 
pellier, and Ferussac arranges it with those species of 
which he is desirous of receiving further information : 
indeed, he appears to doubt to which genus it ought 
to be referred. 

B. Mantle shield-shaped, with a partly external, 
thin, central, spiral shell. (Vitrinina.) 

8. 2. VITRINA. (Bubble Shell.) 
Animal Body rather elongate, lanceolate; mantle 
subanterior, produced into a rugose shield in front, 
with a central spiral prominence, protected by a 
thin, transparent, rather depressed, subglobular 
shell, which is partly covered by the back edge of 
the shield, and a tongue-like process of the mantle 



HELICID^E. 119 

on the right side. Shell imperforated ; spire de- 
pressed, of only a few whorles; mouth large, 
rounded, lunate; peristome thin. 

This genus is intermediate in form between a slug 
and a snail, having the shield-like mantle of the one, 
and the globular external shell of the other genus. 
The shells are very like the Zonites in their appearance, 
but have a much smaller and more depressed spire, 
more rapidly enlarging whorles, and a much larger 
mouth ; but they are best known by their axis being 
imperforated. 

Nilson observes, that many zoologists, especially the 
French ones, contend that the animal cannot with- 
draw itself into its shell : he has observed this species 
not only withdraw itself entirely, but so much so as to 
leave a space behind it like the snails. (Moll. Suec. ii.) 

Nilson kept some specimens, which he had caught 
at the end of January, in a bell glass, and on the 1 9th 
of February he observed some eggs placed among the 
putrescent leaves. The eggs were oval, globose, white, 
subpellucid, with a central opake spot, and placed in 
little tufts, consisting of eight or nine eggs. In the 
beginning of March the opake spot was not increased 
in size, but showed signs of slow movement, and on the 
21st or 22d of March the animals were excluded. He 
thought, when he observed them with the microscope, 
that the animal bored its way through the egg-shell, 
forming a hole out of which first the head, and then 
the foot, was produced. When first hatched, both the 
animal and shell were perfectly formed, but the eyes 
were retracted into the body ; they are afterwards pro- 
truded. 



120 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

16. 1. VITRINA pelludda. Transparent Glass Bubble, 
(t. 4. f. 21.) Shell green, depressed, hyaline and 
glossy ; whorles three, aperture somewhat oval. 

Helix pellucida. Mutter, Verm. 16.; Penn, B. Z. 

iv. 134 (?) 

Helix Draparnaudi. Cuv. 
fuscescens. Gmelin. 3639. 

diaphana. Poiret. 

nitida jun. Montagu, MSS. 

limacoides. Alien. 

elliptica. Brown, Wern. Trans, ii. 523. t. 24. 

f. 8. (1819). 
Vitrina pellucida. Drap. 119. t. 8. f. 3437.; 

Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. t. 4. f. 1 . ; Alder, Trans. 

Neiocastle Mag. Z. B. ii. 105. 
Vitrina Miilleri. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xv. 326. 
Draparnaudi. Leach, Moll. Jeffreys, L. 

T. xvi. 326. 
Helicolimax pellucidus. Ferus. Hist. Moll. t. 9. 

f. 6. 

Vitrinus pellucidus. Montf. ii. 239. 
Vitrina diaphana. "| 

depressa. \ Jeffreys, L. T. xvi. 326. 

Dillwynii. 

elongata. Jeffreys, L. T. ; Turton, Man. ed. 

1., not Drap. 

Vitrina beryllina. Pfeiffer, 47. t. 3. f. 1. 
Cobresia helicoides vitrea. Studer. 
Hyalina pellucida. Studer. 

In woods, among decayed leaves, and under stones. 

Animal light-coloured above, with black head and 

horns ; under part light-coloured, bordered with black; 



HELICID^l. 121 

airvalve, when closed, with a black spot, when open, 
surrounded by a black ring. (Sturm, Fauna, t. 9. ; 
Pfeiffer, 1. c.) 

Shell half an inch in diameter, not so much in height, 
extremely thin and transparent, of a pale watery green, 
and quite smooth ; volutions three, the first very large 
and a little oblique, the others but little raised and 
ending obtusely; aperture very large, oval-elliptic, 
rather oblique, interrupted at top by the prominency 
of the second volution, with the margin thin and 
membranaceous, often coloured with a pale brown 
border, without internal rib ; the suture well marked, 
and when magnified, exhibiting a striated spiral line ; 
pillar lip a little reflected, and forming a slight con- 
cavity, but not an umbilicus. 

1. Shell varies as to the colour of its suture; in 
some this is whitish and more wrinkled than in others ; 
in some it is brown ; whilst in others, the brown, in 
particular lights, appears as if gilded. 

2. The green colour of the shell also varies in 
hue. 

Mr. Jeffreys has described three British species of 
the genus, but Mr. Alder observes, that " Mr. Jeffreys 
having kindly favoured me with specimens of his V. 
Draparnaudi, I compared them carefully with speci- 
mens of Helicolimax Audebardii Fer., collected on the 
Continent, and have come to the conclusion that they 
are not of that species. I am afraid that V. Draparnaudi 
can only be classed as a variety of V. pellucida (Helico- 
limax pellucidus Fer.). Mr. Jeffreys now considers his 
V. diaphana to be only a variety of the same. V. 
Dillwynii appears to be something different ; but being 



122 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

founded on a single dead specimen, it is to be hoped 
Mr. Jeffreys may be able to obtain additional speci- 
mens, and in a living state, in order fully to establish 
it." 

Mr. Alder having communicated to me the specimens 
referred to above, after careful examination, I have 
come to the same conclusion : indeed, V. Draparnaudi 
appears to be hardly a variety ; and a specimen which 
Mr. Alder thinks is like V. Dillwynii of Mr. Jeffreys, 
appears chiefly to differ in the altered appearance and 
character which two shells of different degrees of opa- 
city assume, when compared together. 

Dr. Turton appears to have inserted Vitrina clon- 
gata of Draparnaud, on Mr. Jeffreys' authority. Mr. 
Alder observes that no such shell is now found in Dr. 
Turton's cabinet. 

Dr. Fleming first observed this species in Britain ; 
for he says that he sent it to the late Mr. Montagu 
in 1809, who considered it as the fry of the Helix ni- 
tida. Brown described it as British in 1819, and it 
was noticed as English by M. Ferussac and myself 
in 1820 and 1821. 

Captain Brown, in his British Shells, figures two 
shells, one of which he calls Vitrina membranadea, t. 
40. f. 3, 4, 5., and the other Vitrina margaritacea, t. 40. 
f. 54, 55, 56., which I have not been able to see. The 
latter is more like a Zonites than a Vitrina. 

The animal is very hardy ; for, according to Nilson, 
it is found crawling about amongst leaves in the 
southern part of Sweden in the depth of the winter ; 
and it is also found in the most northern part of that 
pountry. 



HELICID^E. 123 

II. Body elongate ; mantle thin, with a thickened edge, 
only lining the inside of an external shell, which 
it forms or rather moulds on its surface. 

C. Body with two longitudinal grooves, from the front 
of the mantle to the head ; lips subcylindrical^ re- 
tractile. (Testacellina.) 

3. TESTACELLA Cuv. (Testacelle.) 
Body elongate, tapering in front, with two diverging 
grooves from the front of the mantle, extending 
to the head ; mantle small, covered with an ear- 
shaped shell, with a very short spire, which is placed 
on the hinder part of the body. The mouth of the 
shell is very large, the outer lip thin, with a slight 
notch at the hinder end. 

Faure Biguet, who first discovered the animal, 
called it Testacellus ; Draparnaud and Cuvier have 
changed the name to Testacella. 

The animals, according to the observations of M. 
Ferussac, have a peculiar mantle (or rather ap- 
pendage of the mantle), which is simply gelatinous, con- 
tractile, and habitually hidden under the shell, divided 
into several lobes, and susceptible of an extraordinary 
development, so as to envelope the whole of the con- 
tracted body of the animal, and thus protect it from 
extreme drought. 

The animals live for the greater part of their life in 
holes under ground, only coming to the surface to 
change their locality ; and they remain buried during 
the cold or very dry weather. It is this power of pro- 
tecting themselves from the effect of sudden changes of 
temperature, there is little doubt, that has allowed them 
to adapt themselves with such facility to our climate. 

G2 



124 



PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 



They deposit their eggs under ground ; these are 
oblong, large, and covered with a thick elastic coat, 
and burst when put into a warm place. 

17. 1. TESTACELLUS haliotideus. Ear-shaped Tes- 

tacelle. (t.3. fig. 19, 20.) Shell roundish-oval, 

with the outer lip dilated, and the pillar flat and 

broad, and scarcely reflected outwardly. 

Testacellus haliotideus. Ferussac, Hist. t. 8. f. 5. 

9. ; Sowerby, Gen. f. 1, 2. 
Testacella haliotidea. Drap. t. 8. fig. 44, 45. 

scutulum. Sow. Gen. f. 3. 3. 

europaea. Roissy. Buff. v. 252. 

Gallise. Oken. 

Inhab. France ; naturalised in gardens. 
Animal yellowish, reddish, or grey, sometimes 
spotted on the sides beneath ; tentacles cylindrical. 

The shell is broad in proportion to its length, and 

the pillar, near the upper end, is broad and nearly flat. 

This animal is common in the island of Guernsey, 

where it was first observed in the garden of Mr. 




Lukis, in 1801. The late Mr. Sowerby afterwards 
found it in a garden at Lambeth. When the animal 



HELICID^. 125 

deposits its eggs, the head and tentacles are drawn 
in. See fig. a. b. c., from Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 226. f. 
39., exhibiting the animal in its different positions. 

In winter, they bury themselves from one to two 
feet deep in the earth, and are most above the surface 
from August to November. They chiefly live on 
worms, and sometimes will attack slugs and smaller 
specimens of their own species ; shells of their own 
kind being sometimes found in their stomach. 

The Testacella scutulum of Sowerby is a very slight 
variety of the common species. 

D. Mantle thin, enclosed in the shell ; body granular, 
without any grooves; lips short, rounded. (He- 
licina.) 

4. HELIX. (Snail.) 

The animal moderate, with an elongate depressed 

foot, and a large, produced, central, spiral body, 

covered with a subglobose or depressed shell, with 

a lunate mouth, which is generally broader than 

long, strengthened with an internal thickened rib, 

and more or less reflexed edges : tentacles four, 

the two lower small, club-shaped. 

These animals have a distinct and very variously 

divided vesicula multifida, which is wanting in Succinea, 

Bulimus, and other allied genera. 

The young shells have the outer whorles generally 
more or less keeled, and the axis is always umbi- 
licated or perforated, but the perforation is sometimes 
masked by the reflexion of the outer lip of the adult 
shell over it. 

This genus is known from Zonites by the thick- 
ening of the outer lip ; from Vitrina by the axis being 
G 3 



126 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

perforated, from Succinea and Bulimus by the axis 
being depressed (and not elongate), making the shell 
subglobose or depressed. 

The animals, at the approach of winter, or in very 
dry weather in summer, recede into their shell, and 
secrete a quantity of mucus, which being moulded, as 
it were, on the retracted part of the mantle which 
encloses the folded-up foot, forms when it dries by 
exposure, a cover to the aperture, which is usually 
membranaceous, with a triangular perforation over the 
respiratory hole of the mantle. 

In some species, as Helix Pomatia, the membrane 
becomes strengthened with a quantity of calcareous 
matter, which is first deposited on the triangular spot 
before referred to. In this case, the animal forms se- 
veral membranaceous coverings, a little distance from 
one another, within the outer, hard, calcareous, 
one ; similar to the membranaceous covering of other 
Helices. On the approach of warm or damp weather, 
the animal softens the adhesion that has taken 
place between the lid and the edge of the mouth of its 
shell, by emitting a small quantity of fluid mucus ; 
and the cover is thus easily thrown off by the pressure 
of the foot. When another is required by external cir- 
cumstances, the process is commenced afresh. This lid 
gives the name Pomatia to our largest snail. Lister 
called the lid the operculum saliva confectum ; Miiller 
calls it the operculum hybernum^ or winter lid ; and 
more recently it has been named by Draparnaud the 
epiphragm : the latter name has been generally adopted. 
Montagu has been blamed for calling it an hybernacu* 
htm, but this arises from a mistake. Montagu in- 
tended by the latter name the hole in which the 



HELIC1D.E. 127 

animal buries itself, as is proved by his use of the 
term, at p. 407. 

The power of forming this kind of epiphragm, 
and the thickening of the outer lip, has been consi- 
dered a peculiar character of the land Mollusca, but 
it is now known that pond snails (Limnceus and Plan- 
orbis), when left dry by the evaporation of the water 
in which they have been living, thicken the edge of the 
lip, and form a distinct epiphragm. 

Though the British species are not very numerous, 
it has been thought advisable to divide them into se- 
veral sections, to facilitate their determination, and 
also to show the natural groups into which the nu- 
merous exotic species naturally fall. 

a. TAPADA. 

Shell subglobose, thin, covered with a green periostraca; 
axis solid, tivisted ; mouth large, toothless ; peristome 
only slightly thickened ; epiphragm calcareous, convex. 

18. 1. HELIX aperta. The Tapada Snail. Shell 
subglobose, ventricose, very thin, brownish- 
green, rather wrinkled ; mouth large. 

Helix aperta. Born, Mus. t. 15. f. 19, 20.; Dilhc, 
R. S. ii. 946. 

Helix neritoides. Chemn. Conch, ix. t. 133. f. 120. 
4. 120. 5. 

Helix naticoides. Drap. Moll. t. 5. f. 26, 27. ; 
Ferus. Hist. t. 11. f. 17. to 21. 

Pomatia Dioscorides. 

Inhab. hedges, among nettles, in Guernsey. 
Mr. Edward Forbes, on whose authority this species 
has been added to our Fauna, discovered a single 

G4 



128 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

crushed specimen in mud under the side of a hedge in 
Guernsey, in such situations as he had observed the 
animal in Provence; he presented the specimen to 
the British Museum. It is common in the islands 
and on the shores of the Mediterranean, and is eaten in 
Provence, where it is regarded as the most delicate 
kind of snail. 

b. ACAVUS Montf. (Tachea Leach.") 

Shell subglobose banded; peristome rather thickened, 
reflexed, with an internal rib ; axis perforated, per- 
foration covered in the adult specimens ; epiphragm 
membranaceous. 

19. 2. HELIX aspersa. Common Snail, (t. 5. f. 35.) 
Shell somewhat globular, with the surface 
wrinkled, yellowish-brown or olive, with four 
brown bands; whorls four; mouth roundish lu- 
nate ; the peristome white and reflected. 

Helix aspersa. Mutter, Verm. ii. 59.; Montagu, 
p. 407. ; Drop. p. 89. tab. 5. f. 23. ; Brard, p. 
7. tab. 1. f. 1.; Turton, Man. 52. f. 35.; Leach, 
Mollusc, p. 82.; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 328* 

Helix hortensis. Perm. Zool. iv. 136. t. 84. f. 129.; 
Donovan, t. 131.; Turt. Diet. p. 60. 

Helix grisea. Dillwyn, p. 943. 

lucorum. Pulteney. 

Cochlea vulgaris. Da Costa, p. 72. t. 4. f. 1. 

Inhab. gardens, old walls, &e. Common. 

Animal warty, yellowish grey, with a paler dorsal 
streak. (Rossm. Icon. t. 4. f. 75.) 

Shell an inch and a half in diameter, covered with 
a creased or coarsely wrinkled skin, somewhat glo- 



HELICIDJE. 1*29 

bular, with the mouth a little longer than wide, the 
edge of which is slightly reflected; of a dull olive 
colour, with generally four interrupted brown bands, 
one and rarely two of them penetrating the mouth. 
It varies much in colours and markings, but is readily 
know^n by its wrinkled coat. 

1. It varies in colour. Sometimes they are pale yel- 
lowish, without bands, but generally banded, sometimes 
the bands are all separate, but generally the second 
and third bands are united into one ; sometimes all the 
bands are united together, which makes the shell ap- 
pear darker, and marked with transverse pale lines. 

2. It varies greatly in size according to the quan- 
tity of food, and the temperature of the place in 
which it lives, 

Monstrosities sometimes occur : 

1. Reversed, or with the whorls turned in a con- 
trary direction. 

2. With the spire elongated, and conical when 
the whorls are rounded. 

3. With the whorls produced, and separated from 
one another* : the latter has been called 

Cornucopia Born, Mus. 262. 

Serpula Cornucopia Gmelin. 

Serpula helicina Solander. 

Cornucopia helicina Shaw, Nat. Misc. xiv. 568. 

Cornucopia monstrosa Chemn. 

The internal spicula or darts, which this species 
ejects in the spring of the year, are about a quarter 

* A figure of this monstrosity ornaments the covers of this 
work. 

G5 



130 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

of an inch long, slender, and tapering to a fine point, 
exactly square, with four sharp angles, rounded and 
hollow at the top like the socket of a joint. A mag- 
nified figure may be seen in Lister's anatomical tables 
at the end of his Conchology, t. 2, 3. f. 1, 2. 

The snail which inhabits this shell seems to be 
more influenced by the weather than many of the 
smaller sort; for upon the first appearance of cold 
they creep into crevices and under stones, clustering 
together and clinging to each other, as if they were 
capable of communicating warmth by association. 
They are the pest of gardens, especially such as are 
inclosed by hedges and old walls. Upon many of 
them are found a series of thin circular layers placed 
horizontally ; these are the laminar foliations of the 
winter epiphragm left by another of the species which 
had been attached to it. 

This snail is collected and sold in Covent Garden 
and other markets, as a cure for diseases of the chest, 
boiled in milk ; and quantities of them are collected 
and packed in old casks, and sent to the United 
States of America, as delicacies. In this manner 
they travel very well, as they fix themselves on one 
another round the circumference of the cask, leaving 
a vacant space in the centre. 

The glassmen at Newcastle once a year have a 
snail feast ; they generally collect the snails themselves 
in the fields and hedges, the Sunday before the feast 
day. 

20. 3. HELIX hortensis. Garden Snail, (t. 3. f. 24.) 
Shell somewhat globular, thin, smooth, yellow or 
brown, uniform or banded; mouth roundish lu- 
nate, depressed, with the peristome white. 



HELICIDJE. 131 

Helix hortensis. Lister, Conch, t. 3. f. 3. ; Linn. 

(?) ; Mutter, Verm. ii. 52. ; Drop. p. 95. tab. 6. f. 

6.; Brard, p. 16. tab. 1. f. 3.; Montagu, p. 412.; 

Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 330. ; Alder, M. Z. $ 

B. ii. 106. 
Tachea hortensis. Leach, Mollusc, p. 85 ; Turton, 

Man. 34. f. 24. 

Cochlea fasciata. Da Costa, p. 76. t. 5. f. 4, 5. 
Helix nemoralis Var. Linn. Trans, viii. 206.; 

DiUw. Cat. ii. 942. 

Inhab. woods, hedges, and wet shady places. 

Animal reddish, yellowish, or pale grey ; tentacles 
generally dark grey. (Sturm, t. 22.) 

Shell about a fourth part smaller than H. nemoralis, 
which in colour and varieties it much resembles ; but 
is distinguished by its smaller size, in not being quite 
so convex, in being more polished and thinner, and in 
the white margin round the aperture. 

Like many other snails, it offers the following mon- 
strosities : 

1. In the whorls being reversed. (Ferns, t. 36. f. 
10.) 

2. And in the whole of the spires being more or less 
separated from each other (Ferus. Hist. t. 36. f. 1 1, 12.) 

In the Annals of Philosophy for 1825, p. 152., I ob- 
served that there was a difference in the form of that 
part of the generative organs of Helix nemoralis and 
H. hortensis called vesicv.la multifida by M. Cuvier, 
in his dissection of Helix Pomatia ; and further ob- 
served that this name for the organ gives an er- 
roneous impression, as in several of the Helices it is 
simply forked, in others doubly forked, and rarely 
many-cut, as it is in the edible snail. 
G 6 



132 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

21. 3. HELIX hybrida. The Brown-mouthed Snail. 

Shell somewhat globular, smooth, polished, 
brown or yellow, brown-banded, with the rib of 
the lip pale brown, and the edge whitish. 
Helix hybrida. Pioret ; " Leach MSS." 

horterisis Var. Ferussac, Tabl. 31.; Alder, 

Mag. Z. 8f B. ii. 106. 

Inhab. woods and hedges with the former. 

The animal of this species differs from either Helix 
hortensis or H. nemoralis, in the form of the vesicida 
multifida, as well as in the colour of the mouth of 
the shell. In all its characters it is intermediate be- 
tween these two species, but yet I do not think there is 
any reason to believe that it is a mule, or that it 
unites them into one species. This species does not seem 
to be so variable in its colour as either of its allies. 

Mr. Alder notices this species in his catalogue of 
Newcastle shells. " A curious pale brown variety of 
this species (H. hortensis) occurs at Stella, the lips 
being of a paler shade of the same colour, and rarely 
white." 

M. Deshayes believes this animal to be the mule 
of the two species, as the name indicates; he says 
they are not sterile (Lam. H. ed. 2. vi. 53.) He had 
not observed the peculiarity in the vesicula multifida. 

22. 4. HELIX memoralis. Girdled Snail, (t. 1. f. 23.) 

Shell somewhat globular, smooth, yellowish or 
brown, and mostly 5-banded, with the mouth 
roundish lunate, compressed ; margin of the aper- 
ture brown. 

Helix nemoralis. Linn. S. N. i. ; Montagu, p. 
411.; Drap. p. 94. t. 6. f. 35.; Brard, p. 12. 



HELIC1DJE. 133 

t. 1 . fig. 2 & 4. ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 330. 
Sheppard, L. T. 163. 

Tachea nemoralis. Leach, Mollusc, p. 84. 

Cochlea fasciata. Da Costa, p. 76. t. 5. f. 1, 2, 3. 
8. 19. 

Helix cincta, and H. qunquefasciata. Sheppard, L. 
T. 163. 

Cochlea versicolor. Humph. M. C. 

Helix turturum. Stewart, Elem. N. H. ii. 413. 

Inhab. woods and hedges. 

Animal dirty or yellowish grey; head, tentacles, 
and two streaks from the tentacles, blackish. (Sturm, t. 
24.) 

Shell hardly an inch in diameter, and about three 
quarters high, glossy, semitransparent, finely striate ; 
spire composed of five rounded volutions ; aperture 
semielliptic, longer than wide, the peristome produced 
at the pillar in a nearly straight line, where it is flat- 
tened and thickened, surrounded by a chocolate or 
reddish brown border. 

The shell varies 

1. Greatly in the intensity of the colour; being 
sometimes pellucid white, yellow, reddish, or brown. 

2. In being plain, or marked with five or fewer 
bands (some of the bands being deficient). 

3. In the bands varying very considerably in 
breadth ; being sometimes narrow, at others broad, 
when two or more of them are often confluent. 

4. The bands are generally black or brown, but 
sometimes pellucid, and nearly colourless. 

5. In size, according to the abundance of food or 
locality. 

Monstrosities, with the whorls much produced, or 



134 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

even detached from one another, or turned in the 
contrary direction, sometimes occur. (See Ferussac, 
Hist. Moll t. 34. f. 8*, 9. t. 32. a. f. 2.) 

Mr. Sheppard believes that the plain sort (H. ne- 
moralis Shepp.), the one-banded (H. cincta Shepp.), 
and the five-banded (H.fasciata Shepp.), are distinct 
kinds, because he says they always breed together ! 
He also observes that the spicula of the one-banded 
kind is four-sided in the middle, and perfectly straight; 
in the five-banded it is also four-sided in the middle, 
but curved, as in H. aspersa ! 

When the shells are lying exposed to the sun with- 
out any shelter, their upper surface often becomes of a 
fine pink or rose-colour. 

The eggs are white, ovate. (See Pfeiffer, t. 7. f. 3.) 

The animals sometimes have a morbid appetite, 
and eat worms, and even cooked meats. (See Sow. 
Zool. Journ. i. 285.) 

On this animal is sometimes found a parasitic 
insect, which has caused considerable interest among 
the entomologists, and which has proved to be the 
larva of Drilus flavescens. (See Mielzinsky, Isis, xvi. 
(1825), p. 477.) 

Messrs. Brard and Deshayes propose to unite 
Helix nemoralis and H. hortensis into one species. 
M. Deshayes states that he has often seen the two 
kinds in copulation ; that these connections he believes 
to be fertile, for in the same situation he has found 
the Helix hylrida with its rosy mouth ; and more lately 
M. Deshayes proposes to consider Helix nemoralis, 
H. hortensis., H. Jiybrida, H. sylvatica^ and H. austriaca^ 
as all varieties of the same species. (Hist. Anim. S, 
Verteb. viii. 56.) 



HELICID^E. J35 

c. POMATIA Gesner. 

Shell subylobose, solid, banded; peristome rather thickened, 
reflexed ; axis perforated; epiphragm calcareous, 
with several membranaceous ones within it. 

23. 5. HELIX Pomatia. Edible Snail, (t.4. f.24.) 
Shell nearly globular, solid, striate, pale rufous, 
with obscure darker bands; aperture roundish 
lunate ; peristome thickened, slightly reflexed. 

Helix Pomatia. Linn. S. N. i. ; Montagu, p. 405.; 
Drap. p. 87. t. 5. fig. 2022.; Brard, p. 19. 
tab. 1. fig. 5. 

Cochlea Pomatia. Da Costa, p. 67. t. 4. f. 14. 

edulis. Humph. M. C. 

Pomatia antiquorum. Leach, Mollusc, p. 89. 

Inhab. woods and hedges, on chalky soil, and oolite 
formations, in the southern and midland counties of 
England. 

Animal warty, pale greyish brown, beneath grey ; 
tentacles long, paler; footdilated, netted with impressed 
lines, beneath ashy. (Sturm, F. t. 21.) 

Shell two inches long and as much high, rather 
solid, with the body volution extremely large and in- 
flated, the others very little rounded, strongly striate 
across, and minutely so in a spiral direction ; colour 
whitish, with the bands hardly visible, or pale tawny, 
with usually four darker bands, two of them pene- 
trating the aperture at the pillar ; aperture somewhat 
orbicular, longer than broad, with the margin thick, 
and reflected at the pillar so as in general to cover 
the umbilicus or nearly so ; the inside of a pale violet 
brown. 



136 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

The shell varies greatly : 

1. In size. 

2. In the intensity of the bands. 

3. In the ventricoseness, and 

4. In the height of the spire. 

Monstrosities are sometimes found with the spire 
depressed, when it is Helix pomana of Muller ; and 
others with the spire produced and conical, when it is 
H. scalar is of the same author. 

5. It is sometimes reversed, and very rarely the 
whorls are separated one from the other like a cor- 
nucopia. (See Feruss. Hist. t. 21. f. 7, 8, 9.) 

The eggs are globular, covered with a white, opake 
coriaceous skin, and are about two and a half lines in 
diameter. They are figured by Pfeiffer (t .7. f. 2.), who 
has given a most complete and interesting description 
of all the changes which the egg undergoes during its 
hatching, in the first plate of the third part of his 
work. 

Lister (Tab. Anat. t. 1.), Harderus (Basil, 
1676.), Swammerdam (B.Nat, t. 4.f. 1.4.) Gas- 
pard (Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool Journal, i. 93.)? and 
Cuvier (Mem. Moll), have given accounts of the 
anatomy of this species of snail. 

From the time of the Romans, who fattened them 
as an article of food, they have been eaten by various 
European nations, dressed in various ways. Petronius 
Arbiter twice mentions them as served up at the feast 
of Trimalchio (Nero), first fried, and again grilled on 
a silver gridiron. 

At one period it seems that they were admitted at 
our own tables ; as Lister, in his Hist. Anim. Angl. p. 
111., tells us the manner in which they were cooked 



HELICID^. 137 

in his time : " They are boiled in spring- water, and 
when seasoned with oil, salt, and pepper, make a 
dainty dish." " Coquuntur ex aqua fluviatili, et ad- 
jectis oleo, sale et pipere, lautum ferculum praeparant." 
And Ben Jonson, in " Every Man in his Humour," 
mentions this dish as a delicacy. 

" Neither have I 
Dressed snails or mushrooms curiously before him." 

These circumstances suppose their long foreknown 
establishment in this country ; and together with their 
general diffusion in certain soils, incline us to consider 
them as indigenous, and not introduced by Sir Kenelm 
Digby for medicinal purposes, nor, according to Da 
Costa, by Mr. Howard as an article of food. ( See p. 
35. of the Introduction.) 

Dr. Turton observes, " After the animal has been 
extracted, there remains at the bottom of the shell a 
glairy transparent matter, which affords one of the 
best and most durable cements in nature, resisting 
every degree of heat and moisture." 

d. ARIANTA Leach MSS. 

Shell subglobose, landed; peristome rather thickened; 
axis perforated; epiphragm membranaceous. 

24. 6. HELIX arbustorum. Shrub Snail, (t. 3. f.25.) 
Shell somewhat globular, rather solid, brown or 
yellowish, marbled and marked with a single 
band; mouth roundish lunate; peristome reflexed, 
white. 

Helix arbustorum. Linn. Syst. Nat. 1. 1045. ; Mon- 
tagu, p. 413. ; Drap. p. 38. t. 5. f. 18. ; Brard, p. 
65. t. 2. f. 12.; Pfeiffer, t. 2. f. 7, 8. 



138 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Arianta arbustorum. Leach, Moll. p. 86. 

Cochlea unifasciata. Da Costa, p. 75. t. 17. f. 6. 

Inhab. moist woods and river sides, in wet shady 
places among willows. 

Animal granular, greenish black ; hinder part of 
the foot and beneath, grey; tentacles shortish. 
(Sturm, t. 23.; Rossm. t. 5. f. 7, 8.) 

Shell about three quarters of an inch high, and as 
much in diameter, but variable in size and proportion, 
striate, mostly brown marbled with small yellowish 
spots, or greenish-yellow with whitish spots, with a 
single blackish band, which winds round the middle 
of the lowest volution and continues round the base 
of the rest, not penetrating the aperture : this band is 
often faint, rarely wanting; aperture semielliptic, 
longer than wide, more produced at the pillar side, 
with the margin slightly reflected and white, with a 
white internal rib. 

The young shells have a thin lip, with a slight 
white internal rib. 

It varies 1. In colour, from dark chestnut to pale 
yellowish white, with only a few whiter specks. 

2. In the thickness of the shell, the thinner specimens 
being generally destitute of the band. 

3. In the presence or absence of the band. 

4. In the size, according to the locality. The 
small mountain variety has been called a species by 
the Swiss shell dealers. 

It is sometimes distorted 1. by the whorls being 
reversed; 2. the spire more or less elevated or 
depressed; 3. very rarely the whorls are elevated and 
separated from one another. (See Ferns. Hist. t. 29. 
f. 1, 2, 3.) 



HELICIDJE. 139 

There are some remarks on the anatomy of this 
snail in the Zoological Journal, i. 174. 



e. TRIGONOSTOMA Fitz. 

Shell subdiscoidal, above flat, beneath umbilicated; brown, 
one-coloured; mouth trigonal, edge more or less toothed; 
periostraca hispid, ivith long hairs. 

25.7.HELixobvoluta. Cheese Snail, (f. 31.) Shell 
orbiculate, flat umbilicated, bald, reddish brown ; 
spire rather concave ; mouth triangular, edge 
slightly reflexed, with a small tooth on the inside 
of the lip ; lips reddish white. 
Helix obvoluta. Muller, Verm. 27. 

bilabiata. Oliv. Ad. 177. 

trigonophora. Lam. Journ. N. H. t. 42. f. 2. 

holosericea. Gmel., not Studer ; Drap. Moll. 

t. 7. f.27. 29.; Brard, Moll 62. t. 2. f. 16, 17.; 
Rossm. Icon. 69. t. 1. f. 21.; Ferus. Hist. t. 51. 
f.4. 

Inhab. among the moss near the roots of trees, in 
Ditcham Wood, near Brenton, Hants. 

Animal shagreened, foot grey, neck blackish ; ten- 
tacles black, upper long, lower very short. (Sturm, t. 
17.) 

This shell was discovered by Dr. James Lindsay 
(Linn. Trans, xvi. 765.) along with Zonites nitidus, 
and H. rufescens. It is found for a considerable dis- 
tance along the chalk escarpment of the South Downs, 
facing to the North, and although more rare than the 
other species above mentioned, Dr. Lindsay collected 
about twenty specimens. It may probably have been 
introduced with some foreign plants and escaped, for 



140 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA 

it does not appear to have been found in any other 
locality. 

Helix holosericea of Studer, and H. diodonta of 
Muhlfeld, found in various parts of the Continent, 
chiefly differ in the distinctness of their teeth on the 
lips. 

f. CHILOTREMA Leach. (Rock Snail.) 

Shell orbicular, depressed, perforated, equally convex on 
both sides, sharply carinated in its outer circumference ; 
aperture transverse, oval; the peristome united all 
round, elevated from the other whorls, and margined ; 
epiphragm membranaceous. 

26. 8. HELIX lapicida. Variegated Rock Snail. 

(f. 51.) Shell umbilicate, finely granulate, grey 

or pale rufous with reddish rays or spots. 
Helix lapicida. Linn. S. N. 1. 1241.; Mont. T. B. 

435.; Drap. p. 111. t. 7. f. 3537.; Brard, p. 

53. t. 2. f. 14, 15. 
Carocolla lapicida. Lamarck, vi. ii. p. 99.; Turt. 

Man. ed. 1. f. 51. 

Latomus lapicida. Fitz. Prod. 97. 
Helicogona lapicida. . Ferus. Prod. 150. t. 66*, 

f.6. 

Chilotrema lapicida. Leach, Mollusc, p. 106. 
Helix acuta. Da Costa, p. 55. t. 4. f. 9. 

List. Conch, t. 3. f. 4.; Pet. Gaz. t. 92. f. 11. 
Var. 2. whitish. Pfeiffer, 2. f. 27. 
In the fissures of limestone rocks, and in woods on 
a chalky soil. 

Animal green or blackish green; neck granular, 
with two dark streaks ; hinder part of the foot yel 
lowish. (Sturm, t. 26.) 



HELICID.E. 141 

Shell three quarters of an inch in diameter, finely 
granulated ; volutions five, the outer one sloping on 
both sides so as to form a sharp edge in the middle of 
the margin, which runs spirally round the upper volu- 
tions and marks their separation by a fine line; um- 
bilicus central, large, and deep ; aperture oval, with 
an indenture or small notch on the inside at the outer 
pointed extremity where the keel commences; the 
peristome broad, thin, white, reflected, united and 
detached all round. 

Linnaeus, from some fancy, called this shell Lapi- 
cida or stone cutter. 

The shell is liable to some variations in size and 
colour. It is rarely pale greenish, nearly transparent ; 
it also varies in the distinctness of the brown mar- 
bling. 

The young shells, as in most other Helices, are 
much more depressed and more strongly keeled. 

Dr. Fleming (Brit. Anim.) thought that the Helix 
cochlea of Brown (Wern. Trans, ii. t. 24. f. 10.) and 
H. terebra Turtoii (Conch. Diet. 161. t. 14. f. 55.) 
was probably a produced variety of this shell ! 

a. ZURAMA Leach MSS. 

Shell depressed, transparent, umbilicated ', mouth round; 
peristome reflexed, continued ; epiphragm membrana- 
ceous. 

27. 9. HELIX pulchella. White Snail. Shell opake- 

white or brownish, depressed, equally convex 

on both sides; aperture nearly circular, with 

the margin flat and reflected. 

Helix pulchella. Mutter, Verm. ; Drap. p. 112. t. 7. 



142 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

34. ; Brard, p. 56. t. 2. f, 9. ; Alder, M. Z. 

B. ii. 109. 
Helix paludosa. Walker, T. M. R. f. 23. ; Mont. 

p. 204. Linn. Trans, viii. p. 193. t. 5. f. 5. 
Turbo paludosus. Turt. Diet. p. 228. 

helicinus. Lightfoot, Phil. Trans. 1786. 

Zurama pulchella. Leach, Mollusc, p. 108. 

Helix minuta. Say. 

Amplexus paludosus. Brown. 

Acrenellus. Brown. 

Vallonia Rosalia. Risso. ? 

Lucena pulchella. Hartmann, t. 1. f. 6. 

Var. 1. With regular oblique raised transverse 

striae. 
Helix pulchella. Drap. p. 1 12. t. 7. f. 3032. 

crenella. Mont. p. 441. t. 13. f. 3. 

costata. Milller ; Alder, Mag. Z. B. ii. 

109. 

Inhab. under stones and on walls, &c. 

Animal white or whitish ; upper tentacles longish, 
slender, cylindrical, lower short; eyes black. (Sturm, 
t. 15.) 

Shell the tenth of an inch in diameter ; aperture 
nearly circular, being very little interrupted by the 
penultimate volution; the peristome margined and 
flat ; umbilicus large and deep. 

The specimens found in marshy damp situations 
are marked with elevated cross bands, which are the 
vestiges of former mouths. Those that are found in 
dry situations, under stones, in shells, &c., are gene- 
rally destitute of any such ribs. 

In Helix aculeata and H. lamellosa it is the perios- 
traca only that is raised into concentric lamellae. 



143 

Captain Brown has separated this shell into a 
genus under the name of Amplexus, and Risso has 
formed it into a genus called Vallonia, which he 
places next to Valvata! 

M. Kickx has proposed once more to separate H. 
costata from H. pulchella specifically, on the ground 
of a difference between the animals. He describes 
the animal of H. pulchella as "milk-white; mantle 
yellowish ; lower tentacles very short ; " and H. costata 
as "rufous; mantle violet; lower tentacles scarcely 
visible." This difference does not exist in the Eng- 
lish specimens examined by Mr. Forbes or myself, 
the animal of both varieties agreeing with the de- 
scription given above of H. pulchella. 

This species is also found in North America, 
according to Ferussac. 

h. HYGROMANES Ferussac. 

Shell depressed, perforated or unibilicated^ horn-coloured 
or broicn, nearly one-coloured ; peristome slightly 
thickened, rather spread; periostraca pale, often 
bristly > especially in the young ; bristles deciduous. 

28. 10. HELIX limbata. White-keeled Snail, (f. 132.) 
Shell orbiculate, globose, slightly keeled, very 
finely striated, perforated, white or reddish, 
with an opake-white keel, mouth very oblique, 
semilunar, lip reflexed, margined, white. 

Helix limbata. Drap. Moll. 100. t. 6. f. 29.; 
Per. Prod. 43. ; Rossm. Icon. v. 35. f. 362. 

Helix circinata. Brit. Conchologist, not Drap. 

Lives in the hedges near London, on the New 
North Road to Barnet, near Hampstead, on brambles. 



144 PNEUMONOBRANCHIA.TA. 

(G. B. Sowerby.) Native of the south of France, 
whence, perhaps, it was introduced. 

This species, which is found in the south of 
France, Switzerland, and Germany, was first dis- 
covered in England by Mr. Sowerby, in the habitat 
indicated; but it is extremely doubtful if it had not 
been accidentally introduced with some plant from 
the Continent, as, after considerable inquiries, I have 
not been able to hear of any other specimens having 
been observed, either in the same locality or any 
where else. Mr. Alder first added it to the British 
list. (Mag. Zool Bot. 106.) 

It varies considerably in colour, some being nearly 
pellucid white, and others reddish brown ; and the 
white band is always distinctly marked, but varies 
in width in different individuals. 

This species is very like Helix cinctella and H. 
incarnata ; it almost appears to unite them. We have 
received the dark variety, like that in Mr. Alder's 
cabinet, from M. N. Boubee as H. incarnata : it does 
not agree with Pfeiffer's, Sturm's, or other figures of 
that species. 

29. 11. HELIX Cantiana. Kentish Snail, (f. 26.) 
Shell slightly depressed, subglobose, brittle, 
semitransparent, pale rosy, with an obscure 
paler band; region of the aperture rufous- 
brown; umbilicus small. 

Helix Cantiana. Montagu, p. 422. t. 13. f. 1. ; 
Maton and Racket, Linn. Trans, viii. 197.; Fer. 
Prod. 43. 

Teba Cantiana. Leach, Moll. p. 94. 

Helix Carthusiana. Drop. p. 102. t. 6. f. 33. (?) 



HELICID^E. 145 

Turton, Man. ed. 1. f. 26.; Brard, p. 24. t. 1 f. 
6., not Mutter ; Ferus. Prod. 43. 

Helix pallida. Don. Br. Shell t. 157. f. 2. 

In hedges in sandy and chalky districts. 

Animal grey, above warty, brown. 

Shell about three quarters of an inch in diameter, 
irregularly striate transversely, thin and 
|^ nearly transparent, of a pale yellowish- 
white or lead-colour, rufous about the 
mouth and underneath ; the lower volu- 
tion tumid and well rounded, not carinated, but mostly 
marked with an obscure pale band in the middle ; 
aperture semielliptic, as wide as long, with a thin but 
not reflected margin ; the internal rib white or rosy ; 
umbilicus small. 

The young shells are very pale, pellucid, and with 
a rather hispid periostraca. 

From the Helix rufescens it may be distinguished 
1. by its greater size and convexity ; 2. in not being 
so strongly and regularly striate ; 3. in wanting the 
subcarinated ridge on the lower volution; 4. in the 
umbilicus not being above half the size. 

Ferussac was at first inclined to consider this spe- 
cies as distinct from any of the continental shells 
(Journ. Phys. xc. 300.), but he afterwards considered 
it as a local variety of H. Carthusiana of Drap. All 
the French specimens I have seen are very different 
from our shells, and I think they want further ex- 
amination ; at any rate Lister's and Montagu's names 
have the priority, and H. Carthusiana was used by 
Miiller for another species, for which it should be 
retained. 

H 



146 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

30. 12. HELIX Carthusiana. Gibbs's Snail, (t. 3. 

f. 27.) Shell depressed, semi transparent, bald 5 

rather shining, grey, with a milk-white band 

across the aperture externally ; umbilicus minute. 

Helix Carthusiana. Mutter, Verm. 15., notDrap. 

Carthusianella. Drap. p. 101. t. 6. f. 31, 32. 

and t. 7. f. 3, 4. ; Brard, p. 24. t. 1. f. 7.; Turt. 
Man. ed. i. f. 27. 
Teba Carthusianella. Leach, Moll. p. 95. t. 8. f. 

46. 
Helix Zenobia bimarginata. Gray, Med. Rep. 1821. 

Gibbsii. Leach," Broivn, Brit. Shells, t. 40. 

f.49.51. 

Var. smaller, rather more convex. 
Helix rufilabris. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 509. 
On stunted grass, on the Downs in the chalky dis. 
tricts of Kent and Sussex. 

Animal grey above, yellowish below ; tentacles long, 
flexible. 

Shell not half an inch in diameter, more depressed 
than the last, and not so glossy, without the 
rufous stain about the mouth and under- 
neath ; aperture more narrowed ; and the 
umbilicus very minute; on the outside of the aperture 
is a milk-white transverse band. 

This species varies considerably; in size, in the 
thickness and the opacity of the shell, and in the dis- 
tinctness of the double band round the mouth ; the 
white band being most indistinct in the thinner spe- 
cimens. 

Baron Ferussac, who received it from Dr. Leach, 
under the above name (not H. Gypsii, as he prints it), 
first recorded it as British (Journ. de Phys. xc. 300.) 




HELICID^. 147 

in 1820; in 1821 I again noticed it in the Medical 
Repository, under the name of H. bimarginata. 

Mr. Jeffreys thinks it probable that this species had 
been introduced from France (Linn. Trans. 509.), 
but I have seen it quite as common as H. virgata for 
many miles of the south coast of England, from Dover 
to Brighton ; and it must have been introduced some 
years ago, as it was discovered by Mr. Gibbs in 
1814. 

Mr. Jeffreys Considers his H. rujilabris Far. a to 
be H. Olivieri of Ferussac, but this must be a mistake ; 
for the latter is quite a distinct species, and not found 
in England. It is imperforated : there are specimens 
of it in the Museum collection. 

31. 13. HELIX/MS**. Brown Snail, (t. 4. f. 36.) Shell 
subglobose, wrinkled, transparent, very brittle, 
rather flexible, amber-coloured, bald; aperture 
lunate; umbilicus very narrow ; peristome thin. 

Helix fusca. Mont. p. 424. t. 13. f. 1.; Turt. Diet. 

p. 946., Man. f. 36. ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 

321.391.507.; Alder, Mag. Z. B. ii. 107. 
Helix subrufescens. Miller, Ann. Phil. 
Zenobia corrugata. Gray, Med. Rep. 1821. 

239. 

Inhab. damp woods among decayed leaves and 
thick herbage. 

Animal yellowish ; tentacles long. 

Shell three-eighths of an inch in dia- 
meter, and a quarter of an inch high, very 
thin and pellucid, more or less wrinkled, 
glossy amber-coloured; aperture crescent- 
shaped, very thin, as long as broad, reflected 
H 2 




148 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

only at the pillar-angle, where there is a minute per- 
foration. 

32. 14. HELIX fulva. Top-shaped Snail, (t. 5. f. 
47.) Shell rather conic and trochiform, beneath 
flattish, with six volutions, dark horn-coloured, 
smooth, and glossy; aperture narrow crescent- 
shaped; umbilicus minute. 

Helix fulva. Mutter, Hist. 36. ; Nilson, 13. ; Drap. 
p. 81. t.7. f. 12; 13. 

Teba fulva. Leach, Moll p. 99. 

Helix trochiformis. Mont. p. 427. 1. 1 1. f. 9. ; Jef- 
freys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 331., not Ferussac. 

Helix Trochulus. Mutter ? ? Dillwyn, p. 916. ? ? 

nitidula. V. Alien. 

Trochilus. Fleming. 

Var. 1. Mortonii. Shell depressed, both sides 
nearly equally convex. 

Helix Mortonii. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 332. 

" Trochus terrestris ft. Mortonii Da Costa" Jef- 
freys, 

Var. 2. Alderi. Smaller, darker. Alder, Mag. Z. fy 
B. ii. 108. 

Inhab. woods, among leaves and under stones, and 
on decayed wood. 

Animal grey, shining ; foot thin ; tentacles long. 

Shell the tenth of an inch in diameter, glossy, dark 
horn-coloured, with six rounded volutions, which are 
much raised and strongly defined ; the base promi- 
nent, with a depression in the centre forming an inci- 
pient umbilicus ; aperture transverse, narrow, as high 
as broad, with a very thin margin, reflected only near 
.the depression, which in young shells is hardly visible. 



149 

Varies in the intensity of the colour and in transpa- 
rency, the specimens found in very damp situations 
being generally much darker and more polished. 

Mr. Alder observes, that the smaU variety is not un- 
common ; it is darker coloured, and with very delicate 
and beautiful concentric striae on the base, only visi- 
ble with a high magnifier, which induced him at first 
to consider it distinct ; but on closer examination, he 
found slight traces of these striae visible on the full- 
grown and decided specimens of H.fulva; he has 
therefore not ventured to separate it. (1. c. 108.) 

33.15. HELIX aculeata. Prickly Snail, (t. 4. f. 33.) 
Shell conical, globose, brown horn-colour, with 
the suture deep ; the periostraca rising into thin 
spinous foliations ; aperture semielliptic. 

Helix spinulosa. Lightf., Phil. Trans. Ixxvi. 166. ; 

Montagu, p. 549. t. 1 1. f. 10. ; Linn. Trans, viii. 

201. 

Teba spinulosa. Leach, Moll. p. 1 00. 
Helix aculeata. Mutter, Verm. ii. 81.; Drap. p. 

82. t. 7. f. 10, 11.; Alder, Cat. 109. 
Helix delectabilis. Solander, MSS. 

Inhab. woods, under leaves and stones. 

Animal greenish ; tentacles long. 

Shell about the tenth of an inch wide, and as mucr 
high, thin, semitransparent, brown horn-colour; the 
volutions rounded and deeply separated, clothed with 
a thin periostraca, which rises into numerous regular 
rather oblique foliations shooting into points, exhibit- 
ing the appearance of a circle of bristles round the 
middle of each ; aperture somewhat orbicular, as long 
H 3 



150 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

as wide, with a white rib on the inside ; umbilicus 
moderately large and deep. 

According to the observations of Mr. Jeffreys, this 
animal feeds on the Jungermannia platyphylla. It has 
a very extended range, for it is found in the north of 
Sweden. 

34. 16. HELIX lamettata. Scarborough Snail, (t. 5. 
f. 48.) Shell somewhat trochiform, grey ; the peri- 
ostraca rising into close-set equal longitudinal 
lamellae; whorls six, gradually increasing in size ; 
mouth lunate ; umbilicus deep. 

Helix Scarburgensis. Turton, ed. 162.; Alder , 
Cat. 109. 

Helix holosericea. Miller, MSS. 

lamellata. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 333. ; 

not H. lamellosa Ferussac. 

Inhab. woods, north of England Scarborough 
(Bean), Newcastle (Alder). 

Animal pale grey. 

Shell the tenth of an inch in diameter, and as much 
high, grey or pale horn-colour, semi transparent, pyra- 
midal, with very numerous regular longitudinal 
lamellae not shooting in the middle into spinous pro- 
jections; spire composed of six rounded and deeply 
divided volutions, which very gradually decrease from 
the tumid and rounded base; the tip obtuse and 
usually of a whitish colour ; aperture narrow crescent- 
shaped, wider than long, the margin thin and reflected 
over the umbilicus, which is small and deep. 

Like that of H. aculeata, the periostraca of this 
species rises into thin laminar foliations, which in 
various positions of light reflect a velvety or satin-like 



151 

lustre ; but the foliations are infinitely more numerous 
and compact, not shooting into spinous processes in 
the middle ; the shape of the spire is also very differ- 
ent, not decreasing in a conical manner, but regu- 
larly pyramidal ; and the aperture, instead of pro- 
jecting forward in a semielliptic form, is narrow 
crescent-shaped, without the internal rib round the 
margin. 

For this extremely beautiful and interesting acqui- 
sition, we are indebted to the diligence of Mr. Bean 
of Scarborough, who first discovered it in the woods 
near that place. 

Mr. Jeffreys's name must be retained, as his paper 
was published while Mr. Alder's was passing through 
the press. 

35. 17. HELIX granulata. Granular Snail, (t. 3. 
f. 29.) Shell somewhat globular, transparent, 
rather shining, yellowish horn-colour, closely 
hairy, with nearly six tumid volutions ; mouth 
roundish lunate ; umbilicus very small. 

Helix granulata. Alder, Cat. 107. 

sericea. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 38. f. 29. ; Jef- 
freys^ Linn. Trans, xvi. 333. ; not Drap. 

Helix hispida. Montagu, t. 23. f. 3. ; Linn. Trans. 
viii. 198. 

Teba hispida. Leach, Moll. p. 98. 

Helix globularis. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 507. 

Inhab. moist woods and hedge banks. 

Animal pale yellowish white ; head and tentacles 
grey; mantle beautifully speckled with black, the 
black blotches being larger towards the upper extre- 
mity, and giving the higher whorls of the shell a mot- 
H 4 



152 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

tied appearance when alive ; the foot is short and 
thick. 

Shell a quarter of an inch in diameter, and as much 
high, pale horn-colour, frequently a little rufous about 
the mouth, extremely thin and light, clothed with a 
very fine down enlarged at the base, which, when 
worn off, leaves the surface glossy and minutely gra- 
nulate like shagreen ; aperture crescent-shaped, rather 
wider than long, very thin, and reflected only at the 
umbilicus, which is extremely small. The larger 
volution is well rounded, without keel or band, and 
the internal rib only visible in full-grown specimens. 

This is evidently not the H. hispida of the conti- 
nental writers, nor the H. sericea of Mliller or Dra^ 
parnaud. 

36.18. HELIX revelata. Green Snail, (t. f. 133.) Shell 
orbicular, subglobose, thin, finely wrinkled, um- 
bilicated, diaphanous, shining pale green, with a 
few scattered hairs ; whorls convex, last largest ; 
peristome thin. 
Helix revelata. Ferussac, Prod. 44. ; Michel, Compl. 

27. t. 15. f. 6, 7, 8. ; Desk. Lam. Hist. viii. 83. 
Inhab. shady places, among nettles. (Guernsey.) 
Animal blackish. 

Shell thin, nearly transparent, green ; the mouth 
large, roundish lunate, very oblique; the umbilicus 
rather narrow, only showing the penultimate whorl ; 
the peristome is thin, and very slightly reflexed. Most 
like H.fusca but not so thin, and smooth, green, and 
umbilicated. 

This interesting addition to our Fauna was dis- 
covered by Mr. Edward Forbes, in abundance, near 
Doyle's Monument, in Guernsey, whence he kindly 



HELICIDJE. 153 

brought me specimens, some of them containing the 
living animal. 

37. 19. HELIX series. Silky Snail, (t. .f. 134.) Shell 
rather globular, thin, transparent, reddish horn- 
coloured, nearly smooth, or slightly wrinkled, 
with six whorls thickly set with soft recurved 
hairs ; outer lip thin, without any ribs ; umbili- 
cus small. 

Helix sericea. Mutter, Drap. t. 7. f. 16, 17.; 
Kenyan, Mag. N. H. t. 427. f. 3. ; Alder, May. 
Zool - Bot. ii. 107. ; not Turton, Man. ed. 1. 
Helix hispida. Gilbertson, MSS. B. M. 
Inhab. woods (?) North of England. 
Animal greyish, marbled with black. 
Shell subglobular, three tenths of an inch in dia- 
meter, dark brown, thin, pellucid, with a very obscure 
whitish central band, giving it a rather keeled appear- 
ance, covered with a brown periostraca with distant 
elongated hairs; umbilicus rather small (partly 
covered with the front of the lip), only showing the 
last whorl but one. 

Mr. Alder, who first noticed this species in England, 
observes, " It is difficult to say whether or not this is 
the H. sericea of Muller, I having introduced it as 
such on the faith of Baron de Ferussac. I leave it for 
further investigation." 

This shell varies from dull reddish to nearly 
pure translucid white. 

Mr. Kenyon gave the accompanying figure Jjjjjfc m 
as H. sericea of Draparnaud. 

The shell is thinner, more globular, and with the 
umbilicus smaller than H. hispida ; of a darker colour, 
and with the apex more depressed than H. granulata. 
H 5 





154 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

38. 20. HELIX hispida. Bristly Snail, (t. 4. f. 41.) 
Shell slightly convex, a little carinate, striolate, 
transparent, horn-coloured; periostraca hairy, 
with crowded bristles ; umbilicus moderate, deep ; 
mouth roundish lunate. 

Helix hispida. Mutter, Verm. 73. ; Turton, Man. 
ed. 1. 57. f. 41.; Drap. p. 103. t. 7. f. 20. 22. ; 
Brard, p. 27. t. 2. f. 1.; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans. 
xiii. 338. ; not Montagu. 
Inhab. woods, under stones, in shady places. 
Animal grey, foot white, thick. 

Shell about a quarter of an inch 
in breadth, and hardly as much 
high, horn-coloured, with a slight 
paler band in the middle of the 
larger volution ; periostraca clothed 
with close fine hairs which are very caducous, under 
which it is a little striate, but not granular, like the 
H. granulata ; aperture moderate. 

39.21. HELIX condnna. Neat Snail, (t. .f. 135.) Shell 
rather depressed, slightly keeled, rather shining, 
reddish brown, concentrically grooved, with 
scattered deciduous whitish hairs; whorls five 
or six; mouth roundish lunate, margined; um- 
bilicus broad. 

Helix concinna. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xiii. 337. ; 
Alder, Mag. Z. 8f B. 107. 

Helix depilata. Pfeiffer, i. t. 35., t. 2. f. 18. (?) ; 
Alder, Mag. Z. *. B. 107. 

Helix rufescens. Swiss Conchologists. 

Inhab. under stones, and dry places, among 
nettles, &c. 



HELICID.E. 155 

Animal reddish, very polished; tentacles longish. 

Shell very like the former, but differs in being 
rather larger, the umbilicus wider, and the hairs 
further apart, and much more deciduous, which 
makes it often appear smooth, except near the sutures 
and umbilicus. 

Mr. Jeffreys, after examining many hundred spe- 
cimens from different localities, is inclined to think 
that it must be referred to H, hispida. (Linn. Trans. 
xiii. 510.) 

Mr. Alder observes that this may be a variety of 
H. hispida, as was supposed by Mr. Jeffreys, but is 
stronger, and with the hairs more deciduous than 
the usual form of that species. It is very generally 
diffused, commonly taking the place of Helix glabella 
(H. rufescens), in situations where the latter is not 
found. (Alder, Mag. %. B. ii. 107.) 

Mr. Alder also refers to H. circinnata of Ferussac, 
which Rossmasler regards as a distinct species. 

39*. 21*. HELIX depilata. Bald Snail, (t. . f. 135*.) 
Shell somewhat globular, depressed, pale, bald ; 
whorls rounded, concentrically grooved ; mouth 
lunate; peristome thickened, white; umbilicus 
moderate. 

Helix depilata. Pfeiffer, i. 33. t. 2. f. 18. (?) ; 
Alder, Mag. Zool. Sot. ii. 107. 

Inhab. hedges and wet places. 

This species is very like the former, but quite des- 
titute of hairs in all its stages ; it is much smaller in 
all its parts than any of the varieties of H. rufescens. 

Mr. Alder states that his specimens agreed perfectly 
H 6 



156 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

with those ofPfeiffer in Ferussac's cabinet; Mr. Jef- 
freys refers to Pfeiffer's figures with doubt, as repre- 
senting H. concinna ; and Mr. Alder says it is not to be 
distinguished from it except by its not being hispid in 
any of its stages. Rossmasler regards H. depilata of 
Jeffreys as the same as H. sericea and H. glabella, 
and refers Turton's figure of H. granulata to this 
species ! 

I do not think the four last species are in any way 
satisfactorily determined ; they may be only varieties 
of one another, or there may be more species, but 
this can only be determined by collecting together a 
very large number of specimens from their natural 
situations (not as collected among the rejectamenta 
of rivers) ; observing how the specimens of the same 
locality or brood vary, and how the periostraca and 
the hairiness is affected by their being kept alive, and 
also by the kind of place they may inhabit. The 
synonyma of the foreign authors are even more doubt- 
ful, but this is occasioned by our seldom receiving 
the same species or variety of these hairy Hydromanes, 
under the same name, from our foreign correspondents 
and the dealers. Indeed, the foreign species, judging 
From the very different synonyma of the continental 
authors, are as confused as our own. 

40. 22. HELIX rufescens. Rufous Snail, (t. 3. f. 28.) 
Shell flattish, bald, reddish horn-colour, concen- 
trically striate, slightly carinated by a narrow 
central paler band ; whorls six ; mouth roundish 
lunate ; umbilicus large and deep. 

Helix rufescens. Penn. B. Z. f. 34. ; Montagu, p. 



15? 

420. t. 23. f. 2.; Fer. Prod. 44.; Turton, Man. 

ed. i. 37. f. 28. ; Jeffreys, L. T. xiii. 337. 
Teba rufescens. Leach, Mollusc, p. 96. 
Helix glabella. Drop. p. 102. t. 7. f. 6.; Fer. 

Prod. 43.; Alder, Mag. Z. B. iii. 107. 

Inhab. gardens and hedges. 

Animal black-grey ; upper tentacles thick. 

Shell growing to three quarters of an inch in dia- 
meter, but often smaller, semitransparent, varying 
from pale ash-colour to rufous brown, often 
marbled and mottled with paler or darker 
blotches, rarely pure white, slightly carinate 
in the middle of the larger volution by a paler band ; 
aperture semielliptic, thin, and slightly reflected, 
longer than broad. Both the young and old shells 
are quite bald. 

Montagu, and all who have copied from him, 
have represented the young of this species as clothed 
with hairs. He probably mistook the Helix hispida 
for it. 

Lister gives some details of the anatomy of this 
species (Anat. t. 4. f. 4.). 

The shell varies greatly in colour, being generally 
reddish brown, but passing from that colour to 
nearly transparent or translucent white ; and in shape 
and size. Tab. 4. f. 36., which Dr. Turton, in the 
first edition, gave for H.fusca, appears to represent a 
small higher variety of this species, which is often 
met with near Battersea. 

Montagu's name has the undoubted priority. 



158 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

i. HELIOMANES Ferussac. 

Shell subglobose, perforated or umbilicated, white or 
reddish, varied with bands ; peristome edged, not 
spread; periostraca thirty bald; epiphragm membra- 
naceous. 

41.23. HELIX pisana. Banded Snail, (t. 4. f'30.) 
Shell subglobose, with the larger volution rather 
flat at top, marked with numerous brown and 
yellowish often interrupted bands; the mouth 
rounded lunate ; throat mostly rose-colour. 

Helix pisana. Mutter, Term. 60. ; Lam. H. vi. 82. 

petholata. Oliv. Ad. 178. 

cingenda. Montagu, p. 418. t. 24. f. 4. ; 

Linn. Trans, viii. 195. t. 5. f. 6., xiii. 333. 

Helix albina. Mutter, 25. 

Teba cingenda. Leach, Mollusc, p. 92. 

Helix zonaria. Penn. B. Z. iv. 137. t. 5. f. 133. 

rhodostoma. Drop. p. 86. t. 5. f, 13 15. 

strigata var. Dillwyn, p. 911. 

Inhab. dry sandy plains near the sea. 

Animal yellowish white ; neck purplish ; tentacles 
long, club-shaped. 

Shell about half an inch in diameter, and not so 
much high, with the volutions a little flattened at top, 
slightly striate; colour whitish or yellowish, rarely 
without coloured bands, but mostly with seven or 
eight brown circular lines on the lower volution, 
often broken into dots ; the tip black ; these bands are 
very variable ; aperture longer than wide, with the 
margin thin and reflected at the pillar, where it half 
closes the narrow but deep umbilicus ; the region of 
the mouth is generally of a more or less intense rose- 
colour. 



HELICID.E. 

It varies greatly in the distinctness, the strength, 
and the disposition of the bands : sometimes they 
are altogether wanting, and at others (rarely) suf- 
fused over the surface. It also varies in the colour of 
the throat, which is generally rose-coloured, but some- 
times pure white. 

It varies greatly in size, according to the situation ; 
and also in form, varying from subglobose to sub- 
conic, or depressed, as in other species of the genus. 
Monstrosities are sometimes found with the whorls 
reversed, and more or less produced. 

It is one of the most beautiful of our snails, and 
extremely local. It is common in the south of 
Europe and Northern Africa; but is not found in 
the northern countries : Wales may be considered its 
northern limit. 

Mr. Jeffreys believes the beautiful pink gloss ob- 
served on the mouths of this and H. virgata to 
be entirely owing to the action of, and exposure 
to, the sun; for, in the specimens found in more 
sheltered situations, the colours and marking are much 
fainter, and sometimes altogether wanting. (Linn, 
Trans, xvi. 334.) It most probably arises from the 
animal being in better health in sunny places, as it is 
most like the warmer climate in which they appear 
to delight, beyond the confines of which our speci- 
mens are living. 

According to Montagu, it is one of our most rare 
species. He only found it in one place, on the 
sand to the west of Tenby, where it is confined to a 
small spot. Mr. Racket has found it at St. Ives, in 
Cornwall. It has also been said to be found near 
Dublin. 



160 PNEUMOttOBRANCHIATA. 

42. 24. HELIX virgata. Zoned Snail, (t. 4. f.31.) 
Shell somewhat globular, white, with from one 
to six brown bands ; the mouth dull rufous ; um- 
bilicus moderate. 

Helix virgata. Montagu,^. 415. t. 24. f. 1.; Tur- 
ton,Man.ed.l. 40. f.31. 

Teba virgata. Leach, Mollusc, p. 93. 

Helix variabilis. Drap. p. 84. t. 5. f. 11, 12.; 
Ferussac, Journ. Phys.,297.-, Rossm. Icon. t. 26. 
f. 356. a. f. 

Helix striata. Brard, p. 36. t. 2. f. 5, 6. 

zonaria. Donovan, ii. tab. 65. 

pisana. Dillwyn, p. 911. 

subalbida. Poir. Prod. 83. 

On short grass, on sandy plains, especially about the 
sea-coasts. 

Animal purplish-ash ; foot thick, yellowish. 

Shell about half an inch in diameter, and nearly 
as much high, usually white with a single dark brown 
band in the middle of the larger volution, and several 
irregular ones at the faase; but subject to infinite 
variations from the presence or absence or confluence 
of the bands, the most singular of which is that of a 
dark brown with a single white band, and that of a 
pure opake white with transparent white bands, the 
tip generally black ; about the mouth and pillar dull 
rufous ; aperture longer than broad, the margin thin 
and reflected at the umbilicus, which is small and 
deep. 

When young, the larger volution slopes to a some- 
what carinated edge. 

Varies greatly in size, being sometimes three fourths 



HELICID^E. 161 

of an inch in diameter, and at others not one third of 
that size : in colour, being sometimes pellucid white 
and bandless, and generally opake and very distinctly 
banded ; and, from the number of its bands, it offers 
an almost endless variety of banding ; sometimes the 
colouring which forms the bands is suffused over 
the whole shell, making it brown, or even nearly 
black. 

It also varies sometimes in sTiape, and slightly in 
the elevation and depression of the spire, and in the 
size of the umbilicus ; from its abundance, it is very 
liable to the usual distortions. 

Distorted specimens of this shell are sometimes 
found with the whorls reversed, or more commonly 
produced out of their usual course. It was a specimen 
of this monstrosity that was called Helix elegans by 
Brown ( Wern. Trans, vi. 528. t. 24. f. 9.) and H. dis- 
junctaby Turton (Conch. Diet. 61. f. 63.). 

Mr. Alder says that a very small variety of this 
shell is found on the coast of north Devon, which is 
probably the Helix maritima of Draparnaud. I have 
not been able to see this variety. It is also referred 
to by Jeffreys (Linn. Trans, xiii. 335.), but the con- 
tinental authors do not mix them together. 

In the autumn, these shells are often suddenly ob- 
served in such great numbers as to give rise to the 
popular notion of their having fallen from the clouds ; 
and in very hot weather, the young both of this spe- 
cies and the H. cingenda may be found in clusters 
adhering to the stalks of various plants, with the 
aperture closed by a thin pellicle (epiphragm), except 
where it is in contact with the plant. 



162 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

43. 25. HELIX caperata. Black-tipped Snail, (t. 4. 
f. 32.) Shell flattish, yellowish, with brown 
interrupted bands and spots, and strongly 
striated concentrically; umbilicus moderate; 
mouth white. 

Helix caperata. Montagu, p. 433. t. 11. f. 11.; 
Turton, Man. ed 1. 42. f. 32.; Jeffreys, Linn. 
Trans, xiii. 

Teba caperata. Leach, Mollusc, p. 97. 
Helix striata. Drap. p. 106. t. 6. f. 1821.; 

not Miiller. 
Helix intersecta. Brard, p. 39. t. 2. f. 7. 

crenulata. Dillwyn, p. 895. 

On dry banks, and under stones in hilly places. 
Animal yellowish-ash, warty above, foot thickish. 
Shell seldom half an inch in diameter, and a quar- 
ter of an inch high, rather depressed ; the larger vo- 
lution sloping to a somewhat carinate edge in the 
middle, with regular deep transverse striae; colour 
dull yellowish- white, with regular brown bands, which 
are often interrupted, and the '/p black; aperture 
crescent-shaped, as long as it is broad, with the mar- 
gin thin and not reflected over the umbilicus, which 
is large and deep. 

Like the preceding, it is equally liable to vary in 
size, colour, and form, and offers nearly the same 
variations. It is immediately known from that spe- 
cies by being more depressed, and strongly concen- 
trically striated. 

Montagu's names for the two last have the priority. 
Mr. Alder observes, that he has not seen any Bri- 
tish variety of this shell similar to H. candidula Stu- 
der, referred to by Mr. Jeffreys. 



HELICID.E. 163 

44. 26. HELIX ericetorum. Heath Snail. (t. 4. 
f. 37.) Shell depressed, semitransparent, grey 
or brownish, and generally banded; aperture 
roundish ; umbilicus very large and deep. 

Helix ericetorum. Muller, Term. ii. 226. var. a. ; 
Montagu, p. 437. t. 24. f. 2. ; Turton, Man. ed. 
1. 54. f. 37. ; Brard, p. 45. t. 2. f. 8. 

Zonites ericetorum. Leach, Moll. p. 101. 

Helix cespitum, b. Drop. p. 109. t. 6. f. 16, 17. ; 
Pfeiffer, 39. t. 2. f. 24, 25. 

Helix erica. Da Costa, p. 53. t. 4. f. 8. 

albella. Penn. 

On dry heaths and downs, on the stalks of the 
larger plants. 

Animal greenish- white ; foot slender, pellucid. 
(Sturm, Fauna, t. 24.) 

Shell nearly an inch in diameter, much depressed 
at top, slightly striolate, of a grey or rusty-brown 
colour, with generally a brown band above conti- 
nuing round the edge of the smaller volutions ; some- 
times the bands are so obliterated as to be hardly 
visible ; aperture nearly orbicular, not much inter- 
rupted by the penultimate volution, longer than 
broad, the peristome very thin and not reflected; 
umbilicus very large, and so open and deep as to ex- 
pose three or four of the volutions. 

This shell varies greatly in colour, being often dis- 
tinctly banded, and at other times quite bandless, when 
it is H. obliterata of Hartmann. The bands vary in 
number, those on the front of the whorls being most 
generally present. It also varies very much in size, 
being sometimes an inch in diameter (see Pfeiffer, t. 
2. f. 24, 25.), and at others not one third of that size 



164 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

(Pfeiffer, t. 2. f. 23.) : when full grown; the smaller 
shells are always rather thicker. It is always known 
from H. cespitum of Drap. by the spire being lower 
and the umbilicus wider. Mr. Jeffreys speaks of one 
with a more produced spire found in lona, Western 
Islands (Linn. Trans, xiii. 339.), but I have not seen 
any that agree with Draparnaud's species. 

Lister, in his anatomical plates (t. 2. f. 10.), gives 
some details of the anatomy of this species. 

5. ZONITES Montf. (Zonites.) 

Animal with an elongate depressed foot, and a large 
produced central spiral body, covered with (and 
contractile into) a depressed or hemispherical, thin, 
shell with flattish spire, and a large lunate mouth, 
with thin simple lips, which are neither thickened 
nor reflexed ; the tentacles are four, the two lower 
ones small and club-shaped. 

The animal can entirely withdraw itself into the 
shell, and this genus is at once known from the former 
by the thinness and generally polished state of the 
shell, and also by its being depressed and destitute of 
any internal rib round the edge of the mouth. 

It is intermediate between the Helices and the fo- 
reign genera Stenopus and Nanina of the family Ari- 
onidcs. The animal also resembles the latter in some 
respects, but wants the gland on the end of the foot. 
It is very probable that other peculiar characters will 
be found when the animals of the different species of 
HeUcidce have been described and compared together, 
as Mr. Nunneley has so excellently well done with the 
species of slugs. 



HELICID.E. 165 

This genus is divided into two sections, which may 
prove genera : 

a. Shell brown or varied, striated. Verticillata 
Ferussac, n. 1 3. 

b. Shell hyaline, greenish or pale brown, polished. 
Hyalines Ferussac, n. 4 12. 

a. VERTICILLAT^E Ferus. 
Shell brown or varied, striated. 

45. 1. ZONITES rotundatus. Radiated Snail, (t. 5. 

f. 44.) Shell flattish, slightly carinate, deeply 

striate, rufous-grey with chestnut spots. 
Helix radiata. Montagu, p. 431. t. 24. f. 3.; Da 

Costa, p. 57. t. 4. f. 15, 16.; Turton, Man. ed. 

1. 59. f. 44. 
Helix rotundata. Mutter, 29.; Drap. p. 114. t. 8. 

f. 4.; Brard, p. 51, t. 2. f. 10, 11.; Jeffreys, L. 

T. xiii. 342, 

Zonites radiatus. Leach, Moll. p. 102. 
Var. b., spire quite flattened. 
Helix Turtoni. Fleming, Brit, Anim. 269. 

albella. Linn. S. Nat. 

rotundata. Turton, Diet. p. 53. 

Var. c., white, transparent, and without rays. 

Common under stones and wood, on hills. 

Animal pale grey, dotted above ; foot short, hyaline : 
back, head, and tentacles blackish. (Sturm.) 

Shell about a quarter of an inch in diameter, 
nearly equally convex on both sides, slightly carinate, 
strongly and regularly striate across, yellowish or 
reddish-grey with chestnut rays from the centre ; 
aperture semilunar, as wide as long, thin and not re- 
flected; umbilicus large and deep. 



166 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

This species varies in size and in form, especially 
of the spire, which is sometimes rather convex, and at 
others nearly flat : in the latter form, it has been con- 
sidered as a separate species; and Nilson believes that 
the shell which Linnaeus described as Helix albella in 
his Swedish Fauna, is only a young species of the flat- 
spired variety of this shell. It also varies in the in- 
tensity of the brown spots on the spire ; sometimes 
they are diffused and at others entirely wanting, and 
the shell is sometimes nearly transparent and colour- 
less. 

46. 2. ZONITES umbilicatus. Open Snail, (t. 5. f. 
45.) Shell convex, somewhat trochiform, black- 
ish-brown, opake, striolate ; aperture nearly cir- 
cular ; umbilicus very large. 

Helix umbilicata. Mont. p. 434. t. 13. f. 2. ; Jef- 
freys, Linn. Trans, xiii. 843. 

Helix rupestris. Drap. p. 82. t. 7. f. 7 9. ; 
Turton, Man. ed. 1. 60. f. 45. 

Zonites rupestris. Leach, Moll. p. 103. 

On elevated rocks, and under the top stones of 
walls and lofty buildings, always in dry places. 

Animal black-grey, polished ; upper tentacles cylin- 
drical. 

Shell the tenth of an inch in diameter, elevated on 
the upper side, with five rounded and deeply divided 
volutions, slightly striate, of an uniform deep opake 
chocolate brown; aperture nearly circular, being 
very little interrupted by the penultimate volution, 
the margin thin and not reflected ; umbilicus funnel- 
shaped. 

This shell varies in the elevation and depression of 
the spire. 



HELICID^E. 167 

Montagu observes, it is remarkable that " this shell 
always affects such lofty places as the tops of houses, 
without one being found near the base; and in 
that situation its inhabitant braves equally the scorch- 
ing beams of the sun in summer and the frigid 
wind of winter, without attempting to descend." ( T. 
B. 435.) 

Colonel Montagu's name should be retained for 
this species, as his work was published in 1803, and 
Draparnaud's in 1805. The English conchologists, 
not paying attention to this fact, have very gene- 
rally committed an injustice to their countryman in 
favour of a foreigner, in a manner of which few foreign 
naturalists would be guilty. Indeed, few of them 
have been willing to do sufficient justice to Montagu's 
great merit ; for he was almost the first zoologist in 
modern times who attempted to pay any attention to 
the animals inhabiting shells; and we should recollect 
that, during the whole time he was writing, he was shut 
out by the war from any communication with our 
continental brethren, and was solely dependent on 
his own energies. 

47. 3. ZONITES pygmceus. Pygmy Snail, (t. 5. f. 46.) 
Shell rather convex, pale chocolate-brown, semi- 
transparent; aperture semilunar; umbilicus large. 

Helix elegans. Sheppard's MSS. Brit. Mus. 

pygmaea. Drap. p. 114. t. 8. f. 8 10. ; Gray, 

Med. Rep. 1821, 239.; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 61. 
f. 46. ; Nilson, Suec. 32. ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans. 
xiii. 343. 

Helix Kirbii. Sheppard, Linn. Trans, xvi. 162.; 
Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xiii. 512. 



168 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Inhab. ditches and wet places, among dead leaves. 

Shell half the size of the last, of a pale and hardly 
transparent brown horn-colour, slightlystriate, equally 
convex on both sides, with the apex usually whitish 
as if decorticated, with four well defined volutions ; 
aperture roundish crescent-shaped, as long as it is 
wide. 

Dr. Leach considered this as the young of the last 
species, from which it evidently differs in colour, ap- 
pearance, and locality, as the two species are never 
found together. It is much flatter and more trans- 
parent ; it has only four volutions ; and the aperture 
is not so circular. 

Mr. Jeffreys says (Linn. Trans, xiii. 512.) that M. 
D'Orbigny has informed him that the Helix pygmcea 
of Draparnaud is our H. umbilicata, and not our H, 
pygmcea. 

Mr. Alder says, notwithstanding the information 
communicated by M. D'Orbigny to Mr. Jeffreys, he 
still holds the opinion that this is the true H. pygmaa 
of Draparnaud ; many naturalists, he says, have erro- 
neously considered it to be the young of H. umbili- 
cata Mont. 

This species was first noticed as British in the 
Medical Repository for 1821. It is very distinct from 
the preceding. 

b. HYALINE Ferus. 
Shell greenish or pale brown, hyaline, polished, smoothish. 

48. 4. ZONITES alliarim. Garlic Snail, (t. 4. f. 39.) 
Shell nearly flat, slightly globular, thin, transpa- 
rent, horn-coloured, very shining, nearly smooth; 



HELICID^. 169 

whorls four, under-side slightly tinged with opake 

white ; umbilicus rather large. 
Helix alliaria. Miller, Ann. Phil. n. s. vii. 379. ; 

Alder, Cat. 12. n. 48. ; Mag. Zool. Sf Bot. ii. 

108. ; Turton, Man. ed. i. 56. f. 39. 
Helix nitens. Sheppard, Linn. Trans, xvi. 160. 
fcetida. Stark, Elem. N. Hist. ii. 59. ; Brawii, 

Brit. Shells, t. 40. f. 4852. 
Helix alliacea. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xiii. 341. 

511. 

Helix nitida. Shepp. Linn. Trans, xiv. 160.(?) 
Var. 1., transparent greenish white. 
Var. 2., larger. Alder, Mag. Zool. * Bot. ii. 108. 
Helix glabra. Studer, Ferus. Prod. n. 215. 

Inhab. woods, under stones, decayed leaves, and 
moss. 

Animal black ; tentacles short, cylindric, emitting 
a strong smell of garlic when irritated. 

Shell about one quarer of an inch in diameter. 
It differs from Z. cellaria in being not above one 
third the size, and more convex, in having the aper- 
ture less oblique, the umbilicus larger, and the white 
on the under side not so well defined ; from Z. nitidula, 
in being smaller, and in its bright glossy lustre and 
transparency. 

This species was first discovered by the late Mr. 
Miller of Bristol. 

Dr. Johnston does not consider H. nitida and H. 
nitidula as distinct from //. alliaria of Miller ; he 
found all under one stone, selected four nearly of one 
size, and none of them had any garlic smell when 
alive ; but on immersing them one by one in hot 
water, two emitted a very strong garlic-like odour, 

i 



170 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

in one it was faint, and in the other it was not per- 
ceptible. It would appear, therefore (he continues), 
that the animal has the power to retain or emit its 
peculiar odour at pleasure; and that in death its 
emission may be prevented by accidental circum- 
stances : he thinks it arises from the yellow fluid 
pressed out about the head. 

49. 6. ZONITES cellarius. Cellar Snail, (t. 4. f. 40.) 
Shell flat, pale yellowish horn-colour, transpa- 
rent, shining, very slightly wrinkled, with 5 or 
5J whorls ; the under side clouded with opake 
white; umbilicus moderately large, exposing the 
second whorl. 

Helix cellaria. Mutter, Verm. 28. ; Lam. Hist. vi. ; 
Alder, Cat. 12. n. 47.; Mag. Zool. * Bot. ii. 
208. 

Helix nitida. Drap. Moll. 117. t. 8. f. 23. 25. ; 
Brard, 31. t. 2. f. 2. 

Helix nitens. Maton and Racket, Linn. Trans. 
viii. 198. t. 5. f. 7.; Ferussac, Prod. 

Helix lucida. Montag. T. B. 425. t. 23. f. 4. ; 
Turt. Man. ed. 1. f. 40. 

Zonites lucida. Leach, Moll. 10. 

Inhab. under stones in fields and woods, and in 
cellars and yards in cities. 

Animal pale grey, white when young. 

Shell rather less than half an inch in diameter, 
but sometimes growing to nearly three quarters of 
an inch, glossy and irregularly 
striate, with 5 or 5J volutions, 
which are well defined by the 
suture ; underneath milky-white, 
especially about the umbilicus, which is large and 




HELICIDJE. 171 

very deep; aperture oblong crescent-shaped, com- 
pressed, oblique, as long as it is wide. 

Mr. Alder observes, that continental specimens of 
this shell are larger and rather more open in the umbi- 
licus than British ones ; which induced M. de Ferussac 
to think that they might be distinct. The same re- 
mark is applicable to Helix nitidula, but in both cases 
he thinks it amounts to nothing more than a variety. 
H. nitens Fer. Tab. Moll, is only the English variety 
of the species in a small state. 

H. nitens of Michaud, if we may judge from the 
figures, is H. nitidula Drap. Mr. Alder suspects Mi- 
chaud's H. nitidula is, like that of Pfeiffer, the H. 
nitidula var. (3 of Drap., which is his H. radiatula. 

Dr. Turton, in the first edition of this work, mis- 
placed the numbers of these shells : they ought to have 
been reversed ; fig. 38. is Z. lucidus and 40. Z. cellarius. 

50. 7. ZONITES purus. Delicate Snail, (t. 4. f. 43.) 
Shell depressed, rather shining, transparent 
white, slightly striated or wrinkled, with four 
shining whorls set diagonally ; under side more 
flattish than the upper, and without any appear- 
ance of opacity ; umbilicus rather large. 

Helix pura. Alder, Cat. 12. n. 46.; Mag. Zool $ 
Bot. ii. 108.; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 59. (not the 
figure). 

Helix nitidula var. ft. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xiii. 
511. 

Helix Alderi. Bean, MSS. ; Brit. Mus. 

Var. Shell pale horn-colour ; animal rather darker. 
Alder, Cat. Mag. Zool $ Bot. ii. 108. 

Helix nitidosa. Fer. Tab. Moll, (not synonyma). 

Inhab. under stones, decayed leaves, &e., in woods. 
i2 



172 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Animal white, with two black lines ; mantle white, 
speckled with black. 

Shell varying from one fifth to one sixth of an 
inch in diameter, somewhat like Z. crystalling but 
larger, more convex, and less shining, the whorls 
less closely set, and the outer one larger in propor- 
tion to the rest : the umbilicus is also larger. 

Mr. Jeffreys considers it as a variety of H. nitidula, 
but Mr. Alder justly observes, that it differs from 
that species in being scarcely one third the size, of a 
different colour, and without any trace of opacity 
underneath. This species preserves its characters 
unchanged even when living in the midst of its 
allies. 

Ferussac refers to H. nitidula a. Drap. for this 
species. There is no such variety. Var. ft. of that 
author, which Mr. Alder thinks he evidently intended 
to refer to, is his H. radiatula. His species has 
neither been figured nor described; but Mr. Alder ob- 
serves that the specimens in his cabinet are undoubt- 
edly the horn-coloured variety of H. pura. (1. c. 108.) 

Mr. Alder observes, " Dr. Turton's figure of 
H. pura (f. 43.) is not a bit like the shell; it is 
five or six times too large, and the wrong colour. 
If intended to be magnified, it .should be so stated, 
and a figure of the natural size put alongside." 
(Letter, May 30.) 

51.8. ZomTEsnitidulus. Dull Snail, (t. . f. 136.) 
Shell nearly flat, deep yellowish horn-colour, 
sub-pellucid, rather strongly wrinkled, of a dull 
waxy appearance above, more shining below, 
except near the umbilicus, around which it is of 



HELICIDJE. 173 

an opake white; whorls 4 J ; umbilicus large, 

exposing the second whorl. 
Helix nitidula. Drap. 117. t. 8. f. 21, 22. ; Gray, 

Med. Repos. 1821. 239.; Shepp. Linn. Trans. 

xiv. 160. ; Alder, Cat. 134. 49. ; Mag. Zool. $ 

Bot. ii. 107.; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xiii. 340. 
Var. 1 . Helmii, transparent greenish white. Alder, 

1. c. 107. 
Helix Helmii, Gilbertson, MSS. British Museum. 

Inhab. hedge sides, under stones, &c. 

Animal dark lead-colour. (Sturm, t. 12.) 

Shell about three tenths of an inch in diameter. 
Differs from Z. cellaria in being smaller, rather more 
convex above, and more concave beneath ; of a dull 
lustre, darker colour, and more strongly wrinkled 
above; the umbilicus is larger, and the aperture set 
at a less oblique angle ; the opake white, also, is not 
so much diffused over the base of the shell, but it is 
confined to the edge of the umbilicus. The animal 
is of a darker colour. (Alder.) 

Mr. Gilbertson thinks that there are some pecu- 
liarities in the habit of the animals, together with the 
white colour of the variety of the shell, which induces 
him to consider Z. Helmii as distinct from Z. niti- 
dulus, but as yet he has not published his observations 
on it 

52. 9. ZONITES radiatulus. Rayed Snail, (t. 5. 
f. 137. and 50. ?) Shell depressed, horn-coloured, 
rather shining, transparent, regularly striated ; 
3J or 4 whorls, flattened at their junction 
with the inner ones, over which the striae 
appear continuous and strongly marked, giving 
i 3 



174 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

the shell a radiated appearance (under a magni- 
fier) ; the outer whorl rather large in proportion 
to the rest, under side smooth, without any 
whiteness ; umbilicus moderately large. 

Helix striatula. Gray, Med. Repos. 1821. 239. 

radiatula. Alder, Cat. 12. n. 50.; Mag. 

Zool. fy Bot. ii. 207. ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xiii. 
511. 

Helix nitidula. Pfeiffer, Midland. 
- j3. Drap. 

. brevipes. Turton, Man. ed. 1. t. 5. f. 50.?? 

Var. 1. Vitrina, transparent, greenish white. 

Helix vitrina. Ferussac, Prod. 

Inhab. woods, &c. in wet moss* 

Animal black. 

Shell about one twentieth of an inch in diameter. 

This species may be distinguished from the young 
of the other Zonites by the regular and more distinct 
striae, and particularly by the flatness of the whorls 
at their junctions. 

This shell was first indicated as British in the 
Medical Repository for 1821, but as it was not de- 
scribed, Mr. Alder's name must be adopted. 

53. 10. ZONITES lucidus. Lucid Snail, (t. 4. f. 38.) 
Shell depressed, rather convex, thin brownish 
horn-colour, transparent, shining, finely striated, 
whorls 4J or 5; umbilicus large, exposing the 
second whorl ; aperture roundish. 
Helix lucida. Drap. 103. t. 8. f. 11, 12. (not 
Montagu] ; Brard, 34. t. 2. f. 3, 4. ; Gray, Med. 
Repos. 1821. 239. ; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 56. f. 38, 
(not 40.). 



175 

Helix nitida. Mutter, Verm. ; Alder, Mag. ZooL $ 

Bot. ii. 107. 

Helix tenuis. Dillicyn. 
Inhab. moist ditches and marshy places. 
Animal black or blackish grey; foot and lower 
side of body grey ; tentacles and neck black. (Sturm, 
t. 11.) 

The shell appears dark chocolate when the animal 
is alive, and is about a quarter of an inch 
in diameter. It differs from Z. ccttaria, 
Z. alliaria, and nitidula, in being more 
convex, more regularly striated, of a darker 
colour, and without any trace of opacity on the un- 
der side. 

Nilson describes the eggs as depressed, globose, 
covered with a white calcareous shell. They are 
solitary, and deposited in May or June. This snail is 
sometimes so abundant in pine-beds and orchidaea- 
houses as to be a great detriment to the plant ; hence 
they have been called Pine Snails and Orchideous Snails. 

54.11. ZONITES excavatus. Excavated Snail, (t.4. 

f. 39.) Shell sub-globular, depressed, shining, 

transparent horn-colour, regularly striated; 

whorls 5 or 6, rather rounded and closely set ; 

base much rounded, umbilicus very large and 

deep, exposing all the whorls to the tip ; aperture 

nearly orbicular lunate. 
Helix excavata. Bean, MSS.; Alder, Cat. 13. n. 52.; 

Mag. Zool. $ Bot. ii. 107. 
Helix lucida var. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 57. t. 4. 

f. 39. 
Helix nitida a. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xiii. 339 

511. 

I 4 



176 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Inhab. under decayed wood, and timber that has 
lain some time on the ground. 

Animal lead-coloured. 

Shell about one quarter of an inch in diameter ; 
it very much resembles Z. lucida, but may be dis- 
tinguished from it by its greater convexity both above 
and below, and by its peculiarly large umbilicus ; the 
whorls are also rather more convex and more closely 
set, and the outer whorl is not so large in proportion 
to the rest; the striae are rather stronger, the animal 
lighter coloured, and it frequents a different situation. 
The Shell varies in being paler. 

5&. 12. ZONITES crystallinus. Crystalline Snail, 
(t. 4. f. 42.) Shell flat, glossy, of a greenish 
crystalline transparency, with six very gradually 
increasing volutions ; aperture semilunate ; um- 
bilicus small. 
Helix vitrea. Brown. 

- crystallina. Drap. p. 118. t. 8. f. 13 18. 
Gray, Med. Rep. 1821. 239.; Alder, Cat. 108.: 
Turton, Man. ed. 1. 58. f. 42. ; Jeffreys, Linn. 
Trans, xiii. 341. 511. 

Zonites crystallina. Leach, Mollusc, p. 105. 
Var. Helix hyalina. Ferus. Tab. Moll. 224. ? ; 

Alder, Cat. 108. 

In wet meadows, among moss and leaves. 
Animal milky white ; neck long, tentacles, dark 
long, very active. 

Shell, when enclosing the animal, very shining 
white, fulvous on the spire, hardly the eighth of an 
inch in diameter, flat above and a little convex be- 
neath, with six volutions, which enlarge gradually from 
the centre; of a crystalline or watery transparency 



HELICID.K. 177 

with a slight tinge of green; aperture crescent- 
shaped ; umbilicus deep and rather large. 

It may be known from the young of any of the 
former species by its watery transparency, and by the 
number and regularity of its volutions, which increase 
in a gradual proportion, not having the outer one 
much larger than the rest. 

This common shell was first recorded as British in 
the Medical Repository for 1821. 

6. SUCCINEA Drap. (Amber Snail.) 

The animal with a large gelatinous foot, short in- 
flated tentacles, and an oblong spiral body, lying 
on the upper part of the foot ; body covered with 
an oval, oblong, thin shell, with a short conical spire, 
and rapidly enlarging whorls, ending in a large 
longitudnal oblique mouth, with the peristome dis- 
united behind ; pillar smooth, and with an imper- 
forated axis. 

This genus is easily known from Helix and Zonites 
by the oblong shape ; and from LimrKBUs, with which 
the older conchologists often confounded it, by there 
being no appearance of any oblique fold on the pillar. 
Montagu justly observes that the animal, like 
the other Limaces possessing four tentacula, is herma- 
phrodite, and sometimes unites as late as the month of 
August. (Test. Brit. 398., and Sup. 139.) 

If is named from the transparent amber colour of 
its shell. 

They are found in damp marshy places on the mud, 
water-flags, &c., but are scarcely to be considered as 
amphibious, for they are never found in the water, 
like the Limn&i or Pond snails. 

i 5 



178 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

They sometimes form a thin membranaceous trans- 
parent epiphragm. Potiez describes a French species, 
very probably only a variety of S. ollonga, under the 
name of S. arenaria, which he says buries itself in the 
sand during the dry weather. 

56. 1. SUCCINEA putris. Common Amber Snail, 
(t. 4. f. 73.) Shell oblong-oval, smooth, glossy 
and transparent, reddish amber-colour ; whorls 
three ; aperture oblong-oval. 
Turbo tri-anfractus. Da Costa, 92. 
Succinea amphibia. Drap. Hist. Moll. 58. t, 3. 
f. 22, 23. ; Lam. H. vi. 135. ; Brard, p. 72. t. 3. 
f. 1.; Sowerly, Gen. f. 3.; Turt. Man. ed. 1. p. 91. 
Succinea Mulleri. " Leach, Mollusc, p. 78." 

putris. Flem. ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 

325. 505. 
Helix putris. Linn. S. N. 1. 1249.; Mont. p. 376. 

t. 16. f. 14. 
Helix succinea. Mutter, V. ii. 97. ; Turt. Diet. p. 67. 

limosa. Dillwyn, p. 965. 

Bulimus succineus. Brug. 
Cochlohydra putris. Fer. 
Limnea succinea. Flem. 
Tapada putris. Studer. 

In marshes, on aquatic plants, in most parts of 
England. 

Animal grey, spotted ; tentacles rugose. 

Shell, when containing the animal, blue-black; 
about three quarters of an inch long, and half as 
much broad, of a greenish, amber or orange- 
yellow colour, very thin and transparent; spire 
composed of three volutions, the first ex- 




HELICID^. 179 

tremely large and inclining a little obliquely ; the two 
upper ones very small, and ending rather obtusely ; 
aperture covering three fourths of the shell ; pillar 
spiral, visible internally to the end or apex. 

Dr. Fleming observes, "A variety of this shell 
sometimes occurs with a thickened expanded sub- 
reflexed white lip." (Brit. Anim. 267.) I think this 
must be a mistake, and should have been a remark ap- 
pended to LimncBus pereger : it was probably copied 
from H. putris of Maton and Racket, which is the 
latter species ! (See Linn. Trans, viii. 229., and Mont. 
Test. Brit. Sup. 139.) 

57. 2. SUCCINEA Pfeifferi. Slender Amber Snail. 

(t. 4. f. 74.) Shell oblong, slender, transparent, 

shining, internally pearly; mouth very large, 

elongate-acute, very oblique ; outer lip thin. 
Succinea putris. var a. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 

325. 505. 

Succinea amphibia b. Pfeiffer, 67. t. 3. f. 37. 
oblonga. Leach, Moll. MSS. ; Turton, 

Man. ed. 1. t. 4. f. 74.; Alder, Cat. 6. n.20. (not 

Drap.). 
Succinea amphibia /3. Nilson, 41. 

<y and 8 ; Drap. Mollusc, f. -23. 

Succinea Pfeifferi. Rossm. Icon. t. 92. f. 46. 

intermedia. Bean, MSS. 

gracilis. Alder, Mag. Zool. Bot. ii. 106. ; 

Johns*. Berw. N. H. Club, 1838. 
Succinea Levantina. Desk. Lam. Hist.vi. ed.2. 

317.? 

Inhabit banks of rivers and streams, common. 
Very like the former, but is smaller, narrower, 
I 6 



180 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

with a shorter spire, and a more oblique, oblong, 
larger mouth. It is very doubtful if this is more than 
a variety of that variable species. 

Mr. Alder observes, " It may require further inves- 
tigation to decide whether or not this be really dis- 
tinct from S.putris. I have found them plentiful within 
100 yards of each other, each retaining its charac- 
teristic marks in the colour of the animal and shape 
of the shell, and unmixed with the other sorts. Some 
foreign species of this difficult genus, quite as nearly 
allied as this to S. putris, are nevertheless considered 
to be distinct." 

58. 3. SUCCINEA oblonga. Oblong Amber Snail, 
(t. f. 139.) Shell oval, rather ventricose, slightly 
striate, reddish horn-colour; whorls three or 
four, produced ; suture distinct ; aperture oval. 
Succinea oblonga. Drap. p. 59. t. 3. f. 24, 25. ; 
Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 325. 505. ; Alder., 
Mag. Zool. Bot. ii. 106. 

Inhab. edge of ditches, Britonferry, near Swan- 
sea (Jeffreys}^ Bathgate, near Glasgow (Kenyan}. 
Animal black-grey ; tentacles nearly conical. 
Shell small, like Limnceus fossarius in shape ; the 
spire conical, produced, as long as the mouth. 

This is probably the small variety indicated by 
Dr. Johnston, as about 3-10ths of an inch long; it 
is common in Berwickshire. " It seems to be," he 
adds, " a perfect shell, and in the places where it 
abounds, the larger shell is not found." (Berwick 
N. Hist. Club, p. 154.) 



HELICID.E. 181 

7. BULIMUS. (Twist Shell.) 

The animal is moderately large (like the snails), 
with four tentacles, a small elongate foot, and a long 
central, slender, spiral body, covered with an ob- 
long shell ; the spire produced and ending rather 
acutely, with the ultimate volution larger than the 
next; aperture oval, entire at the base, without 
teeth, not half as long as the spire; the peristome 
interrupted ; outer lip generally thickened, reflexed. 

The shell of this genus is distinguished from that of 
LimncBus in wanting the oblique fold on the pillar : 
from the Clausilice in being regular, and in having 
the peristome simple and interrupted ; and from the 
Pupee in having the spire regularly tapering. 

The animal of this genus (and of Pupa according to 
M. Deshayes) is distinguished from the snail (Helix) 
in being destitute of any vesicula multifida. 

Probably called Bulimus from their eagerness to 
feed on vegetable substances. 

Hartmann, and since him Mr. Broderip, have 
changed the name of this genus to Bulinus, thinking 
probably that it was derived from the Bulin of Adan- 
son, but that is an Aplexus. 

They may be divided into two sections. 

a. Ex A Leach. 

Shell ovate, whorls gradually enlarging^ covered with a 
brown periostraca ; peristome thickened, reflexed. 

59. 1. BULIMUS Lackamensis. Wiltshire Twist Shell, 
(t. 6. f. 62.) Shell conic-oblong, reddish brown, 
obliquely striolate ; the peristome reflected and 
forming an umbilicus. 



182 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Helix Lackamensis. Mont. p. 394. t. 11. f. 3. 
buccinata. F. Alton, E. F. Conch. 100. 
t. 12. f. 22. 

Bulimus Montacutus. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 
345. 

Bulimus obscurus. Hartmann. 

montanus. Drap. p. 74. t. 4. f. 22. ; 

Turton, Man. ed. 1. 80. f. 62.; Sturm, Fauna, 
vi. t. 6.; Pfeiffer, 52. t. 2. f. 10. 

Ena montana. Leach, Mollusc, p. 112. 

In moist beech woods, among decayed leaves, and 
on the bark of trees. 

Animal pale ; tantacles club-shaped. (Mont., Sturm.) 

Shell five eighths of an inch long, and a quarter 
of an inch wide, deep chocolate-brown varying to 
light grey, conically elongated; spire consisting of 
seven slightly raised but well-defined volutions end- 
ing in a rather acute point, irregularly and obliquely 
striate longitudinally, and when magnified having 
the appearance of a shagreen-like roughness ; aper- 
ture oblong-oval, with the peristome chocolate- brown 
and reflected, forming an umbilicus behind the 
pillar. 

The shell varies considerably in size and ventri- 
coseness; also in colour, being sometimes whitish 
horn-colour, and semitransparent, arising, as in other 
varieties of the kind, from a disordered state of the 
animal, preventing the secretion of the colouring and 
chalky matter. 

This species, though not uncommon on the Con- 
tinent, appears to have been first described by 
Colonel Montagu, who received it from the south 
of England. 



HELICIDJE. 183 

It appears to grow slowly, for Montagu observes, 
that scarcely one in ten of the shells he found had 
their mouths perfected; when young the shell, as in 
the next, is short, conic, and trochus-like, with a 
sub-quadrangular mouth. (T. B. 395.) 

60. 2. BULIMUS obscurus. Dusky Twist Shell. 

(t. 6. f. 63.) Shell oval-oblong, brown, with 

the peristome white and reflected, forming a 

small umbilicus. 

Helix obscura. Mutter, Verm. 103.; Montagu, 

p. 391. t. 22. f. 5. 
Turbo rupium. Da Costa, p. 90. ; List. Any. 

t. 2. f. 8. 
Bulimus hordeaceus. Brug. E. M. 334. ; Lam. 

obscurus. Drap. p. 74. t. 4. f. 23. ; 

Brard, p. 97. t. 3. f. 19.; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 
81. f. 63.: Jeffreys, L. T. xvi. 343. 
Ena obscura. Leach, Mollusc, p. 113. 
In woods and old walls, under stones or moss 
Animal rosy grey ; foot thick, paler ; upper ten- 
tacles subulate. 

Shell half an inch long, and about a third as much 
broad, brown or horn-colour, semitransparent ; spire 
composed of six or seven raised volutions, slightly 
striate longitudinally; aperture oblong-oval, with the 
margin white and reflected, forming a slight um- 
bilicus behind the pillar. The young shell conical, 
pyramidical, with a subquadrangular mouth. 

Except in size, it is not easy to form a very dis- 
tinctive character between this and the last species ; 
but this is of a paler brown, with the volutions more 
rounded, and the peristome is white. 



184 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Varies like the last, and being more common, the 
varieties are more often observed. 

Montagu thought the young shell was the Helix 
ventricosa of Muller. 

The Rev. Mr. Sheppard remarks "These shells, 
particularly in their young state, show great sagacity and 
ingenuity, by covering themselves with a coat adapted 
to the different situations in which they are found ; and 
when so covered, it is almost impossible for any other 
than a conchological eye to discover them. If its 
abode be upon the trunk of a tree covered with 
lichen, then is the epidermis so constructed as to 
cause the shell to resemble a little knot on the bark 
covered with such substance. If on a smooth tree, 
from whose bark issue small sessile buds, as is fre- 
quently the case, it will pass off very well for one of 
them ; and on a dry bank, or the lower part of the 
body of a tree splashed with mud, its appearance will 
be that of a misshaped pointed piece of dirt." ( Linn. 
Trans, xvi. 166.) 

Dr. Turton, in the first edition of this work, in- 
troduced Bulimus decollatus (p. 77. f. 60.) and Bu- 
limus clavulus (p. 79. f. 61.) ; but they cannot be con- 
sidered as even naturalised or acclimatised, for they 
are only found in hot-houses, warmed with artificial 
heat. He also described B. tuberculatus (p. 81. f. 64.), 
a Sicilian species (B. pupa Brug. ), which he intro- 
duced on the authority of Captain Blomer, who ap- 
pears to have given him by mistake, most probably, 
two or three Sicilian shells as British. (See Intro- 
duction., p. 11. and 16.) 



HELICJD^E. 185 

b. ELISMA Leach. 

Shell turreted, white, banded, covered with a thin per i- 
ostraca ; whorls rapidly and regularly enlarging ; 
mouth small ; perislome thin, scarcely reflexed. 

61.3. BULIMUS acutus. Banded Twist Shell, (t. 6. 
f. 67.) Shell oblong, rather acute, coarsely 
wrinkled or striate, generally whitish, with brown 
streaks or bands. 

Elisma fasciata. Leach, Mollusc, p. 109. 
Bulimus acutus. Brug. E. M. 42.; Drap. p. 77 
t. 4. f. 29, 30. ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 346. 
Turbo fasciatus. Pennant, B. Z. i. 31. t. 8. f. 

119. ; Mont. p. 346. t. 22. f. 1. 
Helix bifasciata. Pulteney, 49. ; Linn. Trans, vjii. 

210.; Turton, Diet. p. 63. 

Helix acuta. Mutter, Verm. 110.; Dillwyn, p. 956. 
Lymnaea fasciata. Flem. Ed. Ency. 
Bulimus fasciatus. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 1. 84. f. 67. 

ventricosus. Turton, Man. ed. 1. t. 84. 

f.69. 
Bulimus variabilis. Hartmann ; not Synon. 

- articulatus. Drap. (not Turton, Man. 
ed. 1.). 

On sandy maritime pastures, in the west of England 
and Wales, Ireland and Scotland. 

Animal pale yellowish ; upper tentacles long, sub- 
ulate, lower very short. 

Shell half an inch or rather more in length, and 
about a third as much broad, oblong, semitransparent, 
variously marked, but always coarsely wrinkled longi- 
tudinally, and sometimes of a greyish colour with 



186 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

white longitudinal streaks ; spire consisting of from 
nine to twelve somewhat rounded volutions, ending 
rather acutely ; aperture oval, longer than wide ; the 
peristome reflected and forming a slight perforation 
at the pillar. 

This shell varies very greatly in its colour, being 
sometimes nearly white without bands, and at others 
variously banded ; the hinder bands are often wanting 
or interrupted, and sometimes instead of being banded, 
the shell is marked with oblique longitudinal streaks, 
sometimes the black and sometimes the white being 
the more abundant, and consequently forming the 
ground colour. It varies slightly in shape, and is 
sometimes much elongated. 

The Bulimus ventricosus of Draparnaud and other 
continental authors differs in being shorter, and all 
the whorls more pressed together and ventricose. I 
have never seen any specimens agreeing with this 
foreign species found in England, and believe that 
the specimen which Dr. Turton took for it was 
only one of the numerous varieties of B. acutus, 
as his figure does not represent the continental 
species. 

Montagu (Test. Brit. 348.) erroneously thought 
this species, which has a very wide continental distri- 
bution, was peculiar to England. He thought the 
H. acuta of Gmelin was Bulimus detritus. ( See p. 386.) 
In the places where it is found it is often so abundant 
that it is a prevailing opinion that they contribute 
much to the fattening of sheep. (See Borlase, Hist. 
Corn. 286. ; Mont. Test. Brit. 347.) It is often found 
in company with Helix virgata (see Test. Brit. 417.), 
which is supposed to have the same qualities. 



HELICIDJE. 187 

Mr. Alder most justly observes, that B. articulates 
of Drap. is only a common variety of B. acutus. But 
the specimens of B. articulatus of Turton, which are 
now in the cabinet of Mr. Clark of Bath, accord- 
ing to the observations of Mr. Alder, are a very dis- 
tinct species, not known, he believes, to inhabit Europe. 
Dr. Turton admits this species and B. ventricosus 
into the Fauna, as having been sent him " from the 
plains about Penzance in Cornwall," but without 
stating by whom they were found, or how transmitted 
to him. 

The Bulimus articulatus of Turton (Man. ed. 1. p. 
6. f. 68.), judging from the figure, is a West Indian 
species, named by Mr. Guilding Macroceramus sig- 
natus. (Seep. 20. n.5.) 

8. ZUA Leach. (Varnished Shell.) 

Animal like Bulimus, with an ovate subcylindrical 
rather blunt shell, covered with a smooth polished 
periostraca; mouth ovate, thickened, and united 
all round; peristome toothless; axis imperforated. 

This genus is easily known from Bulimus by the 
polished periostraca and continued, thickened, not 
reflexed lip; and from Azeca by the simple peri- 
stome. 

Mr. Jeffreys has established a genus under the 
name of Cionella for this species and Achatina aci- 
cula ; but these shells appear to have no natural 
alliance to one another, and the characters given 
to the genus are hardly such as could distinguish a 
species. 



188 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

62. 1. ZUA lubrica. Common Varnished Shell, (t. 6. 

f. 65.) Shell cylindrical-oblong, quite smooth, 

glossy, and semitransparent ; the peristome 

thick, without umbilicus. 
Bulimus lubricus. Brug. ; Drap. p. 75. t. 4. f. 

24. ; Brard, p. 98. t. 3. f. 20. ; Pfeiffer, 50. t. 3. 

f. 7.; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 82. f. 65. 
Cionella lubrica. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 347. 
Zua lubrica. Leach, Moll. p. 114. 
Helix lubrica. Mutter, Verm. 104.; Mont. p. 390. 

t. 22. f. 6. 

Helix subcylindrica. Linn. (?); Dillwyn, p. 952. 
Turbo glaber. Da Costa, p. 87. t. 5. f. 18. 
Achatina lubrica. Mich. ; Ferussac ; Alder, Mag. 

Zool. Bot. ii. 110. 
Cochlicopa lubrica. Ferus. ; Risso. 
Lymnaea lubrica. Flem. Ed. Ency. 

Under stones and among moss and grass on the 
ground. 

Animal shining black, brown or blackish grey 
above, paler beneath; tentacles black, lower very 
small. (Sturm.) 

Shell hardly a quarter of an inch long, and a third 
of its length broad, of a glossy brown or horn- colour, 
with often a reddish tinge, quite smooth and polished ; 
spire composed of five or six raised volutions ; aper- 
ture narrow-oval, with the margin thick and not re- 
flected, often of a rosy colour. 

Varies in shape, size, and colour, sometimes trans- 
parent greenish white. 

This species was first figured as English by Lister 
( Anim. Ang. t. 2. f. 7.) and Petiver (Gaz. t. 30. f. 7.). 



189 



9. AZECA Leach. (Trident Shell.) 

Animal like Bulimus, with subcylindrical, rather 
obtuse shell, covered with a polished periostraca ; 
aperture pear-shaped, curved and pointed at the 
top ; the margin thick, obtuse, and united all round 
and toothed ; the axis imperforated. 

In shape, colour, polish and habitat, this shell so 
exactly resembles the Bulimus lubricus, that some 
have questioned if this latter shell be not the same in 
its earlier stage of formation before the teeth appear ; 
but the singular shape of the aperture decidedly re- 
moves it into a distinct genus, which is adopted from 
Dr. Leach. 

Mr. Alder considers this genus as intermediate 
between Bulimus and Clausilia, resembling the former 
in shape, and approaching more to the latter in having 
the peris tome complete, and also more particularly in 
having a longitudinal plate on the columella, consi- 
derably within the aperture, similar in situation and 
making a slight approach in form to the Clausium 
of the genus Clausilia, though attached through its 
whole length, and inflexible. 

63. 1. AZECA tridens. Glossy Trident Shell, (t. 5. 

f. 52.) 
Turbo tridens. Montagu, p. 338. t. 11. f. 2.; 

Laskey, Warn. Soc. i. p. 406. t. 8. f. 11. 
Pupa Goodalli. Ferussac, Prod. 71. 

Britannica. Kenyon, Mag. N. H. ii. 426. f. n. 

Azeca tridens. Leach, Moll. p. 1*22. t. 8. f. 8.; 

Alder, Cat. 32. 



190 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Azeca Goodalli. Fer. ; Alder, Mag. Zool Sf Bot. 

ii. 110. 

Azeca Matoni. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 68. f. 32. 
Carychium Menkeanum. Pfeiffer, 70. t. 3. f. 42. 
In woods, damp closes, under moss, among de- 
cayed leaves, and in thick shady places. 

Animal brownish black, shining; upper tentacles 
cylindrical, club-shaped. 

Shell two tenths of an inch long, and a third part 
A as broad, oblong or conico-cylindrical, brown 
H horn-colour, semitransparent, quite smooth and 
glossy, except close to the sutures, where there 
appear some fine longitudinal striae ; spire com- 
posed of seven flat and hardly raised volutions ; 
aperture pear-shaped, curved, and narrower at the 
upper and outer angle ; the peristome thickened and 
obtuse. 

This shell varies in shape, size, and colour, being 
sometimes transparent greenish white, from want of 
substance and colouring matter. It also varies in 
having one or two additional small teeth in the peri- 
stome alternately with the larger ones. 

10 ACHATINA Lam. (Agate Shell.) 

Animal like Bulimus, with four tentacles and an oval- 
oblong, or somewhat cylindrical shell, obtuse at 
the tip; aperture longitudinal, oval; the outer 
lip thin, without any internal rib, and never re- 
flected; pillar smooth, simple, truncate in front. 

The abruptly truncated termination of the pillar 
or inner lip of the shell will immediately distinguish 
this genus from Bulimus, to which it is in other cha- 



HELICIDvE. 191 

racters so nearly allied. The only British species forms 
a very distinct section, perhaps genus, from the 
larger exotic kinds. 

a. ACICULA Nilson. 

The shell turreted, polished, transparent ; mouth ob- 
long, rather narrow ; upper tentacles subulate, blunt, 
eyeless. 

64. 1. ACHATINA. Acicula. Needle Agate Shell, 
(t. 6. f. 77.) Shell slender, smooth, polished, 
white, with sixflat volutions ; the lower one as 
long as all the others ; mouth elliptical. 

Achatina Acicula. Lam. vi. p. 133. 

Bulimus Acicula. Brug. E. M. 22. ; Drap. p. 75. 
t. 4. f. 25, 26. ; Brard, p. 100. t. 3. f. 21. 

Buccinum terrestre. Mont. p. 248. t. 8. f. 3. 

Acicula. Miiller, Verm. ii. 150.; Dill- 

wt/n, p. 652. 

Helix octona. Gmel. S. N. i. 3653. 

Cionella Acicula. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 348. 

Among the roots of trees, at the base of limestone 
rocks. 

Animal pellucid white, granulately striated ; tenta- 
cula retractile, cylindrical, upper pair longest, granu- 
lar, not thickened at the top, smooth, convexly 
truncated, without any black spot (eyes) ; lower pair 
opposite the angles of the mouth ; foot compressed, 
pointed behind ; breathing-hole large, rounded, in the 
middle of the outer lip of the shell. 

Shell not a quarter of an inch long, taper ; aper- 
ture oval-oblong, appearing as if cut off at the base, 
giving the end of the pillar the resemblance of a 



192 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

tooth ; the outer margin thin, not reflected, nor form- 
ing an umbilicus. 

This common species was first noticed as British 
by Mr. Boys ( fig. 61.), and his figure 89. appears to 
represent the young shell. It is very common, six or 
eight inches deep in the ground, in Yorkshire, on the 
tops of gravel pits, and in Saxon coffins. 

The animal, from the transparency of the shell, 
may be seen to dilate and contract its respiratory 
cavity through the shell. This motion has been 
taken for the beating of the heart; it is irregular 
sometimes fast and sometimes slow. 

The eggs are large compared to the size of the 
shell; and this explains the bluntness of the apex, 
arising from the large size of the body of the animal, 
on which the shell is formed before it is hatched. 

Pfeiflfer, in his delineation of this shell (part 1. 
tab. 3. fig. 8, 9.), has erroneously exhibited the aper- 
ture as quite rounded at the base, without the least 
truncation of the pillar, thereby fixing it in the 
genus Bulimus. 

11. PUPA Lam. (Chrysalis Shell.) 

Animal like Bulimus, with four club-shaped tentacles, 
the lower pair short, small, and with a cylindrical 
abruptly obtuse shell, with close pressed, gra- 
dually enlarging whorls; the mouth semi-oval, 
mostly toothed internally ; peristome reflexed, and 
interrupted behind. 

The young shells have a flattened front to the 
whorls, and a squarish mouth, so that they were mis- 
taken by some of the older conchologists for Trochi; 
the older whorls are more convex and rounded in 



HELICIDJE. 193 

front, and the animal does not form the reflexed lip 
until it has arrived at maturity ; consequently, like the 
ClausilicB among land shells, and the Strombi and Cy- 
prcBCB among marine ones, it only forms the complete 
mouth to its shell once in its life. (See Phil. Trans. 
1833.) 

These shells are called Pupa, Puppet, or Doll, because 
they resemble children in their swaddling-clothes. 

* LAURIA Gray. 

Peristome margined, reflexed ; the young shell with a 
transverse series of short triangular plates. 

Mr. Alder has observed that Pupa umbilicata and 
P. anglica have a very curious and elaborate internal 
structure. They have a raised thread-like lamina, 
running spirally round the columella in the manner 
of a corkscrew, and another similar lamina running 
spirally in the centre of the upper side of the whorls ; 
and there are set at short distances small flat testa- 
ceous plates similar in situation to the septa in Nau- 
tilus lacustris. This complicated structure is, no 
doubt, intended to answer some useful purpose in the 
economy of the animal ; but what is its use besides the 
protection of the animal in a young state, he has not 
been able to discover. It is not continued through the 
lower whorls, and is most distinctly seen in the young 
shells. This structure is not found in the young of 
Pupa marginata, P. edentula^ and P. sexdentata. 

65. 1. PUPA umbilicata. Umbilicated Chrysalis 
Shell, (t. 7. f. 78.) Shell cylindrical, bald, 
smooth, brownish ; whorls five to seven ; mouth 
elongate lunate, with a single laminar tooth 



194 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

united to the upper angle of the outer lip ; peri- 
stome with a white flat reflected margin ; umbi- 
licus narrow. 

Pupa umbilicata. Drup. p. 62. t. 3. f. 39, 40.; 
Jeffreys, Linn. Tran. xvi. 357. ; Rossm. t. 23. 
f. 327. 

Pupilla DraparnaudiL Leach, Mollusc, p. 126. 
Turbo muscorum. Mont. p. 335. t. 22. f. 3. ; 

Linn. Trans, viii. 182. 

Turbo cylindraceus. Da Costa, p. 89. t. 5. f. 16. 
Bulimus muscorum. Brug. 
Odostomia muscorum. Flem. Ed. Ency. 
Jaminia muscorum. Risso, E. M. iv. p. 88. 
Var. edentula. Mouth without teeth. 
Under stones, in clefts of old walls, and under the 
bark of trees, in shady places. Common in England 
and Scotland. 

Animal granular, head and tentacles black, lower 
very small; foot whitish. (Michaud.) 

Shell two lines long, dark horn-colour, glossy and 
semitransparent ; spire composed of six rounded vo- 
lutions finely striate longitudinally ; aperture 
roundish-oval, with a broad, flat glossy white 
margin, and a single tooth which is parallel 
with the margin and close to the outer lip, 
appearing like a curved continuation of the 
margin itself; pillar with a large deep perforation 
behind it. 

This does not appear to be the Turbo muscorum of 
Linnaeus, who describes it as having no tooth in the 
aperture, " apertura edentula ; " and no where men- 
tions the remarkable broad white margin. 

Mr. Alder, on breaking some of these shells, found 
them to contain (ten or twelve) young shells with the 



HELICID^. 195 

first whorl of the shell formed. This would lead to 
the conclusion that the animal is viviparous. The 
same has been observed to be the case with several 
other terrestrial shells, as Bulimus decollatus, Achatina 
octona, and some Carocollce, as C. bicolor. 

66. 2. PUPA anglica. English Chrysalis Shell, (t. 7. 
f. 82.) Shell ventricose, shining, bald, fulvous; 
whorls five; aperture elongate-lunate, five- tooth- 
ed; the peristome flattened and reflected; um- 
bilicus cylindrical. 
Vertigo anglica. Ferussac, Mollusc. ; Turton, Man. 

ed. 1. f. 82. 
Pupa tridentalis. Michaud, Compl 61. 1. 15. f. 28. 

30. ? 
Pupa anglica. Potiez an d Michaud, Gall. i. 195. t. 

20. f. 1. 2. 

Turbo anglicus. Wood, Cat. Supp. t. 6. f. n. 
Pupa ringens. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 356. 

bidentata. Pfeiffer, i. 59. t. 3. f. 21, 22. 

Inhab. woods, north of England, Northumberland, 
Lancashire. 

Animal dark lead-coloured, white beneath. 
Shell two lines long, and half as much broad, dark 
chocolate-brown with often a greyish cast, especially 
towards the point, opake, faintly striate longitudinally; 
spire composed of six or seven slightly raised volu- 
tions ; aperture semielliptic, with a tubercular pro- 
jection near the top of the outer lip, and five teeth, 
two at the base, one of them small and tubercular, 
one central at the top, one at the top of the outer 
angle, parallel with and united to the peristome, 
curving so as nearly to meet the marginal tubercle, 
and form a circular enclosure ; and an oblique one on 

K2 



196 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

the pillar; peristome flat, brown, reflected, with a 
strong umbilicus behind the pillar. 

b PUPILLA Leach. 

Peristome with a strong external rib, and a single tooth 
in the hinder part of the mouth ; young shell with a 
simple cavity. 

67. 3. PUPA marginata. Margined Chrysalis Shell, 
(t. 7. f. 79.) Shell cylindrical, bald, shining 
brown; whorls five to seven, convex; mouth round- 
ish lunate, with a single minute interior central 
tooth, and a strong white external rib behind the 
outer lip. 

Pupa marginata. Drap. p. 61. t. 3. f. 36.38.; 
Pfeiffer, 59. t. 3. f. 23. 24. ; Brard, p. 93. t. 3. f. 
15, 16.; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 358.; Tur- 
ton, Man. ed, 1. 98. f. 79. 

Pupilla marginata. Leach, Mollusc, p. 127. 

Turbo chrysalis. Turt. Diet. p. 220. 

Pupa muscorum. Lam. 

Helix muscorum. Mutter, Verm. 105.; Ferus. 

Alsea marginata. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 357. 

Jaminia marginata. Risso, iv. 89. 

Pupa muscorum. Pfeiffer, iii. 61.?; Rossm. i. 
83. t. 2, f. 37. and 323. 

Turbo marginata. Sheppard, Linn. Trans, xiv. 
154. ; not Brown. 

Var. 1. Mouth with the tooth obliterated. 

Under stones, in dry pastures, and moist open places. 

Animal grey-black. 

Shell the tenth of an inch long, brown or yellow- 
ish horn-colour; spire composed of six or seven 
rounded and slightly striate volutions ; aperture semi- 
circular, with generally a small tubercular tooth 



HELICIDJE. 197 

placed in the middle and deep within the 
mouth, but which is sometimes very obscure 
and often totally wanting; peristome thin, 
not margined, but slighty reflected and form- 
ing an umbilicus ; and behind the outer lip 
is a thick white rounded rib. 

This species varies very much in size, and in the 
compactness of the spire. 

Captain Brown has added to the list Pupa unidentata 
Pfeiffer (Brown, B. S. t. 41. f. 4.) and P. Udentata 
Pfeiffer (Brown, B. S. t. 41. f. 6.). According to 
Rossmasler (i. 83.), these species of Pfeiflfer are only 
varieties of P. marginata. Brown's figures are so bad 
that it is not possible to determine what species they 
are intended to represent. 

ABIDA Leach. 

Peristome slightly reflexed ; throat many-plaited ; cavity 
of the young shell simple. 

68. 4. PUPA juniperi. Juniper Chrysalis Shell, (t. 7. 
f. 81.) Shell cylindrical, attenuated at the tip, 
brown, striated; aperture with seven or eight la- 
minar teeth; the peristome acute and slightly 
reflected. 

Turbo juniperi. Montagu, p. 340. t. 12. f. 12. 

Pupa secale. Drap. p. 64. t. 3. f. 49, 50. ; Pfeif- 
fer, 55. t. 3. f. 14. ; Jeffreys, L. T. xvi. 353. ; 
Eossm. Icon. p. 82. t. 2. f. 35. 

Abida secale. Leach, Mollusc, p. 165. 

Vertigo secale. lurton, Man. ed. 1. 101. t. 7. f. 81. 

Chondrus secale a. Hartmann, 218. n. 20.; 
Sturm, vi. 7. t. 4. 

Torquilla secale. Studer, Cat. 19. 
K 3 



198 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Cochlodonta secale. Fer. Prod. 64. 

Inhab. roots of trees and under stones, in chalky 
districts, and cracks in rocks in oolite limestone. 

Animal blackish brown, warty, foot slender. 

Shell a quarter of an inch or rather more in length, 
of a greyish brown colour, opake, obliquely striate 
longitudinally; spire composed of eight or nine 
rounded volutions; aperture with seven or eight 
laminar teeth, two on the pillar lip; three on the 
outer lip, including the central one, all of which are 
visible on the back in the appearance of three pale 
bands ; and two on the interrupted part of the peri- 
stome, the outer one of which is more prominent 
and close to the margin, with often a tubercle on its 
outside. 

The shell of the young animal is clothed with an 
earthy covering, like Bulimus obscurus. In this state 
it is described by Miiller, according to Jeffreys, un- 
der the name of Helix ventricosa. 

Montagu (T. B. 340.) truly observes, that "these 
projections, usually called teeth, are not properly den- 
ticles or tooth-shaped protuberances, but are fine 
white laminae or ridges running spirally backwards in a 
parallel direction to each other ; those on the exterior 
lip may in most instances be traced through the 
outside of the shell," they are in fact foldings in of the 
substance of the shell, caused by some withdrawing 
of the mantle of the animal in the part immediately in 
connection with them ; this is also the case with many 
of the foreign "toothed" Helices (Helicodontce) . The 
true teeth must be formed nearly in the same way, but 
they are produced by repeated deposits of layers of 
calcareous matter, one over the other, to fill up the 
cavity as the mantle is withdrawn : while these plaits 



HELICID^. 199 

are produced by a sudden contraction of the part 
which forms a mould for the newly deposited portion 
of the shell. 

12. VERTIGO Mutter. (Whorl Shell.) 

The animal, like Bnlimus, with only two elongate 
clavate tentacles, the lower pair being wanting or 
rudimentary, and with a subcylindrical, abruptly 
obtuse shell, with close pressed, gradually enlarging 
whorls ; the mouth contracted, more or less angular, 
generally toothed internally, and thickened by an 
exterior rib ; peristome simple. 

This genus has a shell very like the Pupce, but 
was separated from them by Muller; and his division 
has been adopted by most succeeding zoologists, be- 
cause the animal has the upper pair only of tentacles, 
which bear the eyes, developed. 

a. ISTHMIA Gray. (Ala?a Jeffreys.") 
Shell dextral, cylindrical; mouth margined externally. 

69. 1. VERTIGO edentula. Toothless Whorl Shell, 
(t. 7. f. 80.) Shell conic-oval, ventricose, brown, 
with five or six volutions ; aperture semicircu- 
lar, without any tooth ; the peristome simple, 
without margin or rib ; umbilicus minute. 

Pupa edentula, Drap. p. 59. t. 3. f. 28, 29.; 
Pfeiffer ; Alder, Mag. Zool. 8f Bot. ii. 112.; 
Turton, Man. ed. 1. 99. t. 7. f. 80. 

Turbo Offtonensis. Sheppard, Linn. Trans, xiv. 
155.? 

Vertigo nitida. Ferus. Tab. Moll. 64. 

Alsea nitida. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 358. 515, 
K 4 



200 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Turbo muscorum var. Montagu, T. B. 356. 
Jaminia edentula. Risso, iv. 89. 
Alsea revoluta. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 5 1 5. 558. 
Turbo edentulus. Wood, Cat. Suppl. t. 6. f. 14. 
Var. Shell more elongated arid cylindrical. 

Marshy places, at the roots of grass, under stones 
and on trees. 

Animal grey; upper tentacles clavate. 

Shell the tenth of an inch long, horn-colour, trans- 
parent, slightly striate ; spire composed of five or six 
rounded and deeply divided volutions ; aperture with a 
very thin margin, without the rib behind the outer lip. 

The young shells are very transparent light horn- 
colour, and brittle ; the apex of the adult shell is often 
whitish and slightly eroded. 

Montagu was acquainted with this shell, but had 
not fixed it as a distinct species. 

It is very probable that this is the true Turbo mus- 
corum of Linnaeus, as it most accurately answers his 
definition in the Systema Naturae. " Testa ovata 
obtusa pellucida, anfractibus senis secundis, apertura 
edentula." 

Mr. Jeffreys, in his Supplement, observes, " The 
Al&a revoluta of his Synopsis is an old bleached spe- 
cimen, with the aperture placed more extrinsecall^ 
than usual." (Linn. Trans, xvi. 515.) 

70. 2. VERTIGO cylindrica. Cylindrical Whorl Shell, 
(t. 140. f. 10.) Shell attenuated, pellucid, pale 
brown, acutely obliquely striated; whorls five, 
convex; mouth ovate, slightly margined exter- 
nally, toothless; umbilicus narrow. 
Pupa obtusa. Flem. Brit. Anim. 269. ; not Drap. 



HELICIDJE. 201 

Alaea cylindrica. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 359. 

515. 

Vertigo cylindrica. Ferussac, Tab. Moll. 64. ; Al- 
der, Mag. Zool. Bot. ii. 112. 
Pupa muscorum var. a. Drap. Hist. Moll. 59. t. 

3. f. 36, 37. 

Pupa minutissima. Hartmann, Neue Alpina, 220. 
t. 2. f. 5. ; Pfeiffer, iii. 38. t. 7. f. 12, 13. ; Rossm. 
Icon. i. t. 2. f. 38. 84. 
Pupa minuta. V. Charpentier, MSS, 
Inhab. under stones on downs. 
Animal blackish red, shining. 

Dr. Fleming, who first described this shell, con- 
founded it with Pupa obtusa of Drap., but he observed 
that it is not a line in length, while Draparnaud's 
shell is about half an inch; this has only five whorls, 
and his has eight. It was sent to Dr. Fleming by 
Mr. Chambers, surgeon, Kirkaldy, who found it in 
the parish of Balmenna, Fifeshire. 

Mr. Forbes states, that this is the Pupa obtusa de- 
scribed by Dr. Fleming; for he has " a specimen which 
belonged to Captain Laskey, so labelled by himself." 
Mr. Jeffreys has referred it, as a synonym, to Pupa 
alpestris. 

71. 3. VERTIGO pygm&a. Pygmy Whorl Shell, 
(t. 7. f. 83.) Shell egg-shaped, rather ventricose, 
bald, shining, reddish brown ; whorls four or five ; 
mouth orbicular lunate, with five teeth, one of 
which is superior and central between the lips of 
the peristome ; the peristome acute, margined 
externally. 

Vertigo vulgaris. Leach, Mollusc, p. 129. 

Pupa pygmaea. Drap. p. 60. t. 3. f. 30, 31. 
K 5 



202 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Vertigo pygmsea. Ferus. Tab. Moll. 64. ; Turton, 
Man. ed. 1. f. 83.; Alder, Mag. Zool Bot. ii. 
112. 

Helix Isthima cylindrica. Gray, Med. Repos. 
1821. 239. 

Turbo sexdentatus jun. Montag. T. B. 337. 

Alaea vulgar is. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 359. 

On dry barren hills, under stones. 

Animal blackish grey ; tentacles very short. 

Shell a line long, dark brown, semitransparent ; 
spire composed of five rounded and nearly smooth 
volutions ; aperture somewhat triangular, with usually 
five teeth, two on each lip, and a central one on the 
upper part; peristome thin, whitish when the shell is 
perfect, slightly reflected and forming an umbilicus, 
with a longitudinal external rib on the outer lip. 

72. 4. VERTIGO alpestris. Alpine Whorl Shell, (t. 

f. 141.) Shell cylindrical, pale horn-colour, 
transparent, striolate, with five whorls a little 
rounded ; aperture semicircular, outer lip slightly 
bent and reflected ; teeth four, situated as in V. 
pygmcea. 

Vertigo alpestris. Ferussac, MSS.; Alder, Mag. 
Zool. fy Bot. ii. 112. 

Inhab. old walls. 

Differs from V. pygm&a, to which it is very like, in 
being more cylindrical and slightly striated. The 
shell is about one tenth of an inch long, half as 
broad. 

73. 5. Vertigo substriata. Six-tooothed Whorl Shell. 

(t. 7. f. 84.) Shell subcylindrical, ventricose, shin- 



HELIC1DJE. 203 

ing, striated, yellow horn-colour; mouth orbicular 
lunate, rather sinuated, with two or three plaits 
on the pillar, and three on the outer lip. 

Turbo sexdentatus. Montagu, T. B. t. 12. f. 
8. ? ?; Sheppard, Linn. Trans, xiv. ]56. 

Vertigo 4-5-dentata. Studer, Cat. 

similis. Ferussac, Prod. 64, 

Pupa sexdentata. Alder. 

' substriata. Alder, Cat. 

Alaea substriata. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 315. 

Vertigo substriata. Alder, Cat. Supp., and Mag. 
ZooL fr Bot. ii. 112. 

Vertigo sexdentata. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 1. 7. f. 84. 

pygmsea. Pfeiffer? 

Inhab. marshy places, at the roots of grass, and 
under stones; Suffolk, north of England, Preston, 
Newcastle. 

Animal blackish grey. 

Shell somewhat smaller than V. pygmcea, and of a 
more conical shape, with the volutions (four or five) 
more rounded and better defined ; and may be 
readily known by the two distinct teeth on the sur- 
face between the two lips on the upper part of the 
aperture, the right tooth much the larger. The tip 
is mostly shining; mouth slightly margined exter- 
nally ; peristome thin, reflexed ; perforation small. 

The figure (84.) of the first edition, did not well 
represent this species, which is the smallest of the 
tribe ; it has neither the striae nor the more rounded 
whorls which distinguish it. 

Dr. Turton refers Montagu's T. Q-dentatus to this 
species, Mr. Jeffreys refers it to V. palustris. 

K6 



204 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

74. 6. VERTIGO palustris. Marsh Whorl Shell, (t. 7. 
f. 85.) Shell oval, ventricose, shining, brown, 
whorls five ; aperture orbicular lunate ; margins 
externally sinuated, with eight unequal teeth, 
three of which are superior and between the lips 
of the peristome. 

Pupa antivertigo. Drap. p. 60. t. 3. f. 32, 33. ? 
Vertigo palustris. Leach, Mollusc, p. 128. t. 8. f. 10. 
Alsea palustris. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 360. 
Vertigo Montagua, Leach, MSS. 
Pupa muscorum. Mont. T. B. 337. t. 12. f. 8.?; 
Maton and Racket, Linn. Trans, viii. 183. ; 
Pulteney, Dorset. 52. t. 19. f. 12. 
Helix septemdentata. Ferus. Prod. 
Jnhab. marshy situations. 

Animal grey-black, and shining; upper tentacles 
short, inflated at the base, lower dot-like; front of 
head proboscis-like. 

Shell smaller than the last, of a deep chestnut- 
brown colour, with the margin of the aperture 
whitish ; teeth three above and three below, and one 
on each side, and often a ninth tuberc.ular tooth. 

It may easily be distinguished by the three very 
discernible white teeth of unequal size within the 
upper and truncated part of the aperture, whereas 
there is only a single central one apparently visible in 
the same position in V. pygm&a, and two in V. sub- 
striata. The mouth varies with from six to nine teeth. 
Dr. Leach first described and named this species 
from some specimens which I found on Wimbledon 
Common in 1817, and presented to the Museum col- 
lection. It was first published as British by Ferussac 
in his Concordance. 



HELICIDJE. 205 



b. VERTIGO Mutter. 

Shell cylindrical fusiform, sinistral ; mouth margined 
externally. 

75. 7. VERTIGO pusilla. Wry-necked Whorl Shell. 

(t. 7. f. 86.) Shell ventricose, attenuated, bald, 
rather shining, very brittle, pale brown ; whorls 
five; mouth subquadrate, rounded beneath; 
plaits six or seven, white, two or three on the 
column, and four on the lips; peristome thin; 
umbilicus rather narrow. 

Vertigo pusilla. Muller, Verm. ii. 124.; Alder, 
Mag. Zool.fyBot. ii. 112.; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans. 
xvi. 361. 

Jaminia heterostropha. Risso, iv. p. 93. 

Vertigo heterostropha. Leach, Mollusc, p. 130. 

Pupa Vertigo. Drap. p. 61. t. 3. f. 34, 35. 

Inhab. moist woods, under stones. 

Animal grey, paler beneath ; foot slender. 

Shell half a line long, pale chestnut-brown, semi- 
transparent, striolate; spire composed of five much 
rounded volutions; aperture reversed, somewhat 
triangular, obliquely truncate, with the peristome 
thin, white, and slightly reflected, forming an umbili- 
cus behind the pillar ; behind the outer lip is a longi- 
tudinal rib, and two or three transverse pale lines, 
being the reflection of the internal teeth ; teeth two 
above, and five round the mouth, with sometimes an 
eighth tooth on the pillar lip. 

76. 8. VERTIGO angustior. Narrow Whorl Shell. 

(t. . f. 142.) Shell ventricose, barrel-shaped, 



206 PNEUMONOBRANCH1ATA. 

pale fulvous, very slightly and sharply striated ; 
whorls four or five, last broad; mouth sub-trian- 
gular; teeth four or five, two on the column 
and two or three on the outer lip ; peristome 
rather thickened. 

Turbo Vertigo. Mont. Test. Brit. 363. t. 12. f. 6. 

Vertigo angustior. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 
361.; Alder, Mag. Zool. Bot. ii. 112. 

Inhab. rejectamenta of a small stream at Marino, 
near Swansea. 

Mr. Jeffreys observes, besides the very different 
contour and more contracted aperture of this shell, 
the circumstance of the back being more sunk in 
some specimens than in others, which peculiarity 
denotes the growth of dentate shells, sufficiently re- 
futes the idea of its being the young of V. pusilla. 

Mr. Alder observes, that the difference between 
this species and V. pusilla appears to be more in the 
number of the teeth than in the colour of the shell ; 
and if the former is permanent, it is undoubtedly 
the better character of the two. He further re- 
marks, " I have some doubt about this species : I 
examined Mr. Jeffreys' specimen, but could not satisfy 
myself of its distinctness from V. pusilla : I take it 
upon faith." 

After considerable inquiries and correspondence, 
I have not been able to procure a specimen of this 
species, to examine or figure; and thence I cannot 
offer any opinion on the subject of its distinctness. 

Captain Brown has added to the list Pupa labiata 
Brown, B. S. t. 41. f. 7. ; but the figures are so in- 
distinct that I cannot determine them. 



HELICID^E. 207 

13. BALNEA. (Moss Shell.) 

The animal is like Bulimus, but the shell is reversed, 
thin, with an elongated taper spire, the last volu- 
tion larger than the next; aperture roundish-oval, 
entire at the base, oblique, with a single tooth on 
the pillar, which is wanting in the young shells, 
and the pillar is destitute of any valve-like plait or 
clausium. 

This shell is often mistaken for a young unformed 
specimen of Clausilia, but it may be known from 
those shells by the front of the last whorl being con- 
vex and simple, and not flattened and furnished 
with a keeled ridge near the outer edge, as is the 
case with the young of all the species of that genus. 

From Bulimus and Pupa this genus is distinguished 
by the aperture being left-handed ; from Clausilia, in 
having the ultimate volution proportionately larger 
than the next ; and from Vertigo, in the regularity of 
its mouth. 

77. 1. BAL.EA perversa. Fragile Moss Shell, (t. 6. 
f. 70.) Shell rather linear-oval, transparent yel- 
lowish; whorls six or seven; mouth subquad- 
rate. 

Balaea fragilis. Leach, Moll. p. 116.; Alder, Cat. 
8. 427.; Mag. Zool Bot. ii. 111. 

Balea fragilis. Gray, Zool. Journ. i. p. 61. 

Pupa fragilis. Drap. p. 68. t. 4. f. 4. 

Turbo perversus. Mont. p. 335. t. 11. f. 12. 

Balea perversa. Flem. B. A. 

Odostomia perversa. Flem. Ed. Ency. 

Clausilia fragilis. Studer ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans. 
xvi. 351. 



'208 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

On the trunks of trees, under the bark, and im- 
bedded in the lichen ; also in the fissures of rocks. 

Animal brownish yellow ; neck black ; foot grey, 
granular, spotted, narrow, and elongate; tentacles, 
upper thick, short, clavate ; lower scarcely visible, 
very small, tubercular ; muzzle very blunt and large. 

Shell about a quarter of an inch long, slender, and 
tapering to a rather sharp point, transparent yellow- 
ish horn-colour, slightly striate longitudinally; spire 
consisting of from six to nine raised and well-defined 
volutions ; aperture roundish- oval ; the peristome 
thin, simple and a little reflected at the pillar so as 
to form a slight umbilicus. In old and full-grown 
shells there may be observed a slight fold or tooth 
about the middle of the pillar, but which is seldom 
to be met with. 

These shells vary considerably in their size, co- 
lour, and shape, some being more ventricose than 
others. Mr. Jeffreys, probably forgetting that these 
animals are all hermaphrodite, observes, " The fe- 
males have their shells much more ventricose and with 
fewer volutions." (Linn. Trans, xvi. 351.) 

14. CLAUSILIA. (Close Shell.) 

The animal like Bulimus, but the shell is reversed, 
with an elongated, slender, fusiform spire, the 
last volution less tumid than the one before it, with 
an obtuse or papillary summit ; aperture oval, ob- 
lique, united all round and margined, toothed; throat 
furnished with an internal spiral shelly plait, or 
clausium, fixed on an elastic pedicle, which closes 
the cavity when the animal is withdrawn. 
The elegant spindle-shaped outline of this family 



HELICID.E. 209 

having the last volution slenderer than the one above 
it, and being consequently more tumid above the 
aperture, fixes its distinction from Bulimus,, as well as 
the peculiarity in the appendage. 

The dausium or peculiar elastic valve in the last 
whorl of these shells was first noticed by D'Aubenton, 
in his Distribution Methodique des Coquillages, in the 
Memoires de T Academic des Sciences de Paris, and accu- 
rately described by Otho F. M'uller, in his excellent 
Historium Vermium, &c., in 1773, and by him called 
ossicula and scala. He beautifully and accurately 
described its peculiar functions. 

Draparnaud has since described it as a new dis- 
covery, having overlooked Miiller's account, though 
he frequently quotes his work. Cuvier, in his Regne 
Animal, iii. 45., speaks of it, but says he does not 
know its use to the animal. 

In the Annals of Philosophy for 1822, Mr. Miller, 
who also appears not to have seen Muller's descrip- 
tion, for he specially tells us that he discovered it in 
1814, and showed it to Dr. Leach in the following 
year, before Draparnaud published his account of it, 
gives the following interesting account of its mecha- 
nism. 

" Independently of the various contrivances which 
nature has resorted to for the protection of the other- 
wise easily vulnerable Mollusca, it has taken peculiar 
care to guard the apertures of many univalves froir 
the intrusion of enemies; hence the apertures are 
sometimes peculiarly contracted and provided witl 
numerous folds and teeth. Other Mollusca have a 
calcareous operculum permanently formed, which in- 
creases in thickness, and enlarges on a depressed 



210 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

spiral plane, as the opening of the shell extends with 
the growth of the animal, thus continually assimilating 
to its size, and when the animal retreats, excluding it 
completely from all external intrusion. In the Clau- 
silia, nature has continued the protection afforded by 
means of contractions and folds, and also added an 
opercular appendage. The inhabitant of the Clau- 
silia, when nearly full grown, secretes a thread-like 
elastic calcareous filament, one of whose ends is af- 
fixed to the columella. This filament makes half a 
spiral turn round the columella, insinuating between 
its folds. When the animal finishes its shell and 
completes the aperture, it secretes, at the unattached 
end of the filament, a spoon-shaped calcareous lamina 
conforming at its margin to the contour of the aper- 
ture. The lamina is somewhat smaller than this, 
and its margin is rounded. 

" Its adhesion to an elastic filament enables the ani- 
mal to push it, when it comes out of its shell, against 
the columella ; and the same elasticity closes it, on the 
inhabitant retreating, thus securing it from intruding 
enemies. Thus, then, this valve may be compared 
to a door provided with an elastic spring. The elas- 
ticity of the filament may be restored to its full power 
(in the empty shell) by sometimes immersing it in 
water, as I have ascertained in a section, made with a 
view to this inquiry." (Ann. Phil. iii. 378.) 

Draparnaud has named this valve-like appendage 
the clausiurri) and Cuvier (Regne Animal, ii. 409.) 
states, " de cette lame on ignore 1'usage dans 1'animal 
vivant." 

In my conchological observations (ZoologicalJour- 
nal) i. 212.) I gave the following more particular 
account of this appendage. 



RELIGION. 211 

" Of all the wonderful contrivances employed by 
nature for the protection of the Mollusca, there is 
none which is more calculated to excite the admira- 
tion of the conchologist than the clausium, an elastic 
appendage which closes the aperture of the Clausilice. 
It consists of a spirally twisted thin shelly plate, in- 
closed in the last whorl of the shell, and attached to 
the columella by an elastic pedicle. When the ani- 
mal is retracted within its shell, this shelly plate nearly 
covers the aperture at a little distance within the 
mouth, and coming in contact with a transverse plait 
on the outer lip, leaves only a small canal, formed 
between the outer plait and the posterior angle of the 
mouth, and sometimes an elongated longitudinal plait 
on the inner lip. When the animal wishes to protrude 
itself, it pushes the plate on one side into a groove 
situated between the inner plait and the columella, 
where it is detained by the pressure of the body of 
the animal, leaving the aperture free ; and when the 
animal withdraws itself, the plate springs forward by 
the elasticity of its pedicle, and closes the aperture. 
This curious structure, and also the plaits of the 
mouth, which are intimately connected with it, are 
not formed until the animal has nearly reached matu- 
rity. It is best exhibited by breaking off the outer 
part of the aperture to the distance of about half a 
whorl, when it will generally be found free ; but in 
order to exhibit it behind the columella in its natural 
position, when the animal is exserted, it is necessary 
to kill the animal in that situation (by drowning it), 
and then suffer it to dry before the outer lip is broken 
off, and the pedicle will thus become fastened to the 
side by means of the dried mucus (of the bodv) ; it 



212 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

may, however, at any time be relaxed by a little 
moisture, when it will instantly resume its elasticity, 
and spring from its attachment." 

Montagu, who described the animals of all the 
species he knew, enters into a long explanation re- 
specting the difference between sinistral or reversed 
and dextral shells. Formerly, all reversed shells were 
considered as monstrosites, but now it is well known 
that some species which are generally dextral, are 
often found reversed; and this monstrosity consists 
not only in the shell being turned in the contrary 
direction down the imaginary axis, but the animal 
itself has all the organs placed on the opposite side 
of the body. There are some few Mollusca which 
appear to be very liable to this monstrosity, as Eu- 
limus aureusy Pyrula perversa, and the whole genera 
of Clausilia and Physa, the natural character of 
which is to be reversed. It would be a monstrosity 
in them to find them dextral or twisted in the same 
direction like other shells. (See Phil Travis. 1833.) 

* MARPESSA Gray. 

Clausium notched at the tip, fitting into a plait on 
the outer lip of the shell; shell smooth. 

78. 1. CLAUSILIA Udens. Laminated Close Shell. 

(t. 5. f. 53.) Shell nearly smooth, glossy, and 

transparent; aperture with two white plaits 

clausium emarginate. 

Helix bidens. Mutter, Verm. ii. 116.; not Linn. 
Turbo laminatus. Mont. p. 359. t. 11. f. 4. 
Clausilia bidens. Drap. p. 60. t. 4. f. 5-7. ; Brard, 

p. 83. t. 3. f. 9. ; Alder, Mag. Zool. 8$ Bot. ii. 



HEL1CIDJE. 213 

110.; Pfeiffer, 60. t. 3. f. 25. ; Rossm. Icon. i. 76. 

t. 2. f. 29. 

Clausilia lamellata. Leach, Mollusc, p. 118. 
Helix Cochlodina derugata. Fer. Tab. 63. 
Clausilia laminata. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 70. f. 53. 
Bulimus bidens. Brug. E. M. 352. 

In beech woods, among decayed leaves, and on the 
bark of trees, especially in a chalky soil. 

Animal pale fulvous ; upper tentacles long, clavate. 
(Sturm, Fauna, t. .) 

Shell half an inch long, of a glossy reddish horn- 
colour and nearly smooth; spire composed of twelve 
raised volutions ; aperture roundish-oval with a white 
thick margin, attached at the upper part of the body 
volution, with two laminar folds, one of them straight 
and placed near the top of the aperture and almost 
central, the other curved and in the middle of the 
pillar lip, frequently crenate; and deep within the 
mouth are three or four permanent ridges which are 
visible on the back at the outside when held before a 
strong light. 

Varies greatly in size, ventricoseness, and colour, 
being sometimes greenish white and transparent. 

Montagu (Test. Brit. 359.) considered the white 
variety as a shell deprived of its brown epidermis, 
but the periostraca is as distinct on the greenish white 
shell as on the brown specimen ; both the shell and the 
periostraca are differently or rather uncoloured in that 
variety, from the absence of the colouring matter. 

Dr. Turton, by an oversight, first describes the 
operculum as emarginate, and then makes his third 
variety to be characterised by the internal lamina 
being notched. 



214 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA, 

* * IPHIGENIA Gray. 
Clausium entire at the top ; shell corrugated. 

79. 2. CLAUSILIA Uplicata. Folded Close Shell, 
(t. 5. f. 55.) Shell ventricose, opake grey-brown, 
with regular raised striae ; aperture with two 
plaits, the margin detached all round. 

Turbo biplicatus. Mont. p. 361. 1. 11. f. 5. 

Clausilia ventricosa. Drap. p. 71. t. 4. f. 14; 
Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 354. 

Clausilia biplicata. Leach, Mollusc, p. 120. 

Clausilia Montagui. Gray, Ann. Phil. 13. 

Helix perversa, adult. Muller, Verm. ii. 118. 
Cochlodina ventricosula. Feruss. Tab. 63. 

Clausilia similis. Charp ? Rossm. Icon. 177. t. 2. 
f. 30? 

Cochlodina similis. Ferussac ? 

In woods and close hedges. 

Animal dark grey. 

Shell nearly three quarters of an inch long, dark 
grey, opake, regularly striate longitudinally; spire 
consisting of eleven or twelve rather flat but well- 
defined volutions ; the suture a depressed line ; aper- 
ture oval, a little sinuous at the upper and inner 
angle, with two plaits, one near the top of the pillar 
lip, and the other not quite half way down, both of 
them approaching each other as they recede inwardly ; 
the margin white, and detached all round. Varies 
with one or two additional minute denticles in the 
mouth. 

M. Ferussac originally referred T. biplicatus Mont, to 
C. ventricosa Drap., but he afterwards adopted the 



HELICID^l. 215 

opinion that they were distinct : the British shell is 
more slender and spindle-shaped than the French; 
they are, perhaps, only local varieties ; but it is 
extremely difficult to define the species of this 
genus. 

This species was first described as British by Mon- 
tagu. 

80. 3. CLAUSILIA Rolphii. Rolph's Close Shell, 
(t. 5. f. 54.) Shell ventricose, thin, opake, red- 
brown, with regular crowded raised strise ; aper- 
ture with four or five plaits, two of which are 
longer. 

Clausilia Iphigenia Rolphii. Gray, Med. Repos. 
1821. 182. 

Clausilia Rolphii. Leach, MSS. ; Gray, Ann. Phil. 
15.; Ferussac, Journ. Phys. 1820.301.; Leach, 
Mollusc, ined. p. 119.; Alder, Mag. Zool. and 
Bot. ii. 111.; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 71. f. 54. 

Clausilia plicatula. Drap. p. 74. t. 4. f. 17, 
18.?; Brard, p. 85. t. 3. f. 10.?; Jeffreys, 
Linn. Trans, xvi. 353. ; Rossm. Icon. p. 39. t. 2. 
f. 32. 

In damp places in woods, among the moss and 
stones, under nettles and dogs' mercury, and on 
trunks of trees, on a chalky soil. 

Animal grey. 

Shell an inch long, of a greyish brown horn-colour, 
tumid in the middle ; spire composed of ten or eleven 
rather swollen volutions, which are marked with re- 
gular raised longitudinal lines; aperture roundish- 
oval, sinuous at the upper and outer angle; the 
margin thick, white, detached all round, with four or 



2 I 6 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

five plaits, two of which are much longer than the 
rest. 

Ferussac, in his list of British Shells (Journ. Pliys. 
1820. 301.), says this shell has no analogy with any of 
Draparnaud's; and Mr. Alder observes that it is dis- 
tinct from Clausilia plicatula Drap., to which it has 
been referred. 

The species was first discovered by Mr. Rolph in 
Charlton Wood, Kent. It was first indicated as Bri- 
tish by Ferussac, and then by myself. I have since, 
at two distant periods, found it in the same locality, 
and I have seen specimens from Hastings, Sussex. 

Like other species, it is sometimes found transpa- 
rent and colourless. Dr. Turton indicates three 
varieties in the teething, but it is very variable in 
this respect. 

81. 4. CLAUSILIA dubia. Doubtful Close Shell, 
(t. . f. 143.) Shell dark brown, rather ventri- 
cose, with strong raised striae, rendered some- 
what granular by a few spiral ridges on the lower 
whorls ; whorls ten or twelve, a little rounded ; 
aperture with two teeth on the pillar, the lower 
one forked internally ; peristome whole, detached, 
and reflexed. 

Clausilia dubia. Drap. ; Alder., Cat. Supp. 1. c. 3. 
Mag. ZooL Bot. ii. 111. 

Clausilia rugosa, var. Alder, Cat, 1. c. 32. 

similis. Gilbertson, MSS. B. M. ; not 

Fer. 

Inhab. rocks under moss North of England. 

This shell is about 5-8ths of an inch long, and 
l-8th broad. 



HELICIDJE. *217 

Mr. Alder, who first introduced this shell into 
the Fauna, observes, that it is undoubtedly the 
C. dubia of continental authors. It may be distin- 
guished from C. rugosa by its greater size and ventri- 
cosity. 

82. 5. CLAUSILIA nigricans. Dark Close Shell, 
(t. 5. f. 58.) Shell slender, sub-opake, black- 
brown, with fine raised somewhat granular 
striae; aperture with three plaits, the margin 
white and detached all round. 

Helix perversa. Miiller, Verm. 118. 

Bulimus perversus. Brug. 

Clausilia rugosa. Drap. p. 73. t. 4. f. 19, 20.; 
Leach, Mollusc, p. 121. 

Turbo bidens. Montagu, p. 357. t. 11. f. 7. 

- nigricans. Dillw. 375. ; Pult. Dorset. 46. ; 
Turt. Diet. 225. 

Turbo perversus. Perm. Brit. Zool. iv. t. 82. f. 116. 

Clausilia nigricans. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans. xvi 
351. 

Odostomia nigricans. Flem. Ed. Ency. 

Clausilia perversa. Flem. 

Var. I. smaller, more slender. 

Clausilia parvula. Leach, MSS. B. M. ; Turf on, 
Zool Journ. ii. 556., Man. ed. 1. 74. f. 58. ; 
Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 352. ; not Studer. 

Var. 2. shorter, fewer whorls. 

Clausilia Everettii. Miller, Ann. Phil. n. s. xix. 
377. 

Common under stones and in old walls. 
Animal brown, corrugated, foot narrow. 
L 



218 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Shell about half an inch long, glossy black or 
grey, often marked with short cinereous streaks, with 
regular raised lines, which, when closely examined, 
appear a little granular; spire composed of from 
seven to ten rather raised volutions ; aperture oval, 
with the inner lip a little contracted, with three plaits, 
all on the pillar, the lower one interior and hardly 
distinguishable in the full-grown shell; the margin 
thick and white, but not reflected, detached all 
round. 

This very common species varies greatly in size, 
in the slenderness and ventricoseness of the shell, and 
in the strength or slightness of the concentric striae, 
but in a large series all these varieties gradually and 
uninterruptedly pass into one another, and they may 
all be found in specimens collected from the same 
locality. It is also rarely found transparent and 
colourless. Mr. Jeffreys describes a distorted spe- 
cimen, with a prominent medial ridge down the 
whorls. 

Mr. Alder has kindly communicated to me " a 
specimen of the shell he sent to Dr. Turton, which 
Dr. Turton calls C. parvula (t. 5. f. 59.) ; and also the 
specimens of the true C. parvula (according to Fe- 
russac), found in Germany, for comparison." He 
further observes, that all the British specimens he 
has seen, he thinks, are only varieties of C. nigricans y 
which, I think, the specimen fully bears out. 



AURICULID.E. 



219 



B. THE AQUATIC FREE- AIR-BREATHING MOLLUSCA 
have two contractile, compressed tentacles, with the 
eyes sessile, near their base ; the head is contractile ; 
they are not provided with any operculum. They 
are all aquatic, and the British species are divided 
into two families. (See p. 101.) 



AURICULID^E. 



LIMN.3EAD.E. 



10 




1. 2. Carychium minimum. 

3. Acme fiisca. 

4. Conovulus denticulatus. 
6. 7. Limnaeus auricularis. 



8. Ancylus fluviatilis. 

9. Physa fontinalis. 

10. Planorbis albus. 



L 2 



220 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA, 



Fain. 4. AURICULID.E. 

The animal with an elongated foot, an elongate 
ringed muzzle, two subcylindrical tentacles, with 
the eyes near the inner side of their base ; body 
spiral, placed on the centre of the foot, and 
covered with a thin mantle, with a thickened edge, 
which is itself covered with an external spiral 
shell, which has a plaited pillar in all its ages. 

These Mollusca appear, by their habit and cha- 
racter, to be exactly intermediate between the land and 
the fresh-water Univalve Mollusca. They have the 
sessile eyes of the Pond-snails placed behind, instead 
of in front of the tentacles, and the subcylindrical 
tentacles of the Land snails, but the tentacles are not 
retractile under the skin of the neck. In the same 
manner, the Carychia and the Acmea are terrestrial, 
living in damp moss ; the Conovuli live in the mud 
at the mouths of rivers, or in the sea : they seldom 
leave salt or at least brackish water. There are some 
foreign species which live in ponds, and have all the 
habits of our Pond-snails, only their pillar is more 
distinctly plaited. 

Montagu observes, " A remarkable character of 
this shell (Valuta denticulata) is that the columella 
extends no further than the upper part of the body 
volution, the superior spires (whorls) being destitute 
of any pillar or internal spiral division." This pe- 
culiarity is common to most species of this family, 



AURICULIDJE. *221 

and is one of its best conchological characters : the 
absence is generally caused by the animal absorbing 
the septa which separate the upper whorls, and thus 
converting the spire into a single cavity, as it enlarges 
the shell at the edges of the mouth below. In Scara- 
bus, the septa between the whorls appear to be origin- 
ally formed imperfect. (See Phil. Trans. 1833.) 

This family contains only three British genera : 

1. Carychium. Shell ovate; mouth oblong, three- 
toothed; peristome reflexed. (p. 219. f. 1,2.) 

2. Acme. Shell cylindrical ; mouth ovate, simple ; 
peristome simple, (p. 219. f. 3.) 

3. Conovulus. Shell ovate; mouth linear, pillar 
with two or three plaits, (p. 219. 4, 5.) 

1. CARYCHIUM Mutter. (Carychium.) 

Shell spiral, thin, conic-ovate ; mouth oblong, longi- 
tudinal, two or three- toothed, compressed, rather 
oblique, rounder at each end ; peristome inter- 
rupted, thickened, and rather reflexed. p. 219. f. 2. 

83. 1. CARYCHIUM minimum. Minute Sedge Shell. 
Turbo Carychium. Mont. p. 339. t. 22. f. 2. ; 

Linn. Trans, viii. 184. 
Auricella Carychium. Hartmann, 49. 
Auricula minima. Drap. p. 57. t. 3. f. 18, 19. 
Carychium minimum. Leach, Moll. 133. ; Milller, 

Verm. ii. 125. ; Jeffreys, L. T. xvi. 365. 
Odostomia Carychium. Flem. Ed. Ency. 

At the roots of grass and moss in moist places. 
The animal is yellowish white, with only two short 
L 3 



222 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

cylindrical, blunt, or truncated tentacles, at the base of 
which, between, or nearly behind them, are placed two 
very conspicuous approximating black eyes. (p. 219. 
f. 1, 2.) (Montagu, T. B. 340. ; Sturm, 1. 1. f. 3.) 

Shell hardly the tenth of an inch long, conic, white, 
shining, with a yellowish cast, transparent; spire 
composed of five rounded volutions, very finely striate 
longitudinally, and ending rather obtusely ; aperture 
semioval or rather ear-shaped, rounded at both the 
ends, with two teeth on the pillar, and sometimes a 
small one above the others ; the margin thick, and in 
the middle of the outer lip a thick tooth-like protu- 
berance. 

This common species was first noticed by Mr. Boys 
(Test. Min.JRar. f.5L). 

Mr. Jeffreys has erroneously referred the Turbo 
tridens to this genus, under the name of Carychium 
politum. (Linn. Trans, xvi. 363.) 

2. ACME Hartmann. 

Shell subcylindrical, with a blunt tip ; mouth ovate, 
simple, outer lip simple, thin, slightly reflexed over 
the pillar, forming a slight perforation. 

Animal with two long contractile slender tentacles, 
between which and the eyes, at their hinder base, 
are two jagged blackish spots. (See p. 219. f. 3.) 

Dr. Turton (Manual, ed. 1. p. 83.) appears to have 
considered the spot at the base of the tentacles as the 
rudiment of a lower pair. Dr. Hartmann (Sturm, 
Fauna, 1. 1. f. 4.) describes the tentacles as retractile; 
but he uses the same term to describe the tentacles of 
Cyclostoma and Carychium, which agree with these in 



AURICULID^. 223 

only being contractile, and not retractile like those of 
Helices, and other land Mollusca. 

This genus, on account of the similarity of its 
shell, has been confounded also with Truncatella of 
Risso, which is a marine animal, provided with gills 
and a distinct operculum. 

The animal walks with its shell nearly perpendicu- 
lar, twisting it round in a very odd manner, and then 
letting it suddenly fall again. 

Though this species has been generally placed in 
the genus Carychium, neither the animal nor the shell 
well agrees with that genus. The animal most nearly 
resembles a Cyclostoma, with its long filiform tentacles 
and proboscidiform head ; but it has no operculum. 
The shell has some resemblance to some Bulimi. Dr. 
Turton placed it in that genus, and erroneously de- 
scribes the animal as having four tentacles. 

84. 1. ACME fusca. Brown Acme. (t. 6. f. 66.) 
Shell cylindrical, obtuse, glossy brown, transpa- 
rent, with rather distant parallel oblique longitu- 
dinal striae, (p. 219. 3.) 

Turbo fuscus. Boys and Walker, Test. Min. Rar. 
12. t. 2. f. 42. ; Wood, Supp. t. 6. f. 15. 

Auricula lineata. Drap. Hist. 57. t. 3. f. 20, 21. 

Carychium cochlea, Studer, Catal. 21. 

lineatum. Ferussac, Tab. Syst. 100.; 

Rossm. v. 54. L 28. f. 408. 

Cyclostoma lineatum. Ferussac, Diet. Class. H. 
Nat. ii. 90. ; Pfeiffer. 

Acme lineata. Hartm. Fauna, t. 1. f. 4. 

Carychium fuscum. Fleming, B. A. 270.; Jef- 
freys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 364. 

Bulimus lineatus. Turton, Man. ed 1. 82. f. 66. 
L 4 



*224 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Inhab. on moss and Jungermannise, in damp places, 
springs, &c. 

Shell the tenth of an inch long, of a cylindri- 
cal form, and hardly decreasing in diameter for its 
whole length, highly polished and marked with rather 
remote regular longitudinal striae, which are hardly 
distinguishable without a good glass ; spire composed 
of six very slightly raised but well-defined volutions, 
the two terminal ones of which are smaller and paler ; 
aperture roundish-oval, with the margin thin, and a 
little reflected at the pillar, where it forms a slight 
perforation. 

The animal and shell are sometimes dark brown 
and at others pale yellowish white. They are some- 
times found reversed. 

3. CONOVULUS. (Conovulus.) 

Shell oval, obconic, last whorl long, compressed; mouth 
linear ; pillar with two or three spiral plaits ; outer 
lip simple, or very slightly reflexed ; throat grooved. 

The foot of the animal is obovate, oblong, blunt 
in front and behind; tentacles contractile, filiform, 
slightly ringed ; eyes at their inner base ; muzzle 
porrect, notched in front, as in Limnceus ; mantle 
closed all round, with the exception of a perforation 
at the point of junction of the outer and inner lip. 
The pillar of the shell is plaited in all ages. 

The animal, in habit, manner, and appearance, very 
greatly resembles that ofApleza or Limnceus, but dif- 
fers in the tentacles being filiform and ringed. 

They live in brackish water, and salt-water marshes, 
at the roots of rushes, and are sometimes found under 
stones on the sea-shore near the mouth of rivers. 



AURICULIDJE. 225 

Mr. Lowe (ZooL Journ iv. 280.) at one time thought 
that the animal might be ptenobranchous, but he has 
since seen reason to doubt this conclusion; and the 
question has been settled by Mr. Berkeley's admirable 
observations and figures of the animal (ZooL Journ. 
v. 429. 1. 19. f. 3.). 

On account of the marine or semimarine habit of 
most of the species of this genus, they were not noticed 
by Dr. Turton in the first edition of this Manual ; 
but as they are the only British Pneumonobranchiata 
which inhabit such places, and as I have found C. 
denticulate high up the Thames, I have been induced 
to insert them. 

* OVATELLA. (Bivona.) 
Pillar 3-5-plaited; mouth toothed; peristome slightly 

reflexed. Paludinal. 

85. 1. CONOVULUS denticulatus. Denticulated Coii- 
ovulus. (t. f. 144.) Shell oblong, brittle, smooth, 
brown or purplish ; spire conical ; mouth ob- 
long, rather thickened; pillar three or five- 
plaited, (p. 219. f. 4,5.) 
Turbo bidentatus. Walker, Test. Min. Ear. f. 50, 

and 53. 

Voluta denticulata. Mont. Test. Brit. 234. t. 20. 
f. 5. ; Berkeley, ZooL Journ. v. t. 19. f. 3. Animal. 
Voluta ringens. Turton, Conch. Diet. 

reflexa. .Turton, Conch. Diet. 

Auricula myosotis. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 368. ; 

not Drap. 

Acteon denticulata. Fleming, B. A. 
Auricula personata. Desh. Lam. ed. 2. viii. 332. 
Carychium personatum. Mich. Compl. 73. t. 15, 
f. 42, 43. 

L 5 



226 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Inhab. clefts of rocks near the high-water marks, and 
in the mud left bare by the tide at the mouth of rivers. 

Animal purplish. 

The habits of the animal are very like those of 
Limrueus fossarius and palustris, which are sometimes 
found occupying the same situations a little distance 
up the river that these animals do at its mouth. 

This shell was first recorded as British by Boys, 
who found it in the marshes near Faversham, at the 
roots of rushes. It has usually been considered as 
the A. myosotis of Draparnaud, but that has no teeth 
on the outer lip. 

This species varies considerably ; 1. In size; 2. 
In colour, from purplish brown to brownish, while 
some are also very rarely found nearly hyaline ; 3. 
In the length of the spire and in the ventricoseness of 
the volutions. The mouth is generally strongly 
toothed ; but sometimes it is nearly smooth. These 
variations induced Dr. Turton, in his Dictionary, to 
divide it into three species. 

Mr. Lowe doubts the propriety of referring Valuta 
denticulata to the genus Melampus, because he thinks 
that it has a periostraca, which, he believes, the other 
wants ; but the fact is, they all have it, and in this 
species it is only rather thicker than in the others. 
(ZooL Journ. iv. 291.) 

Montagu (Test. Brit.) and Miller (Ann. Phil. iii. 
577.) truly describe the apex of the shell as being 
destitute of any septa. 

Mr. Jeffreys suspected that Voluta hyalina Mon- 
tagu was only an imperfect specimen of this species : 
Montagu's specimen is a foreign marine shell not yet 
arrived at its full growth. 



AURICULID.E. 2*27 

* * LEUCONIA. 

Pillar two-plaited; throat smooth; peristome simple. 
Marine. 

86. 2. CONOVULUS bidentatus. Two-toothed Cono- 
vulus. (t. f. 145.) Shell ovate, ventricose, 
smooth, shining white ; spire short ; suture indis- 
tinct; mouth oblong; two of the plaits of the 
pillar larger than the rest; peristome slightly 
thickened and reflexed in front. 

Voluta bidentata. Mont. T. B. Suppl 100. t. 30. 
f. 2. 

Auricula bidentata. Ferussac, Tab. Moll. 103.; 
Gray, Ann. Phil. 15. ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 
368. 

Var. Auricula erosa. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 26 9. 

Inhab. the sea-coast (of Devon), under stones left 
by the tide. 

Animal, according to Montagu, is white, with two 
very short angular tentacula, usually edged with 
black, and with two black eyes at their base behind ; 
the foot extending before the head, bifid. 

The spire of the shell is sometimes eroded, and 
because the specimens which Mr. Jeffreys observed in 
this state were a little more ventricose, he has de- 
scribed them as a different species. 

87. 3. CONOVULUS albus. Shell fusiform, pointed, 
thin, white, pellucid, slightly transversely striated ; 
whorls six ; mouth slender, oblong ; pillar two- 
plaited. 

Voluta alba. Mont. T. B. 245. (not Suppl. ) ; 
Turton, Diet. 

L 6 



228 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Auricula alba. Gray, Ann. Philos. 15.; Jeffreys, 
Linn. Trans, xvi. 370.; Forbes, Malac. Monen. 
12. 

Volvaria alba. Fleming. 

Inhab. sea-coast near the mouths of rivers, under 
stones left by the tide. 

The animal pellucid white. 

When alive, the shell is milk-white, with the spire 
reddish, with a pellucid spiral line about half the 
breadth of the whorl from the suture. 

Dr. Fleming, evidently from not knowing the 
species, refers C. denticulata to Acteon, and C. albus 
to Volvaria, both being genera of Ptenobranchous 
Mollusca. 



229 



Fam. 5. 



Animal with an elongate foot, a more or less 
conical spiral body, a short muzzle, with dilated 
lips and compressed tentacles, with the eyes 
near their outer base : the mantle, which covers 
the body, has a thin edge and is protected by a 
variably shaped pale uniform-coloured shell, 
which is clothed with a hard olive periostraca. 

They live in ponds and ditches, often floating on 
the surface of the water, their back downwards, or 
crawling on the mud at the bottom, or on aquatic 
plants, but always coming to the surface to respire. 

These animals were scattered about by the Linnaean 
conchologists among the Helices, the Turbines, the 
Bullce, the Nautili, and the Patellce, because their shells 
vary considerably in their shape and form. They 
form, however, a most natural group, from their having 
very similar animals. Like water-plants, they are 
distributed very widely, and are to be found in al- 
most all parts of the world. 

It had been supposed that the shells of fluviatile Mol- 
lusca could be distinguished from those of the terres- 
trial kind, by the edge of the mouth of the shell never 
being furnished with a thickened internal rib, and not 
being in the slightest degree reflexed, and that the 
animal never closes it with an epiphragm ; however, 
further examination has shown that when the Pond- 



230 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

snails and the Whirl-shells are left nearly dry by the 
evaporation of the water, either by the heat, or by dry- 
ness of the weather in winter, these animals assume 
the character of terrestrial Mollusca, thicken and re- 
flect their mouth, and form an epiphragm to prevent 
themselves from being destroyed by the drying up of 
the fluid necessary for their respiration and life. 
Specimens in this state have been observed by Miiller, 
Maton and Racket, Montagu, Michaud, and others, 
and have generally been considered as distinct 
species. 

The family contains eight genera, which may be 
thus distinguished : 

I. Shell ovate, spiral ; pillar with an oblique plait. 

1. Limnceus. Shell rough; inner lip simple, (p. 
219. f. 6, 7.) 

2. Amphipeplea. Shell polished, thin; inner lip 
expanded. 

II. Shell conical, recurved; apex oblique. 

3. Ancylus. Apex of the shell to the right, (p. 219. 
f. 8.) 

4. Velletia. Apex of the shell to the left. 

III. Shell ovate, spiral ; pillar simple. 

5. Pliysa. Inner lip expanded, (p. 219. f. 9.) 

6. Aplexus. Inner lip not expanded. 

IV. Shell discoidal. 

7. Planorlis. Cavity of shell simple ; mouth round- 
ish or subquadrate. (p. 219. f. 10.) 

8. Segmentina. Cavity of shell divided by cross 
septa; mouth triangular. 



LIMX&ADJE. 231 

: Tentacles short, compressed, triangular, without any 
auricle at the base. (Limnaeana.) 

1. LIMN^US. (Mud Shell.) 

Animal with a short broad foot, broad short com- 
pressed tentacles, without any auricles at the base, 
a large central spiral body, and a simple-edged 
mantle, covered by an external ovate, thin, dextral, 
transparent spiral shell with an ovate mouth, having 
a single oblique plait on the middle of the column 
running into the axis. (See p. 219. f. 6, 7.) 

This genus is known from Amphipeplea and Physa 
by the edge of the mantle not being produced so as 
to cover the shell, and by the inner lip not being 
extended over the body whorl of the shell. It is 
known from Aplexus by the shell being dextral, and 
having the pillar-plait ; the latter character, and 
their greater solidity, will distinguish even the re- 
versed monstrosities of these shells from that genus. 

The apex of the shell is often eroded or truncated ; 
that is to say, as the upper part of the body is with- 
drawn from the tip, and the body moves forwards into 
the larger part of the shell, it forms a septum behind, 
and the part that is thus separated even- 
tually falls off. Mr. Jeffreys, not being 
conversant with the physiology of the 
Mollusca, gives a curious explanation 
of this phenomenon, which is not un- 
common in the terrestrial and marine, as well as 
fresh-water Mollusca. " In the absence of other 
nourishment, they (the Limncei) will even devour each 
other, piercing the shell near its apex, and eating 
away the upper folds of the inhabitants. This ac- 




232 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

counts (he proceeds) for the mutilated and often im- 
perfectly repaired state of the upper volutions of 
some specimens." (Linn. Trans, xvi. 371. But see 
Turton*, Man.ed. 1. 78.; Gray, Phil. Trans. 1833.) 
In the spring, these animals are often infested with 
a small slender species of Gordius, which affix them- 
selves to the edge of the mantle over the back of the 
neck ; they are so common that Draparnaud mistook 
them for the respiratory organs of the animal. Mon- 
tagu has also observed them on L. truncatulus. 

* RADIX Montfort. (Gulnaria Leach.) 

Shell subovate, last whorl ventricose ; mouth more than 
half the length of the shell. 

88. 1. LIMN^EUS auricularius. Wide-mouthed Mud 
Shell, (t. 7. f. 100.) Shell extremely inflated, 
striolate, with a very short acute spire ; aperture 
oblique, vastly expanded and roundish-oval. 

Limneus auricularius. Drap. p. 49. t. 2. f. 28, 
29. 32. ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 372. ; Rossm. 
Icon. i. 98. t. 2. f. 55. 

Lymnaea auricularia. Lamarck, vi. ii. p. 161. 

Lymneus auricularius. Brard, p. 140. t. 5. f. 2, 
3.; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 117. f. 100. 

Radix auriculatus. De Montfort, ii. p. 207. 

Gulnaria auricularia. Leach, Mollusc, p. 148. 

Helix auricularia. Linn. S. N. i. 1250. ; Penn. B. 
Z. iv. 86. f. 138. ; Mont. p. 375. t. 16. f. 2. 

Helix limosa. Montag. T. B. 381. t. 16. f. ]. ? 

* Dr. Turton, by mistake, appears to think that the shells have 
" a vascular connection" with the animal. This is not the case ; 
but still the description he gives of how the apex falls off is true; 
and Miiller is correct in saying the apex of the shell was once 
perfect. 



233 

Buccinum auricula. Mutter, Verm. ii. 126. ; Sturm, 

Fauna, vi. 12. 
Bulimus auricularius. Brug. E. M. n. 14. f. 

In stagnant and slow waters. 

Animal dull greenish yellow; tentacles speckled 
with brighter spots. (Sturm, t. 38.) 

Shell an inch long, and three quarters wide, thin, 
brittle, transparent, of a light yellow horn- colour, 
more or less distinctly striate longitudinally ; spire 
composed of four volutions, the three terminal ones 
very small ; aperture vast, somewhat oval, with the 
outer lip expanded ; pillar with a strong fold, the lip 
reflected and forming a slight hollow behind it. 

The eggs are scarcely different from those of L. 
stagnalis. (See Pfeiffer, t. 7. f. 8.) 

89. 2. LIMN^US pereger. Puddle Mud Shell, (t. 7. 

f. 101.) Shell ventricose, more or less striate, with 

a moderately short acute spire, (p. 219. f. 6, 7.) 
Limneus pereger. Drap. p. 50. t. 2. f. 34. 37. ; 

Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 374.; Turton, Man. 

ed. 1. 118. f. 101. 

Lymnsea peregra. Lamarck, vi. ii. p. 161. 
Gulnaria peregra. Leach, Mollusc, p. 146. 
Helix peregra. Gmelin ; Mont. p. 373. t. 16. 

f. 2. 

Helix putris. Penn. B. Z. ; Turt. Diet. p. 67. 
Buccinum peregrum. Mutter, Verm. ii. 134. 
Bulimus pereger. Brug. E. M. n. 10. 
Lymnsea putris. Flem. Ed. Encu. 
Lymnaeus vulgaris. Pfeiffer, i. 89. t. 4. f. 22. ; 

Rossm. Icon. i. 97. f. 53. ; not Jeffreys. 



234 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Var. 1. Subovate, aperture more dilated; spire 

acute. 

Limneus ovatus. Drap. p. 50. t. 2. f. 30, 31. 
Lymneus ovatus. Brard, p. 142. t. 5. f. 4, 5. 
Lymnaea ovata. Lamarck, vi. ii. p. 161.; Kenyan, 

Mag. Nat. Hist. ii. 425. f. g. 
Helix limosa. Linn. ? Mont. p. 381. t. 16. f. 1. 
Lymnaeus ovatus. Rossm. Icon. i. 100. t. 2. f. 56. 
Bulimus limosus. Pioret, Prod. 39. 
Limnea lineata. Bean, Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 493. 

f. 62. 

Var. 2. Spire rather tapering, acute. 

Lymneus acutus. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 373. 

Var. 3. The shell thicker, and the outer lip not 
attenuated; spire scarcely exserted. 

Helix lutea. Mont. p. 380. t. 16. f. 6.; Linn. 
Trans. Soc. viii. 222., xiv. 169. 

Var. 4. Shell moderate ; spire very short, eroded, 

often concentrically grooved. 
Gulnaria lacustris. Leach, Mollusc, p. 146. 
Lymnea lacustris. Brown, Brit. Shells, t. 42. 

f. 24, 25. ?; Potiez and Michaud, Gal. Moll. i. 210. 

t. 22. f. 11, 12. 

1. Monstrosity with the outer lip thickened, 
with an internal rib, and expanded. (Maton, 
Linn. Trans, viii. 218. t. 5. f. 8.* Montag. Supp. 
129.) 

Lymnea marginata. Michaud, Cornpl. 88. t. 16. 
f. 15, 16. 

Lymneus pereger. Jeffreys, 1. c. 



235 

2. Monstrosity, spire reversed. 

Limnea lineata. Bean, I.e. 

Inhab. ponds and ditches. 

Animal olive, yellow spotted. (Sturm, t. 39.) 

Shell varying much in size, of a greyish 
or yellowish colour, more or less con- 
centrically striated ; spire moderately 
elongated, about a third part the length 
of the whole shell, with the lesser volu- 
tions not so abruptly disproportionate to 
the body one as in the former; aperture oval-oblong 
with the umbilicus sometimes obliterated. 

The shells are often covered with a calcareous fur or 
deposit, which nearly hides them, and which has been 
sometimes mistaken for periostraca. 

All the varieties run so much into each other, 
that they can hardly be considered as specifically 
distinct. 

Mr. Jeffreys says, " I have no hesitation in referring 
the Helix lutea of Montagu to a variety of this 
species, having found it, both in a living state and 
thrown up together with other varieties, on the sea- 
shore near Swansea, within the influx of the Britton 
Ferry river." Nilson describes one species as living 
in brackish water in Sweden. The varieties of the 
shell are in some situations often found reversed, 
as is the case with the variety recorded by Mr. 
Bean at Scarborough. It is not uncommon to find 
some specimens, the spires of which are more or 
less unrolled, or separated from each other. Indeed, 
this distortion appears to be more common in this 
shell than any other British species I am acquainted 
with. 



236 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Rossmasler (Icon. i. 98.) thinks that Dr. Turton's 
figure (f. 101.) represents what he considers a species 
under the name of Limnceus vulgar is , which is not the 
L. vulgaris of Jeffreys. 

Mr. Jeffreys says, " The young shells of L. acutus are 
of a more elongated form than those of either L. auri- 
cularius or L. pereger. It has a more oblique and less 
ampullaceous form, and is of a thicker consistency, 
than L. auricularius" Mr. Alder regards this variety 
as intermediate between L. pereger and L. auricu- 
Iarius 9 and says, that if it is not a distinct species, it 
may lead us to unite them all into one. It comes 
very near L. lineatus of Mr. Bean. The single speci- 
men we have in the British Museum, from Mr. Alder, 
leads me here to consider it only a variety of L. pereger^ 
as it much resembles a common London variety of that 
shell ; and I still think L. auricularius is a species. 

The Gulnaria lacustris of Leach is very peculiar, 
from the erosion of its tips, probably arising from its 
locality, the lakes of Cumberland. We have very 
similar, but rather darker and thicker shells, with 
lips perfect, from Lough Neagh, Ireland. 

The latter variety may prove a distinct species, 
when we shall have received more specimens and are 
able to observe the animal. 

90. 3. LIMN^US stagnalis. Lake Mud Shell, (t. 7. 
f. 104.) Shell oval, subulate, pointed, brittle ; 
spire acute ; whorls five ; lower volution much 
inflated, and somewhat angular ; the suture 
deep. 

Limneus stagnalis. Drap. p. 51. t. 2. f. 38, 39.; 
Alder,}, c. 114.; Turtan, Man. ed. 1. 121. f. 
104. 



LIMN^AD^i. 237 

Ly nine us stagnalis. Brard, p, 133. t. 5. f. 1. 

Lymnus stagnalis. De Montfort, ii. p. 268. 

Limnea stagnalis. Sowerby, Gen. f. 1. 

Lymnaea stagnalis. Lamarck, vi. ii. p. 159. 

Stagnicola vulgaris. Leach, Mollusc, p. 145. 

Helix stagnalis. Linn. S. N. i. 1249.; Mont. 
p. 367. t. 16. f. 8. 

Bulimus stagnalis. Brug. E. M. n. 13. 

Lynneus major. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 375. 

Limnaeus stagnalis. Rossm. Icon. i. 95. t. 2. f. 49. 

Var. 1. thinner, whorls rather more oblique and 
less ventricose. 

Stagnicola elegans. Leach ; Schroer, Fluss. 
Conch, t. 7. f. 6. ? 

Helix fragilis. Mont. T. B. 369. t. 16. f. 7. 

Limneus fragilis. Turton, Maji.ed. 1. 121.f. 105. 

Var. 2. thicker, with a purple throat 

Buccinum roseo-labiatum. Sturm, Fauna, t. 36, 
37. 

In stagnant and slow waters. 

Animal yellowish, paler beneath. (Sturm, t. 34 
and 35.) 

Shell an inch and a half long, and nearly an inch 
wide, thin and brittle, of a greyish white colour, often 
covered with an extraneous coat; spire composed of 
six or seven volutions, which are rounded and tumid, 
tapering to a fine point ; the larger one striate longi- 
tudinally, and generally crossed by raised transverse 
lines, giving it an angular appearance like cut glass ; 
pillar with the fold very strong, forming a slight um- 
bilicus, the lip white and spread. 

These shells vary greatly in thickness, according 
to the nature of the water they inhabit. The outer 



238 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

whorl of the adult shell is often very gibbous. These 
variations have caused the animal, when found in clear 
quiet water, to be considered as a separate species. 

Dr. Turton's figure (Man. ed. 1. f. 102.) of Physa 
scaturiyinum has been suspected to represent a young 
individual of this species. It is a copy of Drapar- 
naud's, which is a very doubtful species ; and thought 
to be the young of some land shell. A reversed dis- 
tortion is sometimes found. (Hanoiv Seltenheiten, ii. 
t. l.f. 5.) 

Montagu erroneously thought that these animals 
were unisexual ; for he observes the sexes, too, are 
distinct, as is usual in aquatic Limaces. 

The eggs are ovate, with a yellow spot ; they are 
united together into elongated subcylindrical or oblong 
masses, attached to water-plants, &c. (See Pfeiffer, 
f. 13, 14, 15.) 

Rossma'sler has described a North American 
species, like the first variety, under the name of L. 
speciosus (t. 2. f. 50.). 

M. Deshayes and M. Prevost have remarked, that 
the impregnation of these animals is only accom- 
plished by the participation of three individuals ; the 
middle one using the functions of both sexes, the two 
others that of the male and the female only. Some- 
times the outer individual impregnates another indivi- 
dual, so that the animals form a more or less long chain 
floating on the surface of the water. 

In the Danube this species grows to four times 
the size of the usual English variety, but does not 
otherwise differ from it. 



LIMN^ADJE. 239 

* * STAGNICOLA Leach. 

Shell subconical or elongate ; whorls gradually en- 
larging ; mouth generally shorter than the spire. 

91. 4. LIMNEUS pulustris. Marsh Mud Shell, (t. 7. 

f. 107.) Shell conic-oval, with six rather tumid 

volutions, the lower one somewhat angular by 

raised transverse and longitudinal striae ; mouth 

ovate ; throat brown or violet. 
Limneus palustris. Drap. p. 52. t. 2. f. 40 42. 

and t. 3. f. 1, 2. ; Alder, 1. c. 114.; Turton, Man. 
ed. 1. 123. f. 107. 

Limnseus palustris. Rossm. Icon. i. 96. f. 51, 52. 
Lymneus palustris. Brard, p. 136. t. 5. f. 6, 7. 
Lymnaea palustris. Lamarck, vi. ii. p. 160. 
Stagnicola communis. Leach, Mollusc, p. 142. 
Helix palustris. Gmelin, 3658. ; Mont. p. 373. t. 

16. f. 10. 
Helix stagnalis, var. Penn. B. Z. 86. t. 13. f. 13. 

limosa. Linn. S. N. i. 1249. ? 

Buccinum palustre. Mutter, Verm. ii. 131. 
Lymnea fragilis. Kenyon, Mag. N. Hist. ii. 425. f. e 
Limneus communis. Leach ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans. 

xvi. 276. 

Limneus tinctus. Jeffreys, 1. c. 378 392. 
Var. 1. apex decollated. Mag. N. Hist. vii. 161. 

f. 32. ; Linn. Trans, viii. t. 5. f. 8. (See f. p. 231.) 

In marshes and ponds. 

Animal yellow-brown or cinereous, speckled with 
lighter colour. 

Shell three quarters of and inch long, brown 
horn- colour, rather opake, suddenly sloping in a 




240 PNEUMONOBRANCH1ATA. 

conic manner, the volutions hardly raised, slightly 
striate longitudinally, and crossed with more 
remote transverse ones, like the facets of cut 
glass ; aperture oval, covering nearly half 
the shell, often chocolate-brown and glossy in 
the inside, sometimes rosy about the pillar, 
where the peristome is spread and glossy, 
forming a slight umbilicus. 

These shells vary very greatly in size ; in their co- 
lour, from pale brown to dark violet-brown, and 
especially the colour of the throat, which is rarely 
bright violet-brown ; in the thickness of the substance 
of the shell ; and in the shape, occasioned by the dif- 
ferent degrees of the ventricoseness of the whorls. 

The smaller specimens often have their tips trun- 
cate. (See p. 231.) Mr. Alder thinks that var. /3. of 
Mr. Jeffreys, which is found in rivers, frequently in the 
tide-way, and never has the size of those found in 
ponds, is intermediate between L. palustris and L.fos- 
sarius. Probably, the small size is produced by the 
current not allowing the animal its usual rest ; we often 
regard a different habitation as a proof of a difference 
in species, while it may be the cause of the variation. 
The eggs are like those of L. stagnalis. ( See Pfeif- 
fer, t. 8. f. 18.) 

92. 5. LIMN^EUS truncatulus. Ditch Mud Shell, (t. 7. 
f. 108.) Shell oblong-oval, pointed, brittle, per- 
forated, with six or seven rounded and deeply 
divided volutions, striolate longitudinally and 
across ; mouth ovate-oblong. 

Limneus minutus. Drap. p. 53. t. 3. f. 5, 6. ; Al- 
der, 1. c. 115. 



LIMN^EADJE. 241 

Limneus fossarius. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 124. f. 
108. 

Lymneus minutus. Brard, p. 138. t. 5. f. 8, 9. 

Lymnsea minuta. Lamarck, vi. ii. p. 162. 

Stagnicola minuta. Leach, Mollusc, p. 143. 

Helix fossaria, Mont. p. 372. t. 16. f. 9. 

Lymnaea fossaria. Flem. 

Buccinum truncatulum. Mutter, Verm. ii. 130. 

Limneus truncatulus. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 
377. 

Bulimus truncatus. Brug. E. M. 20. 

Limnaeus minutus. Rossm. Icon, i, 100, t. 2. f. 57. 

Helix truncatula. Gmelin, 3659. 

Bulimus obscurus. Pioret, Prod. 35. 

Limnophysa minuta. Fitz. 113. 

Var. 1. Conic-oval, less glossy brown and smooth. 
Drap. p. 53. t. 3. f. 7. 

Monstrosity with the lower volution flattened 
at top, in the centre of which are sunk the other 
volutions. 

In marshes and ditches, on the mud. 

Animal greyish or dusky. 

Shell half an inch long, pale brown or greyish, and 
is readily distinguished from the last by the rounded 
and deeply divided volutions ; aperture nearly half 
as long as the shell, the outer lip a little reflected 
but not spread, nor glossy. 

These animals are extremely variable in size and 
colour, according to the locality in which they are 
found, and the abundance of their food. 

Mr. Alder observes, that a variety of a much smaller 
size is found on the margins of rivers, and another is 
found in mountain streams. 

M 



242 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

I have not been able to determine the Turbo auri- 
cularis Montagu T. B. 308., said to resemble H. fos- 
saria, but with a rather ear-shaped mouth, found 011 
the shore near Southampton. Can it be a Lacuna ? 

93. 6. LIMN^EUS glaber. Eight-whorled Mud ShelL 
(t. 9. f. 106.) Shell elongated, oblong-cylindrical, 
tapering, brittle, pellucid, yellowish white, with 
seven or eight convex volutions, and the aper- 
ture elongate-ovate. 

Limneus elongatus. Drap. p. 52. t. 3. f. 3, 4. (bad); 
Alder, 1. c. 115.; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 122. 
f. 106. 

Lrimnea elongata. Sowerby, Gen. f. 6. 

Limnseus elongatus. Rossm. Icon. i. 101. t. 2. 
f. 58. 

Stagnicola octanfracta. Leach, Mollusc, p. 141. 

Helix octanfracta. Mont. p. 396. 588. t. 11. f. 8. 

peregrina. Dillwyn^ p. 954. 

octona. Penn. B. Z. ii. t. 86. f. 135. 

Buccinum glabrum. Mutter , Verm. ii. 135. 

Monstrosity, the outer lip, with a thick white in- 
ternal rib. 

Lymnasa leueostoma. Lamarck, vi. ii. p. 162. 

Bulimus leucostoma. Poiret, Prod. 37. 

Var. 1. Spire elongate, twisted. 

Var. 2. Apex of spire truncated or decollated. 

In stagnant waters. 

Animal blackish or dusky. 

Shell an inch long, regularly tapering, with the 
ultimate volution not larger in proportion than the 
rest ; spire composed of seven or eight tumid volu- 
tions, on the larger of which are often a few trans- 



LIMNJSAD^E. 243 

verse striae, and all of them obscurely striate lon- 
gitudinally ; aperture narrow oval, not a third part 
as long as the spire, with the pillar spread and white, 
but not forming an umbilicus, 

It varies in the convexity of the volutions, and 
their number, as we have them from different waters 
with from six to nine. 

This animal, like the other species, but perhaps 
more frequently, forms a thick white internal rib to 
the outer lip, just within the edge. 

Mr. Jeffreys (Linn. Trans, xvi. 178.) placed in 
this genus Assiminia Grayana, a Ptenobranchous Mol- 
lusc, and Helix detrita> which is an exotic terrestrial 
species. 

2. AMPHIPEPLEA Nilson. (Membrane Shell.) 

The animal very like LimnceuS) but the edge of the 
mantle is lobed and produced, so as to cover 
(when the animal is expanded) the oval, very thin, 
nearly membranaceous, flexible shell, which, like 
Limnaus, has a plait on the pillar lip ; its axis and 
part of the body whorl is covered with an expan- 
sion of the inner lip. 

Miiller, Montagu, and Nilson, give a good de- 
scription of this animal. Draparnaud considered the 
part of the mantle which is reflected over the shell 
to be a viscid coat. 

Captain Brown, apparently not aware of the prior 
name, has called this genus Lutea, a name that is 
quite inadmissible. 

94. 1. AMPHIPEPLEA glutinosa. Glutinous Membrane 
Shell, (t. 9. f. 103.) Shell semiglobular, ex- 
M 2 



244 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

tremely thin and inflated, amber-coloured; spire 

with three scarcely produced volutions. 
Limneus glutinosus. Drap. p. 50. ; Turton, Man. 

ed. 1, 120. f. 103.; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. ; 

Michaud, t. 16. f. 13, 14. " 
Limnea glutinosa. Sowerby, Gen. f. 5. 
Myxas Mulleri. Leach, Mollusc, p. 149. 
Helix glutinosa. Mont. p. 379. t. 16. f. 5. 
Buccinum glutinosum. Muller, Verm. ii. 129. 
Amphipeplea glutinosa. Nilson, Moll. Suec. 58.; 

Eossm. Icon. i. 93. t. 2. f. 48. 

In stagnant ditches, England, Ireland. Locally 
and periodically abundant. 

Montagu described the animal as large in propor- 
tion to its shell, like many of the Bullce, and he thinks 
it might be placed in that genus. It is covered with 
a tenacious slime, and is of a pale dull yellow colour, 
sprinkled with bright brimstone spots ; the tentacles 
are very broad at the base, and flat ; eyes small, placed 
at the base of the tentacula on the inside ; front broad ; 
the foot spread and moderately long : when the mem- 
brane that usually covers the shell is withdrawn, the 
colour of the animal beneath the transparent shell gives 
it an appearance of highly polished tortoise-shell. 

Shell about half an inch in diameter, extremely 
thin and transparent, of an amber or yellowish horn- 
colour, somewhat orbicular, with the outer lip much 
expanded ; spire consisting of three and a half volu- 
tions ; the smaller one lying nearly flat on the larger 
one, marked by a deep suture, and ending obtusely ; 
the larger volution regularly striate ; pillar without 
umbilicus. 

This shell appears to have a very extended range, 



LIMNJEADJG. 245 

being found in Sweden in the north, and Syria in 
the south. 

95. 2. AMPHIPEPLEA involuta. Involuted Membrane 
Shell, (t. 12. f. 147.) Shell ovate, subglobose, 
truncated, thin, transparent, very brittle ; spire 
flat, of three or four very gradually enlarging 
whorls. 

Limneus involutus. Harvey; Thompson, Linn. 
Tram. 1834; Alder, Cat. 

Inhab. lakes Ireland. 

Shell very thin, and polished like the former, but 
is easily distinguished from it by its more ovate 
shape and truncated tip, produced by the flat or 
sometimes slightly concave form of the spire. It is 
easily known from Physa fontinalis, which it greatly 
resembles, in not being reversed, by the peculiar form 
of the spire, and the plait on the pillar lip. 

On my writing to Mr. Thompson, of Belfast, 
respecting this shell, he has kindly furnished me 
with the following particulars, which I print entire : 

" Limneus involutus. Harvey MSS. Spire sunk 

within the outer whorl; aperture very large, ex 

tending to the apex. 

" A few specimens of this beautiful shell were col- 
lected by my friend William Henry Harvey, Esq., 
of Limerick, in a small alpine lake on Cromaglaun 
mountain, Killarney, in the month of April, ] 832 ; 
and believing them to be of a new species, were by 
their discoverer designated by the above name. 

" Of three specimens sent to Belfast by Mr. Harvey, 
contained in my own cabinet and in those of 
M 3 



246 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Dr. Drummond and Mr. Hyndman, the largest is 
5J lines in length and 3J in breadth; volutions 4, 
the largest enveloping the other three, none of which 
are visible in the profile of the shell ; aperture very 
large, wide at the base (showing the columella 
throughout its entire length), and extending to the 
apex; margin reflected only where it joins the 
pillar. 

" Shell polished, extremely thin, of a pale amber- 
colour, with coarse longitudinal striae. It approaches 
L. glutinosus more nearly than any other species ; 
but in consequence of the aperture extending to the 
apex, has, at a cursory view, a greater resemblance 
to Bulla akera than to any other British shell, 
their similarity being rendered still more striking by 
the columella having the same appearance in both 
species. 

" The above description was read to the Linnaean 
Society, April ] 5th, 1834. To the present time ( Sep- 
tember, 1839), I have not heard of the species being 
obtained in any other locality in Ireland. With 
Robert Ball, Esq., of Dublin, I visited the lake or 
tarn on Cromaglaun mountain, in June, 1834, when 
we procured only a few small specimens ; the time, 
however, was unfavourable for seeing the object of 
our search to any advantage, being at a very early 
hour of the morning, before the warmth of the sun 
had tempted any of them to leave the bottom of the 
lake or adjoining rivulet. 

" This Mollusk probably belongs to Nilson's genus 
Amphipeplea." 

I am indebted to Mr. Ball for the specimen figured ; 
it is evidently a very distinct species. 



LIMN^ADJE. 247 

* * Tentacles compresssed, triangular^ with an auricle at 
the base ; shell conical, apex subspiraL (Ancylina.) 

3. ANCYLUS. (River Limpet.) 

Animal conical ; body attached to the foot the whole 
length, and covered with an ovate, conical, simple, 
shell which is bent to the right, with a central 
posterior, rather obliquely recurved tip ; the cavity 
with a lunate, submarginal scar, interrupted on the 
left side, for the passage of the air-tube to the 
lungs. 

So called from the close connection by which the 
circumference of the shell is fixed to its attachment ; 
or perhaps from the conical point, resembling the 
handle of a cover ; in which case it should be written 
Ansulus or Ansylus. 

The shell differs from Siphonaria, with which alone 
it can be confounded, on account of the peculiar form 
of the muscular scar, and the lateral situation of the 
apex ; in being thin and pellucid, only finely striated, 
and covered with a thin olive periostraca. 

It only agrees with Patellain the outward appearance 
of the shell, for in that genus the apex is anterior, and 
in this it is posterior, as in most Univalves. 

This animal has been moved from one family, and 
even order, to another, as naturalists have settled among 
themselves, whether it breathed by gills or lungs. 
Rang places it with the Pleurobranchi, and, observes 
that it lives on stones and aquatic plants, but that he 
never observed it to breathe free air. Mr. Guilding 
(Zool. Journ. iii. 335.) and Treviranius (Journal Phys. 
183*2, 1. 1 7.), who published a detailed dissection of the 
genus, mistake the valve which closes the opening 

M 4 



248 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

of the breathing cavity for a gill. The head is quite 
destitute of the labial appendages noticed by Rang. 

Mr. Berkeley (and my own observations bear out 
his accuracy) observes, that the animal is undoubt- 
edly one of the Limnceidce, and nearly allied to 
Physa. The pulmonary cavity, like that of Physa^ is 
on the left side, with a valvular margin, in one corner 
of which is situated the rectum ; between this and the 
foot is the orifice of the matrix. They are herma- 
phrodite, and may be observed in connection, as was 
observed by Lister (Anim. Ang.}> about the end of 
September ; and, as the latter author affirms, they fix 
their spawn on stones in small gelatinous globules, 
each containing many small eggs. (Pf e \ff er "> t. 161. 
f. 21.) They have a retractile (and not exserted, as 
described by Guilding) male organ at the base of the 
left tentacle. 

These animals sometimes swim about on the sur- 
face of the water, like Limncei, with the backs down- 
wards. In fact they are Limncei^ with very short 
conical, instead of long spiral bodies. 

Mr. Jeffreys doubts their being Pneumonobraneh- 
ous, and Dr. Fleming, in one of his works, refers them 
to the genus Crepidula ! and in his British Animals, to 
the Pulmonifera. The tongue is a broad spiral band, 
twisted at the end, longitudinally keeled, and set with 
numerous close cross- bands of minute, close set, equal, 
short triangular spines, directed backwards, and fur- 
nished with a simple membranaceous margin on each 
side, half as broad as the tongue itself ; the stomach 
very much resembles the gizzard of a fowl, has a 
strong muscular band on each side, and is nearly 
filled with small flinty particles. 



LIMN^EAD^E. 24& 

It is no proof that the animals do not breathe free air, 
because they are usually observed attached to stones, 
like Patella, at the bottom of the water ; for Limn&us 
pereger is more frequently found at the bottom of the 
water on the mud than in any other place ; and I have 
seen a specimen on exactly the same place for several 
days, without moving. But the Ancyli are often 
found, as has been observed by Mr. Jeffreys, out of 
the water, and only within reach of the spray of a 
water-fall. 

These animals are very vivacious, for a specimen 
lived -and moved about for an hour and more after its 
shell had been completely removed. 

96.. 1. AyfCYLUsjfaiviatilis* Common River Limpet. 
<t. 10. f. 125.) Shell conoid, with the point re- 
curved and near one end; a'perture roundish- 
<oval; disk blueish. 

Ancylus fluviatilis. Muller, Verm.\ Drap. p. 48. 
t. 2. f. 23, 24. ; Brard, p. 200. t. 7. f. 3. ; Sowerby, 
Gen. fig. 1.; Turton, Man, ed, 1. t. 140. f, 125. 
Patella fluviatilis. Lister ; Mont. p. 482, 

lacustris, Turt. Diet. p. 138, 

Crepidula lacustris. Fleming, Ency, 
b. With slight longitudinal striae, 
In streams and rivulets, attached to stones. 
Animal greyish. 

Shell about a quarter of an inch in diameter, and 
nearly as much in height, semitransparent, light horn- 
colour, covered with a dusky green skin, slightly 
marked with concentric striae, inside bluish-white, 
glossy; the crown slightly curved downwards. 

M. Michaud has described a specimen which has 
M 5 



250 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

a sinus on the front edge, most probably caused by 
the animal having lived on a stone which had a pro- 
minence, under the name oiAncylus sinuosus. (Compl. 
90. 1. 16. f. 1, 2.) 

VELLETIA. (Lake Limpet.) 

The animal like Ancylus, but dextral ; the shell 
oblong, compressed, conical, with the apex rather 
behind the middle, bent to the left, as in other 
dextral shells ; mouth elongate. 

97. 2. VELLETIA lacustris. Oblong Lake Limpet, (t. 
10. f. 126.) Shell oblong, compressed, with the 
point slightly recurved in an oblique direction 
and nearly central. 

Ancylus lacustris. Mutter, Verm. ii. 199.; Drap. 
p. 47. t. 2. f. 2527.; Sowerby, Gen. f. 2.; Turton, 
Man. ed. 1. 141. f. 126. 
Patella lacustris. Montagu, p. 484. ; Don. B. S. 

1. 150. 
Patella oblonga. Lightfoot, Phil. Trans. Ixxvi. 

168. t. 2. f. 1. 5. ; Turt. Diet. p. 138. 
Crepidula oblonga. Fleming, Ency. 
In still waters, attached to aquatic plants. 
Animal blackish. 

Shell a quarter of an inch long, and hardly a tenth 
in breadth, extremely thin and transparent, smooth, 
oblong, compressed at the sides, with the apex pointed 
and near the centre of the shell, inclining towards 
the narrower end, and turning a little obliquely to- 
wards the left side.* 

* Mr. Guilding (Zoo/. Journ. iii. 535.) has described two 
West Indian species of this genus, which I have lately had the 
opportunity of re-examining and proving to be true Vellcti(e y 
\\hich was doubtful from Mr. Guilding' s erroneous description 
of the animal. 



LIMN-EADJE. 251 

* * * Tentacles elongate, linear ; body and shell spiral, 
sinistraL (Physina.) 

4. PHYSA. (Bubble Shell.) 

The body spiral, on the middle of an elongate foot ; the 
mantle large, lobed on the edge, and expanded over 
the ovate, thin, transparent, spiral, sinistral shell, 
which has an oblong mouth, with the inner lip ex- 
panded and spread over the body whorl, covering 
the axis and the smooth pillar; the tentacles have 
an auricle at the base. 

98. 1. PnvsAfontinalis. Stream Bubble Shell, (t. 9. 

f. 110.) Shell horn-colour, oval, with a very short 

obtuse spire; aperture dilated at the base. 
Physa fontinalis. Drap. p. 54. t. 3. f. 8, 9. ; Brard, 

p. 167. t. 7. f. 7, 8.; Lamarck, vi. ii. 156.; 

Leach, 150.; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 379.; 

Turton,Man. ed. 1. 127. f. 110. 
Limnea fontinalis. Soicerby, Gen. f. 8. 
Bulla fontinalis. Mont. p. 226. 
Bulimus perda. O. F. Mutter, Naturfoscher 

xv. 

Planorbis bulla. Mutter, Verm. ii. 167. 
Bulla fluviatilis. Turton, Conch. Diet. 
Helix bullaeoides. Donovan, B. S. t. 168 f. 

2. ? ? ; Linn. Trans, viii. p. 126. t. 4. f. 1. 
Var. 1. Spire longer. 
Bulla fontinalis. Linn. Trans, viii. 126. t. 4. f. 1. 

(not description). 

Physa acuta ? J. Sowerby, not Drap. 
Var. 2. Last whorl rather angular behind. 
Physa alba. Jenyns, MSS., not Turton. 
M 6 



252 PNEUMONOBRANCH1ATA. 

In rivers and streams, on aquatic plants. 

Animal blackish grey ; tentacles paler. 

Shell nearly half an inch long, and half as much 
broad, very thin and fragile; spire extremely short, 
of four volutions, the lower one much inflated, the 
others small, and ending obtusely ; aperture covering 
nearly the whole of the shell ; pillar slightly sinuate 
and white, not reflected. 

This shell varies considerably in shape. Mr. Jef- 
freys distinguished four varieties. Some have the spire 
elongated considerably more than the rest. Dr.Turton 
(Conch. Diet.} described a small subglobose specimen 
under the name of Bulla fluviatilis, but it probably is 
only a young specimen of the common state. 

It is the young specimens of these shells alone 
which agree with the Linnaean and Lamarck ian cha- 
racter of the species, in the shortness of the spire ; for, 
as the shell increases in size, the whorls are gradually 
turned more obliquely down the axis, so that the older 
shells have a longer spire in proportion than the young 
ones. 

There are nevertheless two very distinct varieties, 
which may prove to be distinct species, and indeed 
have been considered so by several of my friends, as Mr. 
Fryer and Mr. Hinch, who study these animals. The 
one which agrees best with Linnaeus's and Lamarck's 
character of Physa fontinalis, is generally a small shell, 
of a clear yellow colour, with a very short rounded 
spire, formed of 3J or 4 very gradually enlarging 
whorls, the suture of the last being more oblique than 
the rest, and with a subacute tip. It is a young 
shell of this variety that was most probably figured 
by Donovan under the name of Helix bullceoides 



LIMNJEADJE. 253 

(British Shells, t. 168. f. 2.), and Bulla fluviatilis 
by Dr. Turton, in his Dictionary, p. 27. It is a 
large specimen of this variety at fig. 11</. ; and others 
with a rather longer spire, as if passing into the 
next variety, that is figured by Lister, t. 134., by Da 
Costa, t. 5. f. 6. 

The second variety, which is perhaps Physa sulo- 
paca of Lamarck, is a larger shell, often reaching 
3-8ths of an inch in length, which is most probably 
described by Montagu and Turton as the adult 
of the former variety; for, they say, it sometimes 
reaches half an inch long. It is easily known from the 
former by the spire being produced about l-3d the 
length of the mouth, and formed of four or five dis- 
tinct convex whorls ; and it -has a blunt top. 

This variety is called Physa rivalis by the York- 
shire conchologists, but is quite distinct from the West 
Indian species described by Dr. Maton. It is figured 
in Dr. Maton and Racket's paper (Linn. Trans, xviii. 
t. 4. f. 1.) as Bulla fontinalis, but does not agree with 
his description of the species, which certainly belongs 
to the first variety. This figure does not represent 
the inner lip sufficiently spread on the body whorl. 
The difference in the bluntness of the spire between 
the two varieties, at first made me much inclined to 
consider them as species ; but the spaceous specimen 
I have examined, and the variation that I found in 
the specimen sent to me under the two names, induce 
me for the present to consider them as only variations 
of the same, probably produced by some local situa- 
tion, as the difference in the depth of the water, or its 
being still or running. Mr. Hirich informs me, the first 
variety is always found in very small plashes of water, 



254 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

or in water among grass, while the larger one is found 
in canals and nearly still rivers, which may account 
for all the difference between them ; for we have often 
been inclined to consider varieties as distinct, because 
they were found in different situations, whereas the 
difference of situation may be the only cause of the 
variation ; which would probably disappear if they 
were placed and allowed to breed in similar circum- 
stances to the other variety. 

Mr. Jenyns informs me, that he has a British spe- 
cimen, which he thought was the Physa alba of Tur- 
ton (which is undoubtedly a Sicilian species), differing 
from the general form of Physa fontinalis in the hinder 
part of the last whorl being rather angular, as in 
Limn&us stagnalis. 

Mr. James Sowerby has sent me a specimen of the 
long-spired variety, under the name of Physa acuta ?, 
which he received with Chara aspera from Anglesea, 
in 1833, and which he has continued to breed in his 
water-butt ; but he says it differs from the common 
species in the form of the animal, which he thus de- 
scribes : 
" PHYSA (acuta ?). Animal with setaceous antennae ; 

an acute tail keeled upon the back ; a two-lobed 

mantle, of which one of the lobes covers the colu- 

mella, and is five-parted, the other is turned upon 

the spire, and is three-parted." 

The animal has the habit of throwing its shell 
about in an extraordinary manner, either in defence 
or to remove obstructions, continuing at the same 
time fixed by its foot. Probably this motion is some- 
times occasioned by a minute worm (the Gordius in- 
quitinus of Muller) which infests this and many other 



255 

fresh-water shells : twenty or more may sometimes 
be seen attached to their sides like thin threads. 

The eggs are similar to those of PlanorMs and 
Limruzus, in groups forming oblong or rather depressed 
globular masses, attached to the surface of leaves. ( See 
Pfeiffer, t. 8. f. 1 8. ; see also Jeffreys, Linn. Trans. 
xvi. 380.) 

5. APLEXUS Fleming. (Aplexus.) 
Animal exactly like Physa, but the mantle edge is 
simple and not reflected over the shell, and the 
tentacles are without any auricle at the base ; the 
shell is longer, and the inner lip is parallel to the 
outer, and not spread over the body whorl. 

Adanson first described this genus in 1757, under 
the name of Bulin (Bulinus), which ought to be 
adopted ; but it would create confusion, as Hartmann 
and Mr. Broderip have lately changed Lamarck's 
genus Bulimus, which is synonymous with Cochlea of 
Adanson, into Bulinus. 

99. I. APLEXUS hypnorum. Slender Aplexus. (t. 9* 
f. 1 13.) Shell horn-colour, oblong, with an elong- 
ate pointed spire ; aperture oval-lanceolate. 

Physa hypnorum. Drap. p. 55. t. 3. f. 12, 13.; 
Turton, Man. ed. 1. 129. f. 113. 

Limnea turrita. Soicerby, Gen. f. 10. 

Bulla hypnorum. Linn. S. N. i. 1185.; Mont. p. 
228. 

Nauta hypnorum. Leach, Mollusc, p. 152. 

Planorbis turritus. Mutter, Verm. ii. 169. 

In ponds and slow streams. 

Animal blackish ; foot quite as long as the shell ; 
tentacles black. 



256 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Shell half an inch long, and a third part as broad, 
dark horn-colour, glossy and transparent ; spire com- 
posed of five or six produced and hardly raised volu- 
tions, ending rather acutely; aperture narrow-oval, 
covering about half the shell ; the pillar a little sinu- 
ate, often of a pale rose-colour. 

The eggs are deposited in oblong masses, exactly 
similar to those of Limnceus, slightly attached to shells 
and water-plants. (See Pfeiffer, t. 7. f. 24. 27.) 

This species was first recorded as British by the 
industrious Petiver (Gaz. t. 10. f. 8.), who found it at 
Mitcham, Surrey. 

* * * Tentacles elongate, linear ; shell discoidal, sinis- 
traL ( Planorbina. ) 

6. PLANORBIS. (Coil Shell.) 

The animal with a small foot; tentacles with an 
auricle at the base, and a long slender subcentral 
spiral body, which is covered with an external 
discoidal dextral shell, the whorls rolling nearly 
on the same plane ; with a lunate or subquadrate 
mouth, and a simple cavity. 

In considering these shells as sinistral, the spire is 
that side which is uppermost when the mouth is 
placed on the right side of the spectator, with the 
most expanded part of the outer lip downwards. 
It is important to observe this distinction, for Dr. 
Turton and others, in describing the species, have 
sometimes called the under side the upper, and vice 
versa. 

This genus is so named from the flattened and ho- 
rizontal coil of the volutions, by means of which the 
whole of the gyrations may be seen on each of the sides. 



257 

The smaller species are liable to many distortions. 
Mr. Sheppard describes a specimen of P. marginatus, 
with the volutions nearly disjointed or pulled out ; 
another of P. spirorbis, in which the volutions ap- 
peared as if pressed out from the base towards the 
apex, and being almost disjointed, caused the shell 
to resemble a little basket ; another, of P. vortex, 
with the mouth enlarged, and turned over the pre- 
ceding whorls, which gives the idea of a serpent 
coiled up. (Linn. Trans, xvi. 157.) We have in the 
British Museum several specimens equally dis- 
torted. 

The Planorbes have been considered by many 
authors as sinistral shells. M. Desmoulins (Act. Soc. 
Linn. Bord. iv. 273.) examined the question in 
detail, and came to the following conclusion. 

1 . That the shell of Planorbis is essentially dex- 
tral. 

2. The upper part of the shell is invariably indi- 
cated by the more advanced edge of the mouth, and 
not by the sinking in of the tip of the spire, which 
sometimes does not exist. The monstrosities of these 
shells, which are not uncommon, also show this struc- 
ture, as the whorls gradually glide from left to right, 
down the imaginary axis. (See Michaud, t. 16. 
f. 12.) 

3. The animal has its three orifices on the left 
side of the neck, a character which distinguishes it 
from all the other dextral LimncEada. But this is 
only a displacement of the extremities of these 
organs, for the organs themselves are placed on the 
right side of the body, as in all the other dextral 
Limnaadce* 



258 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

4. Consequently, he adds, the animal of Planorbis 
is essentially dextral, like the shell. 

5. The sinistral position of the orifices of the 
Planorlis is the same exception in the Pneumobran- 
chous Mollusca, as the sinistral position of the gills 
of certain Ptenobranchous Mollusca is amongst the 
other genera of the order. 

Mr. Benson observes, " The animal is considered 
as sinistral ; but if the shell be viewed as such prac- 
tically, and placed with the side which would in a 
sinistral shell be accounted the apex, it will be 
found that the animal is on its back, and that it will 
have to twist its body half round, in order to gain 
the ground with its foot ; and that, in order to creep 
with any ease, it must reverse the position of the 
shell. This is more especially observable in the 
flatter and more oblique mouthed species." Mr. 
Benson considers that face as containing the apex, 
which is contiguous to the back of the animal. This 
side may invariably be known in Planorbis by the 
greater projection of the lip in that part, by the 
deeper depression of the central umbilicus, and by 
the more considerable involution of the whorls, occa- 
sioning the greater depth of the suture. (Journ. 
Asiat. Soc. Beng. 1836, p. 744.) 

* Whorls not keeled, rounded above and below ; spire 
flattish or slightly concave. 

100, 1. PLANORBIS corneus. Horny Coil Shell, (t. 8. 

f. 95.) Shell nearly flat above, deeply umbilicate 

beneath, showing the convex whorls ; whorls six, 

rounded, striated ; aperture semicircular. 

Planorbis corneus. Drap. p. 43. t. 1. f. 42 44.; 



259 

Brard, p. 147. t. 6. f. ], 2.; Sowerby, Genera, f. 
I . ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. ; Rossm. Icon. 
ii. 14. t. 7. f. 113.; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 112. 
f. 95. 

Helix cornea. Linn. S. N. 1243.; Mont. Test. 
Brit. 449. 

Planorbis purpureus. Mutter, Verm. ii. 154. 

Junior, Planorbis similis. Mutter, Verm. 166. 

Helix nana. Penn. B. Z. t. 125. 

In muddy streams and ditches. 

Animal black. (Sturm, t. 40.) 

Shell an inch in diameter, thick, black, or of a rusty 
brown colour, obliquely striate; volutions five, the outer 
one rounded, with a deep umbilicus on the under or 
front side, exposing three of the volutions ; upper sur- 
face a little concave and whitish; aperture rather 
oblique, rounded, as high as broad. 

The young shells are finely spirally striated. 

101. 2. PLANORBIS albus. White Coil Shell, (t. 8. 
f. 97.) Shell thin, pellucid, white, concave, and 
with the whorls equally convex on both sides, with 
fine raised hispid spiral striae ; mouth roundish- 
rhombic. 

Planorbis albus. Mutter, Verm. ii. 164. ; Leach, 
Mollusc, p. 156. ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 387. ; 
Turt. Man. ed. 1. 114. f. 97. 

Planorbis hispidus. Drap. p. 43. t. 1 . f. 45 48. ; 
Brard, p. 159. t. 6. f. 6, 7.; Lam. Moll. vi. 154. 

Helix alba. Mont. p. 459. t. 25. f. 7. 

spirorbis. Linn. S. N. i. 1244. ? 

Planorbis reticulatus. Risso ? 

Var. Planorbis glaber. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi.; 
Potiez and Midland, Gall Moll i. 211. 



260 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

In stagnant waters, on aquatic plants. 

Animal greyish. (Sturm, t. 42.) 

Shell about a quarter of an inch in diameter, very 
thin and brittle, pale horn-colour, marked with very 
fine close-set raised circular striae, which are clothed 
with deciduous bristles, and crossed with obscure 
longitudinal lines ; volutions five, the first very large 
and rounded ; the upper surface a little sunk in the 
middle, the under side more strongly concave ; aper- 
ture roundish-oval, dilated, higher than wide, with 
the upper angle much produced. 

When quite fresh, this beautiful species is clothed 
with a fine velvety pile composed of short points 
seated on the raised concentric striae, and which fall 
off with the epidermis ; and in its depilated state 
may be the Helix spirorbis of Linne, as he no where 
else mentions so very common a species, Gmelin hav- 
ing probably quoted it twice, both as H. spirorbis 
and H. alba. In this state it answers well to his 
character of H. spirorbis, in the Fauna Suecica, " testa 
utrinque concava, plana, albida : anfractibus quinque 
teretibus." 

The Helix Somershamensis Sheppard (Linn. Trans. 
xvi. 159.), described as a land shell found on old de- 
cayed wood, is said much to resemble this species in 
shape and appearance. It requires further examin- 
ation. 

Mr. Alder observes, " The examination of Mr. Jef- 
freys* specimen of P. olaber confirms me in the opinion 
that it is a variety of this species. In some speci- 
mens of P. albus the spiral striae are scarcely discern- 
ible even in a living state, and become quite obliter- 



261 

ated in the dead shell." This is caused by the striae 
being most prominent on the periostraca. 

102. 3. PLANORBIS Icevis. Smooth Coil Shell, (t. 12. 
f. 148.) Shell rather concave, and whorls equally 
convex on both sides; brownish horn-colour, 
semitransparent, smooth or slightly wrinkled by 
the lines of growth ; with three or four compact 
and rounded whorls, and a nearly circular aper- 
ture. 

Planorbis laevis. Alder, Cat. Supp. Trans. Soc. 
Newcastle. 

Inhab. ponds, north of England, Whitley, North- 
umberland, and Holy Island. 

This very distinct species approaches nearest to 
P. albus, but is smaller, has the whorls more rounded 
and closer set, and is quite destitute of spiral striae. 
It bears considerable resemblance to Valvata cristata, 
especially in its young state, and is often covered with 
a dark incrustation. 

It was discovered by Mr. Alder and the Rev. W. 
Mark, in Sept. 1832, and first published by Mr. 
Alder in 1838. It is very like P. spirorbis. 

Mr. Thompson has also found it at Belfast. 

Very like Planorbis parvus of Say, from the United 
States. 

103. 4. PLANORBIS imbricatus. Nautilus Coil Shell, 
(t. 8. f. 94.) Shell depressed, thin, pellucid, rather 
concave above, flattish beneath ; whorls depressed, 
obtusely keeled, with spinous ridges across the 
outer whorl ; aperture oval, united all round. 
Planorbis imbricatus. Mutter, Verm. ii. 165. ; Drap. 
p. 44. 1. 1. f. 4951. ; Brard, p. 163. t. 6. f. 10, 



262 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

11.; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 388. ; Turton, 
Man. ed. 1. 11. f. 95. 

Helix nautileus. Walker, T. M. R. f. 20, 21. ; Mont. 
p. 464. t. 25. f. 5. 

Turbo nautileus. Linn. S. Nat. i. 1241. ; Turt. 
ZHcf. p.227. 

Var. 1. Shell smaller, with the transverse la- 
minae more remote. 

Planorbis cristatus. Drap. p. 44. t. 2. f. 1 3. 

Var. 2. With the transverse laminae obliterated. 

Monstrosity, with the volutions detached and raised 
above each other. 

In ponds and ditches, on aquatic plants. 

Animal grey. 

Shell the tenth of an inch in diameter, of a blackish 
or greenish horn-colour, with three volutions; the 
epidermis raised into numerous transverse ridges, 
which form a spinous crest round the outer margin ; 
aperture roundish-oval, united all round, and often 
detached from the second volution at its narrower end. 

* * Spire flat ; whorls fiat above, keeled. 

104. 5. PLANORBIS carinatus. Carinated Coil Shell, 
(t. 8. f. 89.) Shell horn- colour, transparent, 
striate, nearly flat above, rather convex, and with 
a slight central umbilicus beneath ; whorls six, 
rapidly enlarging, with a prominent obtuse keel 
in the middle ; mouth angular. 
Planorbis carinatus. Mutter, Verm. ii. 157. ; 
Drap. p. 46. t. 2. f. 13, 14. 16.; Brard, p. 150. 
t. 6. f. 3.; Turton, Man. ed. 1. t. 16. f. 89. (not 
87.). 
Helix planata. Linn. Trans, viii. p. 189. t. 5. f. 14. 



263 

Helix planorbis. Linn. S. Nat. i. 1242. ; Turton, 

Diet. p. 45. 

Helix complanata. Mont. T. B. 450. t. 25. f. 4. 
Planorbis complanatus ? Turton, Man. ed. 1. f. 

89. (not description). 
Var. 1. Planorbis disciformis. Jeffreys, Linn. 

Trans, xvi. 521. ; Alder, Mag. Z. 8f B. ii. 113. 
Planorbis lutescens. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 

385. (not Lam.). 

Helix carinata. Mont. T. .451. t. 25. f. 1. 
Planorbis planatus. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 110. 

f. 92. 

In stagnant waters. 

Animal brown. 

The animal, according to Montagu, differs from 
P. marginatus in the tentacles being somewhat longer, 
and particularly in their being pellucid, yellow, and 
not darker in the middle. (T. B. 453. ; Sturm, t. 43.) 

Shell hardly half an inch in diameter, with five 
volutions, the outer one growing suddenly larger, 
above nearly flat, beneath rather convex, gradually 
shelving to the outer edge ; in the older specimens, 
the hinder or upper part of the whorls becomes rather 
convex; colour pale horn-colour and transparent, 
often covered with a brownish coat; aperture con- 
tracted to a point above, in consequence of the keel. 

This species is immediately known from Planorbis 
carinatus by the under or front side of the whorls not 
being so convex and ventricose, by their shelving gra- 
dually to the outer edge, and by the hinder or upper 
part of the whorls of the older shells being rather 
convex, somewhat like the lower, which has caused 
the keel to be considered as central, which it is not. 



264 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Dr. Turton's figure of Planorbis planatus certainly 
represents this shell, and probably he only described 
a young specimen. 

Draparnaud and Michaud believe that the Helix 
contortuplicata Gmelin, S. Nat. n. 144. (Planorbe en 
vis Geoff. 99. t. 3. f. 17, 18.) is only a monstrosity. 

Mr. Sheppard describes a monstrosity which had 
the volutions nearly disjointed or pulledout. (Linn. 
Trans, xvi. 157.) 

Mr. Alder observes, " I am not very sure, even 
after the examination of Mr. Jeffreys' specimen, that 
I perfectly understand the distinction between Pla- 
norbis disciformis and P. carinatus. The degree of 
carination is so very variable in different individuals 
of the same species, that it is rather fallacious as a 
distinguishing character." On re-examining the spe- 
cimen here referred to, I could not find any character 
of importance to distinguish them ; and Mr. Jeffreys 
says, "they are often found living mixed with P. 
carinatus" 

In the first edition of this work there was some 
mistake about the reference to the figures, perhaps 
occasioned by their being wrongly numbered by the 
engraver. 

Planobis marginatus should have been 87, and 

not 88. 
Planorbis complanatus should have been 88, and 

not 89. 

Planorbis carinatus should have been 89, and not 87. 

This is proved by the size he gives for Planorbis 

complanatus. Rossmasler has partly corrected this 

error ; he truly considers the P. complanatus of Turton, 

as only a state of growth of P. marginatus. 



LIMN^ADJE. 265 

105. 6. PLANORBIS marginatus. Margined Coil 
Shell, (t. 8. f. 87, 88. 90.) SheU horn-colour, 
brown, semitransparent, striolate, flat or a little 
concave above, flattish, with a slight central con- 
cavity, beneath ; whorls rapidly enlarging, flat, 
and strongly keeled above, ventricose and rounded 
to the margin beneath. 

Planorbis marginatus. Drap. p. 45. t. 2. f. 11, 

12. 15. ; Rossm. Icon. ii. t. 2. f. 59.; Brard, p. 

152. t. 6. f. 5. ; Alder, Mag. Zool. Bot. ii. 112.; 

Turton, Man. ed. 1. 107. f. 87. 
Helix planorbis. Linn. Syst. i. 1242.? Penn. 

B. Z. ii. t. 83. f. 123.; Linn. Trans, viii. 188. 

t. 5. f. 13. 

Helix complanata. Linn. S. N. i. 1242.?; Mont. 

p. 450. t. 25. f. 4. ; Fleming, B. A. 278. 
Planorbis umbilicatus. Mutter, Verm. ii. 160. ; 

Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 384. 
Planorbis carinatus. Studer. 
complanatus. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 108. 

and f. 88. (not 89. as cited.) 
Var. 1. Planorbis turgidus. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans. 

384. 

Var. 2. Helix rhombea. Turton, Conch. Diet. 
Planorbis rhombeus. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 108. f. 

90. 
Planorbis Sheppardi. Leach, Moll. 149., and 

Cab. Brit. Mus. 
Helix Draparnaudi. Sheppard, Linn. Trans, xiv. 

158.; Cab. Brit. Mus. 
Planorbis Draparnaldi. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans. 

xvi. 306. 

N 



266 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Planorbis deformis. Lam. vi. 1 54. ? 

Var. 3. entirely without any keel. Alder, 1. c. 113. 

Monstrosity, with the volutions elevated into a 

spiral cone. 

Helix terebra. Turton, Diet. p. 62. f. 55. 
cochlea. Brown, Wern. Trans, ii. t. 24. f. 10. 

In stagnant waters and slow rivers. 

Shell about three quarters of an inch in diameter, 
very like the last, but thicker and the whorls more 
rounded, more convex to the edge beneath, and flat- 
ter at top or behind ; hence the keel has been called 
marginal, and the mouth is more rhombic and rounded 
in front ; these characters are quite as visible in the 
young shells. The keel greatly varies in distinc- 
ness and prominence, but is never so prominent as in 
the former species. 

There is no doubt but that the Helix rhombea of 
Turton is only the young state of this species, and 
Dr. Leach's specimen of Planorbis Sheppardi, which 
is the type of Dr. Turton's P. complanatus, is evi- 
dently the same : his figure is half as large again 
as the specimens in the Museum. Mr. Sheppard 
thought it was allied to P. albus, and this, perhaps, 
misled Mr. Alder to think that it might be a variety 
of that species. (Mag. Zool. Bot. ii. 113.) 

Ferussac thought that the Helix rhombea of Turton 
was probably a Scalaris monstrosity of H. ericetorum. 
(Fer. Prod.) 

Dr. Fleming considered that the Helix terebra "of 
Turton might be a distortion of Helix lapicida, but 
Dr. Turton has reduced it to this species. 



LIMN^ADJE. 267' 

106. 7. PLANORBIS vortex. Whorl Coil Shell, (t. 8. 
f. 91.) Shell brown, pellucid, thin, flat above, 
slightly and regularly concave beneath, with six 
or seven gradually increasing sharply keeled volu- 
tions, which are convex before and flat behind 
mouth rhombic, compressed. 

Planorbis vortex. Mutter, Verm. ii. 158.; var. a., 
Drap. p. 44. t. 2. f. 4, 5.; Brard, p. 154. t. 6. 
f. 9.; Lam. Hist. vi. 154.; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans. 
xvi. 382.; Rossm. Icon. 104. t. 2. f. 61.; Sturm, 
Fauna, t. 44. ; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 109. f. 91. 
Helix vortex. Linn. S. N. i. 1242.; Mont. p. 

454. t. 25. f. 3. 

Helix planorbis. Da Costa, p. 65. t. 4, f. 12. 
Planorbis compressus. Michaud, Compl. 81. t. 16 

f. 6. 8. 
Monstrosity. The mouth of the shell with a 

thickened internal rib. 
Planorbis leucostomus. Michaud, Compl. 80. t. 

16. f. 3, 4, 5.; Rossm. Icon. i. 105. f. 62. 
In stagnant waters. 
Animal violet-brown. 

Shell three eighths of an inch in diameter, very 
flat and thin, with six or seven gradually increasing 
volutions, slightly concave above, and quite flattened 
underneath, so as to form a sharp edge round the 
outer volution ; aperture a little angular. 

In summer, when the ditches are dry, this animal 
closes up its shell with a white epiphragm, within 
which it lies secure under the mud and weed, in a 
state of torpidity, until the ditches are again filled 
with water. The animal then thickens the internal 
margin of the shell, forming a permanent white rim. 
N 2 



268 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Miiller long ago pointed out the white and thick- 
ened aperture as an occasional character of this shell, 
though he was not perhaps aware of the manner in 
which it was formed. 

107. 8. PLANORBIS spirorbis. Rolled Coil Shell, 
(t. 8. f. 98.) Shell thin, brown, slightly concave 
on both sides, with six gradually increasing round- 
ish and nearly equal volutions ; mouth roundish. 

Planorbis spirorbis. Miiller, Verm, ii. 161. ; Brard, 
p. 156.; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 115. f. 98.; Sturm, 
Fauna, t. 45. 

Helix spirorbis. Gmel. i. 362. ; Mont. p. 455. t. 
25. f. 2. 

Planorbis vortex j3. Drap. Moll 45. t. 2. f. 6, 7.; 
Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvi. 382. 

In ponds and canals. 

Shell in flatness and compactness of volutions much 
resembling the P. vortex, but is less and has only six 
volutions ; is rather thicker ; the upper surface is a 
little concave in consequence of the volutions being 
rounded, and the outer one scarcely flattened into a 
carinated edge ; and the aperture is rounded below. 

Mr. Alder now believes that P. vortex and P. spir- 
orbis of Miiller are distinct. (See Alder, Cat. Supp. 2.) 

The peristome is often white-ribbed. 

* * * Shell polished ; spire deeply umbilicate ; whorls 
slightly keeled ; front of shell convex. 

108. 9. PLANORBIS nitidus. Fountain Coil Shell, 
(t. 8. f. 93 ) Shell depressed, dark horn-colour, 
smooth, glossy, diaphanous, flat above, with a cen- 



269 

tral sunk spire, rather convex beneath ; whorls 

three or four, the outer shelving to a keel in the 

middle; mouth elongate-angular. 
Planorbis complanatus. Drap. p. 47. t. 2. f. 20 

22. Rossm. Icon. ii. 16. t. 7. 116.; Brard, 

p. 161. t. 6. f. 4. 
Helix fontana. Lightf. PhiL Trans. Ixxvi. t. 2. 

f. 1.; Montagu, p. 462. t. 6. f. 6. 
Planorbis nitidus. Mutter, Verm. ii. 263. (part) 

Fleming, B. A. 278. ; Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, xvl. 

389. ; Alder, Mag. Z. # B. ii. 114. 
Planorbis lenticularis. V. Alien; Sturm, Fauna* 

vi. 8. 16. 

Planorbis fontanus. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 110. f. 93. 
Helix lenticularis. V. Alien, 35. t. 2. f. 4.. 

In clear stagnant waters, on aquatic plants. 

Animal black. 

Shell not a quarter of an inch in diameter, of a dark 
O1 w hiti s n horn-colour, very convex be- 
neath, with thtt r-pntre flattened, above flat, 
with a central umbilicus ; the outer volution slightly 
but rather sharply carinate near the middle; the 
front of the shell is regularly convex, has the appear- 
ance of being the proper spire, as in Segmenting. 
This shell differs greatly in size and colour ; the larger 
specimens are generally much the darkest, being often 
reddish brown. 



N 3 



270 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

* * * * Spire deeply umbilicated ; ivhorls rounded before 
and behind, not keeled, close pressed. 

109. 10. PLANORBIS contortus. Twisted Coil Shell. 

(t. 8. f. 96.) Shell deeply umbilicate above, nearly 

flat beneath ; whorls eight, convex ; suture deep ; 

aperture very narrow crescent-shaped. 
Planorbis contortus. Mutter, Verm. ii. 162. 

Drap. p. 42. t. 1. f. 39 41.; Jeffreys, Linn. 

Trans, xvi. 383.; Rossm. Icon. ii. 16. t. 7. 

f. 117.; Turton, Man. ed. 1. f. 96.; Brard, 

p. 157. t. 6. f. 1214. 
Helix contorta. Linn. S. N. i. 1 244. ; Montagu, 

p. 457. t. 25. f. 6. 
Helix umbilicata. Pulteney, Dorset, t. 20. f. 11. 

crassa. Da Costa, B. S. t. 4. f. 11. 

Inhab. ditches. Common. 

Animal grey or blackish. (Sturm, t. 41.) 

Shell about two tenths of an inch in diameter, and 
one tenth in thickness, brown horn-colour, and when 
free from accidental incrustations, exhibiting in water 
a bronzed or gilt lustre; volutions five, remarkably 
compact and equal in size; the upper surface with a 
large and deep umbilicus; aperture very narrow 
crescent-shaped, wider than high, only slightly pro- 
duced on the under side. 

In describing this shell, Dr. Turton called that 
the upper side which was considered the lower in the 
other species, and vice versa. 



LIMNJEADJE. 271 

7. SEGMENTINA Flem. (Segment Shell.) 

Animal nearly like Planorbis, but the shell is polished, 
and the cavity contracted by permanent internal 
transverse ridges, having a triradiated opening. 

So called from the internal segments or par- 
titions. 

Mr. Alder does not think that the septa in the 
shell are sufficient to raise it to the rank of a ge- 
nus, as the animal is exactly like Planorbis. Miiller 
confounded it as a variety with P. fontanus : like 
that species, the spire is umbilicated, and the front 
of the shell has the appearance of being the proper 
spire. 

110. 1. SEGMENTINA lineata. Glossy Segment Shell. 

(t. 8. f. 91.) 
Planorbis nitidus. Muller, ii. 163. (part) ; Drap. 

p. 46. t. 2. f. 1719.; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 116. 

f. 91.; Pfeiffer, i. 82. t. 4. f. 12, 13.; Rossm. Icon. ii. 

15. t. 7. f. 114, 115. 

Hemithalamus lacustris. Leach, Mollusc, p. 137. 
Nautilus lacustris. Light. Phil. Trans, t. xxvi. 

t. 1. f. 17.; Mont. p. 191. t. 6. f. 3. 
Helix lineata. Walker, Test. M. R. t. 1. f. 28. 
Planorbis clausulatus. Ferussac ; Potiez * Mi- 

chaud, Gall. i. 209.; Desmoulin, Mol. Girond. 

n. 10. 

Segmentina nitida. Flem. Edin. Ency. xii. 
Helix nitida. Gmel 3642. 
Planorbis nautileus. Kickx, Mol. Brab. 66. 
Segmentina lineata. Flem. Mollusca, Ency. Brit. 

t. 367. f. 8., Brit. Anim. 279. 

N 4 



272 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

In stagnant waters, on aquatic plants. 

Shell hardly a quarter of an inch in diameter, 
highly polished and smooth, of a chestnut or reddish- 
brown colour, flattish and semitransparent ; volutions 
four, the outer one very large in pro- 
portion, and marked with two or three 
whitish transverse lines exhibiting the internal par- 
titions ; the upper surface very convex, with a deep 
umbilicus in the centre, the under side nearly flat, and 
umbilicate in the centre; the circumference slightly 
carinate ; aperture oval, inclining to triangular, with 
the peristome interrupted. 

Except for its internal semiconcamerated par- 
tition, this shell exactly resembles the Planorbis fon- 
tanus, but is larger. 



273 



Sect. II. OPERCULATED. (Operculata.) 

The mantle edge separate from the back of the neck 
of the animal, leaving an open pulmonary chamber ; 
tentacles two, elongate, contractile, with the eyes on 
the outer side of their base. They are all dioscious, 
terrestrial, and furnished with a distinct operculum. 

It contains only a single British genus, the type of 
a large family. 



Fam. 1. CYCLOSTOMIME. 

Animal with a broad foot, a central spiral body, 
enveloped in a simple edged mantle, which is 
covered with an ovate spiral shell, with a 
roundish mouth, and furnished with a spiral 
operculum. 




CTCLOSTOMA ELEGAKS. 

4 Showing the under side of the foot, divided into two parts. 

5 The operculum. 

N 5 



274 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

These animals live an vegetable matter, like the 
snails, and are found in damp places on a chalky soil. 

This family contain many foreign, and one British 
genus. 

Mr. Jeffreys has placed this family in the same 
group with the Carychiada Leach (our Auriculida), 
overlooking all the peculiarities in the respiratory and 
sexual organs of the animal. 

CYCLOSTOMA Lam. (Circle Shell.) 

Shell ovate- spiral ; mouth simple, united all round ; 

operculum of a few flat whorls, with a simple 

shelly internal coat ; the foot divided into two 

parts by a longitudinal central groove. (See fig. 

p. 273.) 

The foot is formed of two longitudinal portions : 
as the animal walks, the portion on one side is first 
advanced, while the animal holds on by the other ; 
and then holds on with the advanced portion as the 
other side is gradually advanced before it. (See 
p. 273. f. 4. Rossmdsler, Icon. i. 89. t. 2. f. 80. 82.) 

This is the case with Cyclostoma lineolata and the 
exotic species with ovate, few-whorled opercula. 
The foot of the species with orbicular, horny, many- 
whorled opercula is not so divided, but broad and 
expanded, like the foot of other terrestrial Mollusca. 

Dr. Turton, in his descriptions of this genus (ed. 
1. 93.), says the shell has no epidermis; but this is a 
mistake : indeed, I am not aware of any shell that is 
really destitute of this important covering (see Phil. 
Trans. 1833); though it varies greatly in thickness in 
different genera ; and in this genus it is very ihin, but 
in some Indian species of the family it is thick, and 



CYCLOSTOMID^E. 275 

forms a decided brown coat. In the same manner, 
he describes the operculum as horny. It is, as in most 
of the European species to which I am inclined to 
restrict the genus, decidedly shelly. 

The generic name is from the circular circumference 
of the aperture or mouth. 

111. 1. CYCLOSTOMA elegans. Elegant Circle Shell. 

(t. 7. f. 75.) Shell conic-oval, with raised spiral 

striae, and the peri treme attached at its upper part. 
Cyclostoma elegans. Drap. p. 32. t. 1. f. 5. 8.; 

Brard, p. 103. t. 3. f. 7, 8.; Linn. Trans, xvi. f. 

63. ; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 93. f. 75. 
Cyclostomus elegans. De Montfort, ii. p. 287. 
Turbo elegans. Mont. p. 342. t. 22. f. 7, ; Linn. 

Trans, viii. 167, 
Turbo striatus. Da Costa, p. 86. t. 5. f. 9. 

tumidus. Penn. 

Nerita elegans. Muller, Verm. ii. 177. 

Var. Smaller. 

Cyclostoma marmoratum. Brown ? 

In hedges and under stones, in chalk and limestone 
districts ; England and Wales, /3 Scotland, Edinburgh ? ? 

Animal grey-brown. 

Shell half an inch long, and four tenths of an inch 
wide, solid, grey or purplish-yellow, mostly purple 
at the tip, often marked with two rows of purplish 
brown spots ; spire composed of five rounded volu- 
tions, marked with numerous close-set raised spiral 
striae and finer longitudinal ones between them; 
aperture round with a small angle at top, and an um- 
bilicus behind the pillar ; operculum hard, horny ex- 
ternally, arid marked with a single depressed spiral 
N 6 



276 PNEUMONOBRANCHIATA. 

line, from which some very fine striae radiate towards 
the circumference. 

The variety is much smaller in all its parts, and 
rather more finely striated. 

Lister (Tab. Anat. iv. f. 1, 2, 3.) gives some ac- 
count of the anatomy, and a very detailed description 
has lately been published by the Rev. Mr. Berkeley 
(Zool Journ. iv. 278.). 

Montagu gives a good description of the animal, 
but he thinks Lister was wrong in not describing 
the black tips to the tentacles as eyes, as well as 
the real eyes which are at their base. Time has 
proved, I think, that " his conjecture " was not 
just. Indeed the whole of Montagu's article on this 
animal is curious, as showing how desirous the older 
conchologists were to gain some knowledge of the 
animal of the shell they were describing, and to form 
theories from the few they then knew. (See Test. 
Brit. 346.) 

Mr. Jeffreys has placed in this genus, as a Pneumo- 
nobranchous Mollusca, Turbo truncatus of Montagu, 
because he found it mixed with some other land shells 
in some fine sand from Weymouth. This is a marine 
shell belonging to the genus Truncatella of Risso, 
and respires by gills. (See Berkeley, Zool. Journ.) 



277 



CLASS II. CONCHIFERA Lam. 

THE animals without any distinct head, the mouth 
being situate between the four leaf-like lips, with 
a more or less distinct, compressed, central foot, 
enveloped by the two pair of leaf-like gills and the 
large leaf-like mantle, which are covered by two 
shelly valves, which are united together by a ligament 
along their dorsal edge. 

These animals are all aquatic and mostly marine ; 
the British fluviatile species belong to one section and 
three families, viz : 
I. DIMYARIA. Shell oblong-longitudinal ; animal with 

an anterior and posterior subequal adductor muscle. 

Fam. 1. Cycladce. Shell ovate, hinge with two or 
three diverging teeth. Mantles, lobes free be- 
neath. 

Fam. 2. Unionida. Shell oblong, hinge toothless 
or with large lateral teeth. Mantle lobes free 
all round. 

Fam. 3. Driessenadce. Shell triangular, hinge 
toothless. Mantle lobes united, pierced with 
three holes. 

Fam. 1. CYCLAD^E. 

Animal the mantle lobes free beneath and in 
front, united behind, and extended into one or 
two siphons; foot compressed, subquadrate, or 
becoming strap-shaped. 

Shell subcordate, porcellanous, thin, covered with a 
hard olive horny periostraca, hinge teeth two or 
three, diverging; lateral teeth distinct, laminar. 



278 



CONCKIFERA, 




1 . 3. Cyclas cornea. a lower, b upper siphon ; c the foot. 
4. 5. Pisidium amnicum. d the single siphon j c the foot. 

These shells are distinguished from the marine 
Veneridae by the shell being covered with a hard 
olive horny periostraca. 

As Mr. Jenyns justly observes, in his excellent 
Monograph of the British species of this family, 
which has here been followed, that all the species 
breed readily in confinement, during the spring and 
summer months. They are probably ovoviparous, 
and the young appear to remain for a certain pe- 
riod within the folds of the branchiae previous to 
their exclusion, since many may be found of dif- 
ferent sizes within the parent at one and the same 
time. They have the faculty of producing long 
before they are arrived at their full growth ; and even 
some individuals, which are themselves so immature 
as to possess hardly any of the distinguishing charac- 
ters of the species, frequently contain young of a 
sufficient size to be seen from without through the 
transparent valves. 

When kept alive, they readily and frequently ascend 
the sides of the vessel, and glide along the surface of 
the water, with their foot extended on it, and the shell 
immersed and in an inverted position. In this man- 



CYCLAD^:. 279 

ner, like the Limncei and other Gasteropodes, they 
contrive to traverse the vessel from side to side, as 
though they were crawling along a solid plane. 

This family contains two genera : 

1. Cyclas. Shell oblong, subequilateral ; animal si- 
phons two. (f. 1 3.) 

2. Pisidium. Shell ovate, inequilateral, wedge- 
shaped; animal siphon one. (f. 4, 5.) 

1. CYCLAS Lamk. (Cycle.) 

Animal mantle produced behind into two elongate 
contractile siphons; foot tongue-shaped, very ex- 
tensile ; shell suborbicular, nearly equilateral ; hind 
teeth minute, one in the right and two in the left 
valve ; lateral teeth compressed, elongate, lamellar. 
The shells are known from the next genus by their 

being rounder and more equilateral. 
112. 1. CYCLAS rivicola. River Cycle, (t. 1. f. 1.) Shell 
subglobose-ovate, ventricose, rather solid, beauti- 
fully and closely striated, greenish brown, with 
two or three darker bands ; edge and lunule yel- 
low; umbones obtuse; cardinal ligament conspi- 
x cuous. 

Tellina cornea fi. Maton Racket, Linn. Trans. 
viii. 59.; Turton, Conch. Diet. 180.; Wood, I. 
46. f. 3. 

Cardium corneum, var. Montagu, T. B. 86. 
Cyclas cornea. Drap. Hist. Moll 128. t. 10. f. 

1. 3. 

Cyclas rivicola. Leach, MSS. ; Lam. Hist. v. 
558. ; Pfeiffer, L. $ W. 121. t. 5. f. 3. 5. ; Tur- 
ton, Bivalves, 248. t. 11. f. 13.; Fleming, Brit. 
Anim. 452. ; Jenyns, Trans. Camb. P. S. 6. ; Tur- 
ton, Man. ed. 1. 12. f. 1. 



280 CONCHIFERA. 



Young, compressed, pale. 

Cyclas aequata. Sheppard, MSS. Brit Mus. 

Inhab. river Thames, Trent, &c. 

The shell is rather solid, blunt within ; the umbones 
paler, and often circumscribed with a dark line ; 
length 10^, height 8J, thickness 6^ lines. 

113. 2. CYCLAS cornea. Horny Cycle, (t. 1. f. 2.) 
Shell suborbicular, globose, thin, very finely stri- 
ated ; umbones blunt ; ligament inconspicuous. 

Tellina cornea. Linn. S. N. i. 1120. ; Linn. Trans. 
viii. 59. ; Don. B. S. t. 96. 

Nux nigella. Humph. Cat. 

Tellina rivalis. Muller, Verm. Hist. ii. 202. 

Cardium corneum. Mont. T. B. 86. 

nux. Da Costa, B. S. 

Cyclas cornea. Lam. Hist. v. 558. ; Pfeiffer, 120. 
t. 5. f. 12.; Nikon, Moll Suec. 96.; Turton, 
Biv. 248. t. 11. f. 14.; Man. ed. 1. 13. f. 2,; 
Flem. B. A. 452. ; Jenyns, 1. c. 8. 

Inhab. rivers, ponds, and ditches. 

Var. 1. stagnicola. Shell subglobose, rather 

flattened on the basal edge; umbones tumid, 

pellucid, very prominent. 

Tellina stagnicola. Shepp. Linn. Trans, xiv. 150. 
Cyclas stagnicola. Leach, MSS. Brit. Mus. 

cornea /3. Jenyns, 1. c. 8. 

Var. 2. gibbosa. Shell very gibbous ; margin very 

blunt. 
Var. 3. compressa. Shell rather compressed; the 

margin meeting at an acute angle. 
Var. 4. minor. Small, nearly globular. 
Inhab. turf-pits, fens of Cambridgeshire. 
Animal white ; the siphons rather elongate, pale 



281 

flesh-coloured, upper rather tapering, lower cylindri- 
cal, truncated; foot, when expanded, rather longer 
than the shell. 

114. 3. CYCLAS lacustris. Capped Cycle, (t 1. f. 3.) 
Shell rather rhombic, compressed, thin, yellowish 
white, diaphanous; umbones prominent, rather 
acute, and tuberculose ; ligament inconspicuous. 

Cardium lacustre. Mont. T. B. 89. 

Tellina lacustris. Linn. Trans, vii. 60. ; Turton, 

a D. iso. 

Cyclas calyculata. Drap. 130. t. 10. f. 13, 14. ; 
Lam. Hist. v. 559. ; Pfeiffer, 122. t. 5. f. 17, 18. ; 
Nilson, 99. ; Turton, Man. ed. 1. 14. f. 3. 

Cyclas lacustris. Turton, Biv. 249. t. 11. f. 18. 

Young. The apex of the shell large relatively to 
the size of the specimen. 

Inhab. rivers. 

Var. 1. Shell orbicular, less compressed, subdia- 
phanous, reddish brown. 

Cyclas lacustris. Alder, Cat. i. 40., Brit. Mus. 

calyculata /3. Jenyns,\. c. 11. 

Inhab. ponds. 

Var. 2. Shell orbicular, rhombic, rather ventricose, 
subdiaphanous, reddish; umbones less promi- 
nent, blackish. 

Cyclas stagnicola. Leach, MSS.fide Lam. 

calyculata, var. 2. Lam. Hist. v. 559. 

y. Jenyns, 1. c. 11. 

Inhab. north of England. (Jenyns.) 

Animal white ; siphons white, elongate. 

This species, when in confinement, shows more 
activity than C. cornea ; they sometimes remain at 



282 CONCHIFERA. 

the bottom of the vessel with the posterior extremity 
of the shell elevated, and the siphons exserted. 

The cup, or swollen part of the umbo, in the ven- 
tricose shell of the young animal remaining on the 
top of the shell, is common to several species of the 
family, and which, like many other viviparous Mol- 
lusca, produce their young of a large size, compared 
to their parent. 

2. PISIDIUM. 

Mantle extended behind into a short, simple, con- 
tractile siphon; foot tongue-shaped, very exten- 
sile ; shell suboval, wedge-shaped, inequilateral ; 
hinge teeth and lateral teeth like Cyclas. 
This genus was first distinguished by Scopoli : it has 
since been established, from characters drawn from 
the animal by Pfeiffer, under the name of Pisidium. 
Leach long ago separated it in his MSS. under the 
name of Pera, and afterwards of Euglesia, and the 
shells, with his names attached to them, were long ex- 
hibited in the British Museum collection. 

* Shell slightly inequilateral. 

115. 1. PISIDIUM obtusale. Gibbous Pera.(t.l2. f.149.) 
Shell globose, obliquely subovate, shining, very 
finely striated, greenish black, with a yellowish 
marginal zone, rarely all yellowish; umbones 
rather prominent, very blunt. 

Pisidium obtusale. Pfeiffer, 125. t. 5. f. 21, 22. ; 
Jenyns, 1. c. 13. t. 20. f. 1. 3. 

Cyclas obtusalis. Lam. Hist. v. 559. 

Pera gibba. Leach, MSS. Brit. Mus. 

Young. The yellow zone broader. 



CYCLAD^:. 283 

Var. 1. Shell ovate, trigonal, very ventricose, 
blackish or ochraceous ; the edge very blunt. 

Cyclas obtusalis. Nilson, 101. 

obtusale ft. Jenyns^ 1. c. 13. 

Inhab. small splashy pools and other stagnant 
waters. 

Animal white ; siphons short, obconic ; foot very 
extensile. 

Mr. Jenyns observes, " It is by far the most active 
and lively species that I am acquainted with, being 
always in motion, and residing less at the bottom than 
the rest of the family." 

116. 2. PISIDIUM nitidum. Shining Pera. (t.l2.f.!50.) 
Shell orbiculate, oval, very shining, finely striated; 
umbones rather blunt, with a few deeper striae. 
Pisidium nitidum. Jenyns, Monog. 16. t. 20. f. 

7,8. 

Inhab. clear water, Cambridgeshire, Battersea 
Fields. 

Animal white ; siphon short, funnel-shaped, with a 
spreading mouth, and a more or less plaited crenated 
edge. 

This shell may easily be distinguished by the 
deeper grooves on the umbo, which are more easily 
seen in the living specimens. 

117.3. PISIDIUM pusillum. Minute Pera. (t. 1. f. 7.) 
Shell orbicular, ovate, rather compressed, very 
finely striated, scarcely inequilateral; umbones 
rather prominent. 

Tellina pusilla. Turton, C. Diet. 167. 

Cyclas pusilla. Turton, Biv. 251. t. 11. f. 16, 17., 
Man. ed. 1. 16. f. 7. 



284 CONCHIFERA. 

Cyclas fontinalis. Nilson, 101.; Drop. 130. t. 

10. f. 8. 11. 

Cyclas gibba. Alder, Cat. 41. 
Euglesa Henslowiana. Leach, MSS. Brit. Mus. 
Pisidium pusillum. Jenyns, Monog. 14. t. 20. f. 4. 6. 
Inhab. ponds. 

* * Shell inequilateral. 

118.4. PISIDIUM pulchellum. Beautiful Pera. (t. 12. 
f. 151.) Shell oblique-ovate, ventricose, deeply 
striated ; umbones rather blunt, simple. 

Pisidium pulchellum. Jenyns, Monog. 18. t 21. f. 1. 

Cardium amnicum Jun. Montag. T. B. 88. 

Var. 1. Smaller; shell thin, finely striated, um- 
bones rather acute. 

Pera pulchella. Leach, MSS. Cab. Brit. Mus. 

Pisidium fontinale. Pfeiffer. 

Cyclas fontinalis. Brown, Edin. Journ. N. 8f G. 
Soc. i. 11. t. 11. f. 5. 7. ; Alder, Cat. 41. 

Pisidium pulchellum @. Jenyns, Man. 1. c. t. 2 1 . f. 2, 3. 

Var. 2. Shell obliquely oval, finely striated, com- 
pressed, margin acute. 

Pisidium pulchellum 7. Jenyns, Mon. 18. 

Var. 3. Shell rather oblong, very ventricose, deeply 
striated; edge very blunt, hinge margin nearly 
straight. 

Pisidium pulchellum 8. Jenyns, Mon. 18. t. 21. 
f. 4, 5. 

Inhab. ponds, Birkham Common, Surrey. 

Animal white; siphon variable, conical or elon- 
gate, with an entire or lobed end. 

The siphonal tube assumes a variety of appearances 
even in the same individual, and it is very interest- 



CYCLAD^. 285 

ing to watch, under a low power of the microscope, 
the striking and rapid changes of form through which 
it passes in a short time. 

Mr. Jenyns tells me that latter research has in- 
duced him to believe that vars. 1. and 3. are a distinct 
species, for which he would retain the name ofpulchel- 
lum, while I would propose the name of P. Jenynsii 
for the other varieties. 

119. 5. PISIDIUM Henslowianum. Appendaged Pera. 
(t. 1. f. 6.) Shell obliquely oval, ventricose, finely 
striated ; umbones rather acute, with a laminar 
projection. 

Pera Henslowiana. Leach, MSS. 
Tellina Henslowiana. Leach, MSS. ; Shepp. Linn. 

Trans, xiv. 150. 

Pera appendiculata. Leach, MSS. Brit. Mus. 
Cyclas appendiculata. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 1. 15. 6. 
Pisidium Henslowianum. Jenyns, Mon. 20. t. 21. 

f. 6, 7. 

Inhab. rivers and ponds. 

Animal white ; siphon short, rather variable ; 
generally rather conical and truncated. 

This shell is easily known by the curious eave-like 
projections on the umbones, which are evidently 
formed on the edge of the very young specimen, and 
then gradually rise to the umbo as the shell in- 
creases in size by the addition of new laminae of shelly 
matter to its edge. 

120.6. PISIDIUM amnicum. (t. 1. f. 5.) Shell ovate, 
ventricose, deeply sulcately striated; umbones 
rather blunt. 
Tellina amnica. Mutter, ii. 205. ; Linn. Trans. 



286 CONCHIFERA. 

viii. 60.; Dillwyn, D. Cat. i. 105.; Turt. Diet. 

168. 
Tellina rivalis, Maton, Linn. Trans, ii. 44. t. 13. 

f. 37, 38. ; Don. B. Z. t. 64. f. 2. 
Cardium amnicum, Montag. T. B. 86. 
Cyclas palustris. Drap. 131. t. 10. f. 15, 16. 

obliqua. Lam. Hist. v. 559. ; Nilson, 99. 

Pisidium obliquum. Pfeiffer, 124. t. 5. f. 19, 20. 
Cyclas amnica. Turt. Biv. 250. t. 11. f. 25., 

Man. ed. 1. 15. f. 5. ; Fleming, B. A. 453. 
Pisidium amnicum. Jenyns, Mon. 21. t. 21. f. 2. 
Young shell rather compressed; umbones scarcely 

prominent. 

Var. 1. Shell with very deep grooves. 
Pera fluviatilis. Leach,, MSS. in Brit. Mus. 
Pisidium amnicum /3. Jenyns, Mon. 22. 
Var. 2. Shell nearly smooth, with slighter striae. 
Pera Henslowiana. Leach, MSS. Brit. Mus. 
Pisidium amnicum 7. Jenyns, Mon. 22. 

Inhab. rivers and gently running streams, residing 
wholly at the bottom, and being partly buried in the 
mud. 

Animal white, siphon rather variable. 

121. 7. PISIDIUM cinereum. Shell greyish or cinere- 
ous, rather compressed, oval, finely striated, 
and with two or three deep sulcations, forming 
darker zones across the shell ; margin of the 
valves meeting at a rather acute angle ; umbones 
obtuse, and not much produced, sometimes 
slightly capped, as in C. calyculata. 
Pisidium cinereum. Alder, Cat. Supp. 4. 



CYCLAD^E. 287 

Var. More ventricose, and produced at the um- 
bones. 

Inhab. ponds, north of England. 

Animal white; siphonal tube very short, broad, 
and flat, truncated at the end, and seldom protruded 
much beyond the edge of the shell. 

This species may generally be readily distinguished 
from others of the genus by its more compressed and 
oval form, and its cinereous colour. It is the largest 
of the minute species. (Alder.) 

Length 2-10ths, height 7-40ths, thickness 5-40ths 
of an inch. 

The genus CYREXA is now no longer found alive 
in this country, but it must have lived here at no very 
great period of time (geologically considered), for 
it is found abundant fossil at Grays, in company with 
a quantity of other fresh-water and land shells, all 
now found alive in the neighbourhood, as Pisidium 
amnicum, Valvata obtusa, &c. &c. (See Introduction, 
p. 40.^ 



288 



CONCHIFERA. 



Fam. '2. UNIONISE. 

Animal. Mantle lobes free all round except at the 
back, the hinder edge forming, when in conjunc- 
tion, two holes, for the passage of the water, food, 
and rejectamenta, the upper (f. b.) small simple, 
the lower one (f. a, *, a**) of which is bearded 
on the edge; foot (f. c.) compressed, ovate, sub- 
quadrate. 

Shell oblong-elongate, equivalve inequilateral, 
solid, internally pearly, covered with a hard 
olive or black horny periostraca ; hinge without 
any true cardinal teeth, with irregular ante- 
riors, and long laminar posterior lateral teeth, 
or toothless ; muscular scars numerous ; ligament 
and cartilages external, elongate, strong. 




ANODON CYGNEUS. 
a, Lower siphon ; a*, a**, magnified._6. Upper siphon, c. The foot. 



UNIONID.E. 289 

These animals live sunk perpendicularly in the 
mud of rivers, with the front end downwards, and the 
siphonal edge even with the surface of the mud, but 
sinking themselves deeper when disturbed ; they are 
also found under the shelter of stones in rivers and 
running water, with stony banks. 

The family contains three genera, 

1. Anodon. Hinge toothless. 

2. Alasmodon. Hinge with short anterior teeth. 

3. Unio. Hinge with short anterior and long pos- 
terior teeth. 

]. ANODON Lam. (Fresh- Water Muscle.) 

Shell oblong, thin, rather compressed behind ; hinge 
margin toothless. 

122. 1. ANODON cygneus. Swan Fresh- Water Mus- 
cle, (t. 1. 8.) Shell oval, tumid, rounder and 
ventricose in front, compressed and more or less 
angular above behind, covered with an olive pe- 
riestraca. 

Mytilus cygneus. Linn.; Montagu^ T. B. 170. 

Anodonta cygnea. Drap. ; Lam. 

Anodon cygneus. Turton, Biv., Man. ed. 1. ]7. 

Young. The hinder slope more compressed and 
dilated. 

Var. 1. cellensis. Shell large, ovate-oblong, very 
ventricose, thin, brittle, rather produced be- 
hind, upper and lower edge nearly parallel, 
straight. 

Mytilus cellensis. Schroet, Flussc. t. 2. f. 1. 

Anodonta sulcata. Lam. Hist. v. 85. ; Pfeiffer, i. 
110. t. 6. f. 1., ii. 6.; Nikon, 113. 
o 



290 CONCHIFERA. 

Mytilus anatinus. Linn. Trans, viii. t. 3. a. f. 1. 
xiii. t. 5. f. 5. 

Anodon cygneus. Turton, Man. ed. 1. f. 8. ; 
Drap.Moll. i. 12. f. 1.? 

Anodonta cellensis. Rossm. Icon. t. 19. f. 280. 

? Anodon paludosus. Turton, Biv. 240. t. 15. f. 6. 

Mytilus dentatus, Turton, Diet, is only an acci- 
dental distortion of this variety. 
Inhab. ponds in very still water. 

Var. 2. stagnalis. Very like last, but shorter, and 
the lower edge rather more rounded. 

Mytilus stagnalis. Sow . Brit. Miscel. and Brit. Mus. 
Inhab. ponds. 

Var. 3. cygnea. Very like the two former, 

but shorter, and the lower edge still more 

rounded. 
Anodonta cygnea. Pfeiffer, i. 3. t. 6. f. 4.; 

Rossm. Icon. t. 3. f. 67., t. 5. f. 342. 
Mytilus cygneus. Schroet. Flussc. t. 1. f. 1.; Penn. 

Brit. Zool iv, t. 67. f. 78. ; Linn. Trans, viii. 

t. 3. a. f. 2., xiii. t. 5. f. 3. 

Var. 4. piscinalis. Shell moderate, rather rhombic- 
oval, ventricose, rather thick, often beautifully 
coloured, rather produced behind, and with the 
wing more compressed and elevated. 

Mytilus maculatus. Linn. Trans, xiii. t. 5. f. 6. 
(Young). 

Anodonta piscinalis. Nilson, 116. n. 3. ; Schroet. 
Flussc. t. 3. f. 1. ?; Drap. t. 12. f. 2.; Rossm. 
Icon. t. 19. f. 281., t. 30. f. 416. (var.). 

Anodonta ventricosa. Pfeiffer, ii. 30. t. 3. f. 1. 6. 



291 




Var. 5. rostrata. Shell moderate, oblong, rather 
rhombic, rather compressed, brownish, much pro- 
duced behind, very short and rounded in front. 

Anodonta rostrata. Kokeil, MSS.; Eossm. Icon. 
t. 20. f. 284. 

Inhab. ponds, Liverpool. (Brit. Mus.) 

Var. 6. complanata. Shell moderate, obovate, ob- 
liquely truncat- 
ed behind, com- 
pressed, striated, 
brownish green 
I and yellow zoned 
Anodonta com- 
planata. Ziegl. 
MSS. ; Eossm. 
Icon. i. 112. t. 3. f. 68. ; iv. 24. t. 20. f. 283. 
Anodonta compressa. Menke, Syn. 106. 

. rhombea. Schliit. 

intermedia. Lam. Hist. vi. 86. ; Pfeiffer, 

i. 1 13. t. 6. f. 3., ii. t. 5. f. 1. 6.; Kenyan, Mag. 
N.Hist. ].f. 188. 

Var. 7. avonensis. Shell moderate, ovate, rather 
rhombic, ventricose, thick, solid, rough, internally 
white, hinder slope subangular, behind rather 
truncated, covered with a calcareous or tufaceous 
deposit. 

Anodonta ponderosa. Pfeiffer, ii. 31. t. 4. f. 1 6. ; 

Eossm. Icon. iv. t. 20. f. 282. 
My tilus cygneus ft. Linn. Trans, viii. t. 3. a. f. 3. 
Mytilus incrassatus. Shepp. Linn. Trans, xiii. t. 

5. f. 4. 

o 2 



292 CONCHIFERA. 

Mytilus avonensis. Linn. Trans, viii. t. 3. a. f. 4. 
Anodonta crassa. Marks, MSS. 

Inhab. streams and ponds in calcareous countries. 
Mr. Miller very justly remarks (Ann. Phil. iii. 
377.), "I perfectly agree with Dr. Maton in consi- 
dering M. avonensis only a variety of M. anatinus. 
Miss Bennett of Norton House favoured me lately with 
specimens from Tisbury, Wiltshire. They are old 
shells, and the animal having lived in water highly 
impregnated with chalk and calcareous matter, its 
epidermis has been secreted so rapidly, and increased 
the shell so much in thickness, that the Linnean cha- 
.racter, ' testa fragilissimaj is entirely lost." 

Var. 8. Shell small, elliptical-ovate, brittle, rather 

produced behind, short and rounder in front. 
Anodonta anatina. Pfeiffer, i. 112. t. 6. f. 2.; 
Schroet. Flussc. t. 1. f. 3.; Rossm. Icon. t. 30. f. 
417420. 

Inhab. rivers, ponds, and ditches. 

A most variable species, which appears to assume 
different appearances under every circumstance ; as, 
for example, the depth, the stillness or motion, and 
the purity or impurity, or peculiar impregnation of 
the water in which it happens to be located. 

Mr. Alder considers A. cygnea^ A. cellensis Pfeif- 
fer, A. intermedia, and A. anatina Lam., and A. 
ventricosa Pfeiffer, as distinct British species. (Mag. 
Zool. Bot. 11. 118.) 

Mr. Sheppard, after describing the four species, as 
he considers the varieties of this species to be, sums up 
as follows : "To bring the specific differences above 
enumerated into one point of view ; M. anatinus is 
distinguished from M. cygneus by its anterior (pos- 



UNIONIDJE. 293 

terior) area running parallel with its base; again, 
from M. macula by the anterior area of the latter slop- 
ing upwards, and forming an angle with the fore part 
of the shell. In M. cygneus the base slopes upwards ; 
and M. incrassatus differs from them all by its 
large exserted ligament, superior roughness of the 
outside, and in having the posterior part, in a slope 
from the umbones to the base, incrassated. (Linn. 
Trans, xiii. 87.) 

2. ALASMODON Say. (Pearl Muscle.) 

Shell oblong-elongate ; hinge with short crested irre- 
gular anterior teeth in the right valve, shutting be- 
tween two in the other valve; posterior lateral teeth 
small in the young, and wanting in the adult shells. 

Found in rapid rivers. 

This genus was established by Say : Dr. Leach 
named it Damaris, and Dr. Turton has retained for 
it the generic name of Unio ; but, as this genus was 
beforejnamed by Say, and Unio is generally kept for 
the following genus, we are induced to adopt Say's 
name. 

123. 1. ALASMODON margaritiferus. Pearly Alasmo- 
don. (t. 2. f. 9.) Shell ovate-elongate, rather 
compressed, thick, heavy, black-brown, truncated 
below; cardinal teeth thick, conical. 

Mya margaritifera. Linn. Fauna Suec. 516., Syst. 
Nat. ii., List. Conch. 149.; Schroet. Flussc. 168. 
t. 4. f. 1. 

Unio margaritiferus. Retz. Nov. Gen. 16.; Nil- 
son, 103. n. 1.; Turton, Biv. 242, t. 16. f. 1., 
Man. ed. 1. 19. f. 9. 

o 3 



294 ' CONCHIFERA. 

Unio margaritifera. Drap. 132. t. 10. f. 1719.; 

Pfeiffer, i. 116. t. 5. f. 11. 
Unio sinuata. Lam. H. vi. 70. ; Pfeiffer, ii. 33. ; 

t. 7. f. 4. 
Unio margaritifer. Rossm. Icon. i. 122. f. 72. 74., 

ii. 21. f. 129. 

Unio elongatus. Nilson, 106. n. 2. 
Unio elongata. Mich. Compl. 113. t. 16. f. 29. 
Roissyi. Mich. Compl. 112. t. 16. f. 28. ; 

Proceed. Brit. Assoc.for 1838. 
Unio margaritifera, forma Roissyi. Forbes ; Malac. 

Mon. 44. 

Alasmodon margaritifer. Fleming, B. A. 417. 
Young, with small posterior lateral teeth, like* 

Unio. 

Unio riparia. Pfeiffer, t. 5. f. 13. ?? 
margaritifera. Pfeiffer, ii. t. 7. f. 1. 
Var. kidney-shaped, lower edge elongate, bent in 

making a concave line. 

Inhab. mountain rivers with a rocky bed. 

The young specimens are oblong, without any con- 
traction in the lower edge ; and in some rivers, the 
shell appears to retain this appearance in its adult age ; 
and it has hence been regarded as a species by Mi- 
chaud and others, under the name of U. Roissyi. But 
in general, as they enlarge, they become much eroded 
about the umbones, and the lower margin is more or 
less drawn in. In this state, it is the U. elongatus of La- 
marck. I do not know whether the erosion of the beak 
has any thing to do with the contraction of the lower 
edge, but all the oblong regular specimens I have seen 
have the periostraca of the beaks only slightly worn ; 
while, on the contrary, all those that have the beaks 



UNIONIDJE. 295 

much and extensively eroded belong to the other 
variety ; and the extent of the inflection generally 
agrees with the state of the umbo. Figure 9. repre- 
sents the intermediate state between the two varieties, 
and figure 10. much more resembles a younger speci- 
men, both in form and colour, than any English Umo 
I have ever seen. 

3. UNIO Retz. (Union.) 

Shell oblong-elongate ; hinge with a short, crested, 
irregular, anterior, and an elongated, laminar, pos- 
terior, lateral tooth, in the right valve, shutting 
between two similar teeth in the other valve. 

Lives in slow rivers and streams. 

These shells are liable to distortion about the 
hinge ; the margin becomes thinner and extended ; 
the shell truncated in front, the lunule enlarged and 
irregular, and the teeth nearly obliterated. It gives 
a wedge-shaped appearance to the shell. 

* Anterior teeth compressed, elevated, sometimes crested. 

124.1. UNIO pictorum. Thin Painter's Union, (t. 2. 
f. 11.) Shell oval-oblong, ventricose, produced 
into a bluntly truncated beak behind, yellowish 
green, brownish zoned, greenish behind; upper 
edge nearly straight, lower rather retuse ; hinge 
teeth very much compressed, arched, crenated ; 
hinder teeth of left valve small or evanescent. 

Young shell with a few isolated conical tubercles 
on the umbo. Pfeiffer, ii. t. 2. f. 24. 

Mya pictorum. Linn. S. Nat. ? ; Sturm, Fauna, 
vi. 2. f. a.; Wood, Conch. 104. t. 19. f. 3,4. 
Schroet. Flussc. t. 4. f. 6. 
o 4 



296 CONCHIFERA. 

Unio pictorum. Lam. Hist. vi. 77. ; Ency. Meth. 

t. 248. f. 4.; Drop. Moll t. 11. f. 4.; Rossm. 

Icon. t. 3. f. 71. a. b. ; Pfeiffer, i. t. 5. f. 9, 10. 

Unio rostratus. Pfeiffer, i. 114. t. 5. f. 8. ; Alder, 

Mag. Nat. Hist. ii. 
Mysca pictorum. Turton, Bivalves, 245., Man. ed. 

1. f. 11. 

Unio elongatula. Pfeiffer, ii. 35. t. 8. f. 5, 6. 
Inhab. slow rivers. 

125.2. UNIO Batavus. Dutch Union, (t. 2. f. 10.) 
Shell oblong, rounded at each end, with the beak 
rugged and warty. 

Mya Batava. Wood, Conch. 403. t. 19. f. 1, 2. 
Mysca Batava. Turton, Man. ed. 1. 20. f. 10. (cop. 

of Wood). 
Mya pictorum. Montagu, T. B. 36. ; Donov. B. 

S. t. 176. 

Inhab. " the river Kennet above Newbury." 
Shell an inch long and two broad, greenish brown, 
without contraction in the frout margin, by which it 
is chiefly distinguished from Unio pictorum ; inside 
dark bluish. I only know this shell from Dr. Tur- 
ton's account. It appears by Wood's figure to have 
been described from a worn shell, such as the Dutch 
colours are sent in. I do not find any species like it 
figured in any of the works on European shells. It is, 
perhaps, a specimen of the former with the edges 
filed. The figure is more like a young Alasmodon 
in shape and colour; and this is the only Unionida 
I know which is dark blue within. Mr. James D. 
C. Sowerby informs me my suspicions are correct, and 
that Wood's figure was taken from a Dutch specimen, 
so that it is most probable this species is not British. 



UNIONID.E. 297 

* * Anterior teeth conical, high. 

1 26. 3. UNIO tumidus. Tumid Union, (t. 2. f. 13.) 
Shell ovate-elongate, wedge-shaped, tumid, pro- 
duced and attenuated behind, thick, brown; lower 
edge curved ; umbones prominent, rugose ; an- 
terior teeth thick, high, triangular, strong; left 
hinder strong. 
Unio tumidus. Retzius, Nov. Gen. 17. n. 3. 

tumida. Pfeiffer, ii. 34. t. 7. f. 2, 3., & t. 8. 

f. 1, 2. ; Eossm. Icon. i. 117. t. 3. f. 70. a. b., ii. 
27. & t. 14. f. 202, 203, 204. 
Mysca solida. Turton, Bivalves, 246. t. 16. f. 2., 

Man. ed. 1. 22. f. 13. 
Mya ovata. Donovan, iv. t. 122. 
Young shell with irregular, concentric, nodulose 
ridges round the umbones. Pfeiffer, ii. t. 2. f. 
25. 

Inhab. slow rivers. New River, near London, 
West India docks. 

Known from Unio pictorum by being much more 
solid, having larger and stronger anterior teeth, and 
by its tapering behind. 

Mrs. Corrie has very kindly sent me some speci- 
mens with pale salmon-coloured pearly insides, which 
were found in a pond in Warwickshire. 

127. 4. Umoovalis. Oval Union, (t.2. f. 12. ?) Shell 
elliptical-ovate, thick, yellowish green rayed, 
tapering behind ; hinder margin slightly arched, 
or contracted ; umbones prominent, wrinkled, 
often worn ; cardinal teeth thick, conical, cre- 
nated. 

o 5 



298 CONCHIFERA. 

Mya ovalis. Montag. T. B. 563. ; Donov. B. S. t. 

89. 
Mya ovata. Wood, Conch. 105. t. 19. f. 5. 

depressa. Don. B. S. iii. t. 101. 

Mysca ovata. Turt. Biv. 246., Man. ed. 1. 21. 

f. 12. 
Unio Batava. Lam. Hist. vi. 78. ; Pfeiffer, i. t. 5. 

f. 14. 
Young shell elliptical-ovate. Pfeiffer, ii. t. 2. f. 23. 

Inhab. slow rivers. 

This shell, of which I have not seen a specimen, ap- 
pears to differ in being shorter and higher than Unio 
tumidus. If it is the same as Pfeiffer's, it retains the 
same character in its very young state. But Dr. 
Turton's figure is probably copied from Wood's ; and 
I am not certain that his figure was not taken from a 
slightly distorted U. tumidus with an irregular hinge. 
It is a very doubtful British species. 

Mr. James D. C. Sowerby has sent me a speci- 
men which he considered at the time that he made 
the figures for the first edition, to be like Dr. Tur- 
ton's species ; it is only a distorted specimen of U. 
tumidus, with the lunule much and irregularly en- 
larged, and the anterior teeth much distorted. Mr. 
Alder considers U. tumidus (Mysca solida and M. 
ovata Turt.), U. pictorum, U. rostrata Lam, and 
U. Batavus Lam., as distinct British species. (Mag. 
Zool. Sf Bot. ii. 118.) I have never been able to 
distinguish more than two, U. pictorum and U. tu- 
midus. 



299 



Fam. 3. DREISSENADJE. 

Shell regular, equivalve, inequilateral ; beaks ter- 
minal, furnished with a septum ; muscular scars 
three, the central one simple and linear, hinge 
toothless. 

Animal ; mantle entirely close all round, except 
three apertures ; one below for the passage of the 
foot, and two behind ; the upper one a roundish 
hole, the lower one produced into a conic siphon 
with a large reflexed mouth, which is broader 
within ; anterior extremity of the body bifurcate, 
and included between the segments of the ante- 
rior transverse muscle, which is attached to the 
front septum of the shell ; the abdomen depressed 
foot elongate-conical, with a tuft of byssus at the 
base, and a distinct byssal groove ; the extremities 
of the gills free throughout their hinder half. 




A group of DREISSENA POLTMORPHA, on an old shett. 
a, The lower siphon ; a*, magnified : 6, upper siphon ; c, the byssus. 

This genus perhaps bears the same relation to 
o 6 



300 CONCHIFERA. 

Mytilus as the Iridince do to the Uniones, as they both 
differ from their apparently allied genera by the ad- 
hesion of the lobes of the mantle, and the possession 
of a siphon ; but in our present imperfect state of 
knowledge of the animals of the Conchifera, and of the 
value of the adhesion or the separation of these 
parts in a systematic point of view, perhaps it is better 
to regard them as the type of a distinct family. 

The fossil genus Congeria agrees with Dreissena in 
many particulars, and perhaps belongs to the same 
family, if it is in reality a separate genus. 

1. DREISSENA Van Beneden. (Dreissena.) 

The animal of this genus differs from Mytilus in 
the mantle being closed, while in the latter it is open. 
In the latter, the retracting muscles are divided into 
several bundles, each of which has its proper attach- 
ment to the shell, while in Dreissena these muscular 
cords are united into a single bundle, which has only 
one point of attachment. In Mytilus, the branches 
adhere through their whole length ; in Dreissena^ the 
extremities are free, and float upon the posterior 
transverse muscle. 

This genus was first established by Mr. Van 
Beneden. It has also been named Tichogonia by 
Rossmasler in 1835. He did not know the animal, 
although it had been described eleven years before by 
Mr. Sowerby. 

128. 1. DREISSENA polymorpha. Zebra Dreissena. 
Shell triangular, keeled, olive, varied with black, 
wavy-lined. 



DREISSENAD^:. 



301 







Mytilus Volgse. Chemn. xi. 205. f. 2028. 
polymorphus. Pallas, Voy. Russ. App. 

211.; Sow. Gen. Shell, f. 4. 
Mytilus Chemnitzii. Ferussac. 

lineatus. Waardenburg, Mol. Belgi. 

: area. Kickx, Monag. 

? Volgensis. Gray, Ann. Phil 1825. 

Hagenii. Baer, Fer. Bull Sci. Nat. 

1826, 140. 

Mytilus Toreyi. Stenz. 
Tichogonia Chemnitzii. Rossm. Icon. i. 1113. 

t. 3. f. 69. 
Dreissena polymorpha. Van Beneden, Ann. Sci. 

Nat. 1835, 210. t.8. f. 111.; Strickland, Mag. 

Nat. Hist. 1838, 361. 

Inhab. lakes and rivers, attached to stones, timber, 
and other shells. 

Mr. James de Carle Sowerby first brought the 
fact of this animal having been introduced before the 
public on Nov. 2nd, 1824, when he presented some 
specimens to the Linnean Society, stating them to 



302 CONCHIFERA. 

be " probably the Mytilus polymorphus Gmelin, 3363, 
which is found in abundance, attached to shells and 
timber, in the Commercial Docks, by James Bryant, 
Esq., who uses the animal as bait for perch." Mr. 
Sowerby observes, that "the strong resemblance 
which it bears to the marine Mytili is very remark- 
able. Independently, however, of the septa within 
the valves, there are many other differences to be ob- 
served, several of which are in the structure of the 
included animal, although it possesses a strong byssus ; 
among others, the foot is small and the lips of the 
mouth are differently placed, being more like those in 
the animal of the Unio ovalis. It has two tubes, and 
the mantle is united almost all round, and bordered 
with a bright orange between two bands of black. 
Some of the septa within the beaks appear to be a 
kind of disease, as they are not constant." 

" The same species is found in the Danube and in 
the rivers of Russia; but the British species are much 
larger and finer than any foreign one I have seen." 
(Linn. Trans, xiv. 585.) 

In 1825, in a List of Shells not taken notice of 
by Lamarck (Ann. Phil. 1825), I stated that this 
shell would " perhaps form a genus distinct from 
MytUus, and peculiar for its fresh- water habitation," 
and added that, " like Mollusca of that station, the 
animal can live for a long time out of water. I have 
kept one for three weeks, when it was still healthy. 
It is found in the Commercial Docks, where it most 
likely has been introduced with timber from the 
Volga." 

I am now confirmed in the idea that this is the 
way in which they were introduced, as a friend has 



DREISSENADJ2. 303 

informed me that he has seen them sticking to the 
logs of Baltic timber before they were unloaded from 
the ship. (See Wiegmann, Arch. 1838.) In the dock 
they attach themselves to stones, Uniones, Anodons, 
and the walls of the docks, as well as to the logs. 

This species illustrates how rapidly molluscous 
animals may become naturalised, and spread over a 
great extent of country ; for Mr. J. de C. Sowerby, 
in 1825 (Zool. Journ. i. 584.), first recorded it as na- 
turalised in the Commercial Docks, where he observed 
that it had probably been brought with the timber : it 
has since been widely extending itself, and is now to be 
found in most of the docks communicating with the 
Thames. In 1834, Mr. Stark communicated to the 
Wernerian Society the discovery of this species in the 
Union Canal, near Edinburgh ; and in 1836, the Rev. 
M. J. Berkeley, the eminent cryptogamic botanist, dis- 
covered it, with Mr. J. Streatfield, on the piers of the 
bridge which crosses the Nen at Fotheringay ; and 
again a little higher up the same river, on stones of a 
small overfall at Tansor : he believes they were intro- 
duced from Wisbeach on timber since 1828. 

It has been naturalised into Holland and on the 
Rhine. It is also found with tertiary fossils in 
Transylvania, Moravia, and near Vienna. 

Mr. Lyell (GeoL), not being aware that these ani- 
mals had the power of living a long time out of water, 
and that they were most probably brought in the 
holds of ships with the Baltic timber, and thus in- 
troduced into our docks, where the timber is unloaded, 
believes that the animals were introduced attached to 
the bottom of Baltic ships, and thus obliged to pass 
through the sea, before being again brought to their 



304 CONCH1FERA. 

natural station in fresh water. And Mr. Garner, in 
his curious but rather crude paper on the anatomy of 
Lamellibranchiata (Mag. Nat. Hist. n. s. iii. 303.), 
ventures to explain this theory by supposing that the 
animals "kept their valves constantly closed" during 
the voyage through the sea to the fresh water ! 



" O LORD, how manifold are thy Works ! in Wis- 
dom hast thou made them all : The Earth is full 
of thy riches." PSALM civ. 24. 



APPENDIX. 



SINCE the greater part of this work has been printed, M. 
Bouchard Chantreux has sent me his " Catalogue des 
Mollusques Terrestres et Fluviatiles du Pas de Calais," 
which contains some interesting details on the habits and 
manners, and especially on the reproduction of these 
animals. Many of the facts recorded in this work must 
have been observed by most collectors of European shells ; 
but they have been left for M. Bouchard to publish. 
From this work I shall make the following abstract : 

He observes that the Arions and Limaces are semi-noc- 
turnal animals; the eggs of Arions are separate, and co- 
vered with a hard calcareous coat, while those of the slugs 
(Limaces) are covered with a transparent coat, and often 
united together by a membrane like a string of beads. 

The land soles (Arion) lay about 70 to 100 eggs be- 
tween May and September. They vary from 26 to 40 days 
in hatching, and the animals attain their full growth in a 
year ; but they begin to deposit their eggs a month or 
two before that period. The young of A. ater is dull 
brown, with yellowish sides. The eggs of A. hortensis 
are very phosphorescent for the first 15 days after they are 
laid. M. Bouchard says that the true A. hortensis has 
no shell ; he therefore doubts the species described by 
MM. Brard, Grateloup, Michaud, and Millet, which is 
said to produce Limacella concava; and I find that, by an 
oversight, I have referred this Limacella both to Arion 
hortensis and Limaxflavus. 

The eggs of the slugs (Limaces) are laid between May 
and September. They are hatched in about 25 or 30 
days, and the young reach their full size near the end of 
the year. Limax cinereus lays about 50 or 60, and Zz- 
max agrestis is much more prolific, as it continues laying 



306 



APPENDIX. 



from April to the end of November, depositing SO to 70 
eggs at each time ; two individuals having laid 348 eggs 
in that period. The young grow very rapidly : he has seen 
specimens lay eggs on the 66th day of their age, when they 
did not reach their full size until the 92d day. 

M. Bouchard describes a new species under the name 
of Limax arboreus, living generally on trees, especially 
such as are covered with moss. He thinks the Limax 
filans of Hoy is probably the young of this species. 
He describes the Limax brunneus as having great affinity 
to the dark variety of L. agrestis ; and he observes that 
the description and figures ofLimacella concava of Brard 
exactly agree with the shell of this species. 

The following table is formed from M. Bouchard's ob- 
servations. The first column exhibits the time of laying, 
No. 1. standing for January; the second, the number of 
eggs laid at one time ; the third, the number of days 
hatching ; the fourth, the number of months before the 
animal arrives at its adult age. 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


Helix virgata 
pomatia 
arbustorum 
aspersa 
nemoralis 
hortensis 
carthusiana - 
cantiana 
- revelata 
pulchella - 


9 10 
6 9 
7 9 
510 
510 
510 

7 8 
910 

7 9 


40 60 
60 80 
50 
100110 
50 80 
50 80 
60 80 
60 90 
40 50 
10 20 
10 - 50 


1520 
2030 
1520 
1530 
1520 
1520 
1315 
1415 
20 
1520 
15 


1824 
13 
1516 
13 
1113 
1113 
1011 
11 
1012 
12 

1 ^ Ifi 


rufescens 


710 


40 50 


2025 
or) 


1114 

1 ft 


- caperata 
Zonites rotundatus - 


710 
5 9 
<?._, o 


35 40 
20 30 
30 '50 


1520 
1320 

1 ^ 1 ft 


12 
12 


Vitrina pellucida 
Succinea putris 
Bulimus obscurus - 
Clausilia nigricans 
Balea fragilis 


911 
5 9 

5 9 

7 9 


8 15 
50 70 
12 15 
10 12 
12 15 


1520 
1415 
15 
1820 
1520 


810 
1112 
13 

2224 
12 



APPENDIX. 307 

Many of the species of Helices begin to reproduce be- 
fore they reach their full growth. 

The eggs of most of the Helices, of Bulimus obscurus, 
Clausilia nigricans, and Balea, are opake or opaline and 
isolated ; those of H. virgata are transparent. The eggs 
of H. pulchella are united together into the form of a cup, 
often three or four times as large as the animal and its 
shell. Vitrina pellucida, and Succinea also, unite the 
eggs into a mass with a gelatinous matter : they are 
quite hyaline. The eggs of Bulimus obscurus are large, 
roundish oval : those of Clausilia nigricans are ovoid, 
and very large for the size of the animal, being nearly 
as large as the mouth of the shells : those of Balea are 
large and globular. He observes that H. virgata is very 
insensible to cold, for they do not hybernate even when 
the ground is covered with snow ; and H. revelata lives in 
woods, on the young alders of two or three years' growth, 
eating the leaves, and resting on the under side of them 
during the heat of the day. 

Deshayes (Lam. Moll. viii. 178.) refers the Turbo 
juniperi of Montagu to Pupa arena of Draparnaud, in- 
stead of Pupa secale f though he properly refers Vertigo 
secale of D*. Turton's Manual to that species. He also, 
probably by a mere slip of the pen, has given England, 
among others, as the habitat for Pupa doliolum Drap. 
(Hist. viii. 183.) 

The Conovulus denticulatus feeds on the detritus of 
marine plants and rotten wood ; they lay 12 or 13 eggs 
in the month of June and September, united by a viscid 
matter into a small mass, which is fixed under the more 
humid stones. The eggs are globular, yellowish, and 
quite diaphanous : they are hatched about the 15th day, 
and the animals reach their full size about the end of the 
second year. They do not hybernate. 

The following table respecting the eggs of Lymneadce, 
is drawn up from M. Bouchard's observations ; the first 
column giving the form of the masses of eggs ; the second, 



308 



APPENDIX. 



the number of eggs in each mass ; the third, the number 
of days after they are laid before they hatch. 





1. 


2. 


3. 


Limnea auricularia - 


elliptical 


60100 


1516 


- ovata 




60 80 




peregra 




60 80 




stagnalis - 




100130 




palustris 


cylindrical 


60 80 




fossaria 


rounded 


15 20 




Amphipeplea glutinosa 
Physa hypnorum 


round or oval 


30 40 
3 12 


16 


fontinalis 


roundish 


3 12 


16 


Velletia lacustris - 


orbicular 


5 12 


2426 


Planorbis contortus 




6 8 


1012 


' corneus 




20 40 


16 


albus 




10 13 


12 


imbricatus - 




3 6 


1012 


vortex 




12 


1012 


marginatus 




6 




carinatus 




6 




nitidus - 




4 8 


10 12 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



(The species in italic are foreign.) 



TABLE I. 

1. Cyclas rivicola, p. 279. 

2. cornea, 280. 

3. lacustris, 281. 

4. lacustris, Drap. cop., 
see p. 17. 

5. Pisidium amnicum, 285. 

6. Henslowianum, 285. 

7. pusillum, 283. 

8. Anodon cygneus, 289. 

TABLE II. 

9. Alasmodon margaritiferus, 

293. 

10. Unio Batavus, 296. 

11. pictorum, 295. 

12. ovalis, 297. 

13. tumidus, 297. 

TABLEAU. 

14. Limax maximus, 112. 

15. carinatus, 115. 
1C, flavus, 114-. 

17. agrestis, 117. 

18. Testacellus Maugei, 5. 

19. haliotoideus, var. scutu- 
lum, 124. 

20. Testacellus haliotoideus, 124. 

21. Vitrina pellucida, 120. 

22. Helix rufescens, 156. 

23. nemoralis, 132. 

24. hortensis, 130. 

25. arbustorum, 137. 

26. Cantiana, 144. 

27. Carthusiana, 146. 
27.* See Tab. XL 

28. rufescens, 156. 
28.* See Tab. XI. 

29. granulata, 151. 



TABLE IV. 

30. Helix Pisana, 158. 

31. virgata, 160. 

32. caperata, 162. 

33. aculeata, 149. 

34. Pomatia, 135. 

35. aspersa, 128. 

36. fusca, 147. 

37. ericetorum, 163. 

38. Zonites lucidus, 174. 

39. alliarius, 168. 

40. cellarius, 170. 

41. Helix hispida, 154. 

42. Zonites crystallinus, 176. 

43. purus, 171. 

TABLE V. 

44. Zonites rotundatus, 165. 

45. urabilicatus, 166. 

46. pygmaeus, 167. 

47. Helix fulva, 148. 

48. lamellata, 150. 

49. pulchella, 141. 

50. llelicophanta brevipes, 9., 

copied from Drap. 

51. Helix lapicida, 140. 

52. Azeca tridens, and mouth 

magnified, 189. 

53. Clausilia bidens, and mouth 

magnified, 212. 

54. Clausilia Rolphii, and 

mouth magnified, 215. 

55. Clausilia biplicata, and 

mouth magnified, 214. 

56. Clausilia papillaris, and 

mouth magnified, 14. 

57. Clausilia labiata, and mouth 

magnified, 14. 

58. Clausilia nigricans, and 

mouth magnified, 217. 



310 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



59. Clausilianigricans,var. du- 

bia,217. 

TABLE VI. 

60. Bulimus decollatus, 5. 

61. Goodallii, and magni- 
fied, 6. 

62. Bulimus Lackamensis, 181. 

63. hordeaceus, 183. 

64. Pupa, 13. 

65. Zua lubrica, and mouth 

magnified, 188. 

66. Acme fusca, and magnfied, 

223. 

67. Bulimus acutus, 185. 

68. cylindrus, 20. 

69. ventricosus cop. of 
Drap. 12. 

70. Balea perversa, and mouth 

magnified, 207. 

71. Achatina acicula, and 

magnified, 191. 

72. Achatina octona, 18. 

73. Succinea putris, 178. 

74. Pfeifferi, 179. 
74.* var., 179. 
139. oblonga, 180. 

TABLE VII. 

75. Cyclostoma elegans, 275. 

76. ferrugineum y 16. 

77. Carychium minimum, and 

magnified, 221. 

78. Pupa umbilicata, shell and 

its mouth magnified, 
193. 

79. Pupa marginata, shell and 

its mouth magnified, 
196. 

80. Vertigo edentula, shell and 

its mouth magnified, 
199. 

81. Pupa juniperi, shell and 

its mouth magnified, 
197. 

82. Pupa anglica, old and 

young shells and their 
mouths magnified, 1 95. 

83. Vertigo pygmaea, shell and 



its mouth magnified, 
201. 

84. Vertigo substriata, shell 

and its mouth magnified, 
202. 

85. Vertigo palustris, shell and 

its mouth magnified, 
204. 

86. Vertigo pusilla, shell and 

its mouth magnified, 205. 

TABLE VIII. 

87. Planorbis marginatus, 265. 

88. var., 265. 

89. carinatus, 262. 

90. marginatus jun., 265. 

91. vortex, 267. 

91.* distorted and mag- 

nified, 267. 

92. Planorbis carinatus, var. 1., 

263. 

93. Planorbis nitidus, 268. 

94. imbricatus, 261. 

95. corneus, 258. 

96. contortus, 270. 

97. albus, 259. 

98. spirorbis, 268. 

99. Segmentina lineata, 27 1 . 

TABLE IX. 

100. Limnseus auricularius, 

232. 

101. pereger, 233. 
101.* See Tab. XI. 

102. scaturiginum, copied 
from Drap., 15. 

103. Amphipeplea glutinosa, 

243. 

104. Limnaeus stagnalis, 237. 

105. var. 1., 237. 

106. glaber,242. 

107. palustris, 239. 

108. truncatulus, 240. 

109. Bulimus exilis, 18. 

110. Physafontinalis,251. 
110.* See Tab. XI. 

111. Diastropha contorta, 16. 

112. Aplexus rivalis, 21. 

113. hypnorum, 255. 



76 



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i 



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4 

66 






o I 











/-/ 



/ - ' f 



Pl.VZZ. 





77 







'..,,,,arv 








."7 






-,,,,, 




















77f> 




777 



6s 




I "" t 




! 
I 








Ay/' 



/n/r 




0, 




A?/' 






, 

o> 








rxr. 







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/.?, 



rlr 



/// 
I ft 




4' 













EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



311 



TABLE X. 

1 14. Valvata piscinalis, 97. 

115. cristata, 98. 

116. var., 17. 

117. minutdy 17. 

118. Paludina vivipara, and 

operculum, 90. 

119. Paludiua achatina, 91. 

120. Bithinia tentaculata, and 

operculum, 93. 

121. " Paludina similis," 94. 

122. " viridis," 95. 

123. " stagnorum," 95. 

124. Neritina fluviatilis, 83. 

125. Ancylus fluviatilis, 249. 

126. Velletia lacustris, 250. 

127. See Tab. XI. 

128. Bithinia ventricosa, 94. 

TABLE XI. 

27.* Helix Carthusiana, var. 

thin, 146. 
28.* Helix rufescens, var. al- 

bida, 157. 
101. a. Limnaeus pereger, var. 

lineatus, and reversed 

var. 234. 
101. b. Limnasus pereger, var. 

lacustris, 234. 

101. c. Limnaeus pereger dis- 
torted, 
101. d. Limnaeus pereger, var. 

acutus, 234. 
110.* Physa fontinalis, var., 

251. 



127. Assiminia Grayana, and 

magnified, 86. 

128. See Tab. X. 

129. Helix aperta, with epi- 

phragma, 127. 

130. Helix hybrida, 132. 

131. obvoluta, 139. 

132. limbata, 143. 

133. revelata, 152. 

134. sericea, 153. 

TABLE XII. 

135. Helix concinna, 154. 
135.* depilata, 155. 

136. Zonites nitidulus, 172. 
136.* Var. Helmii, 173. 

137. radiatulus, 173. 

138. excavatus, 175. 

139. See Plate VI. 

140. Vertigo cylindrica, 200. 

141. alpestris, 202. 

142. (Not to be procured.) 

143. Clausilia dubia,and mouth 

magnified, 216. 

144. Conovulus denticulatus, 

225. 

145. Conovulus bidens, 227. 

146. albus, 227. 

147. Amphipeplea involuta, 

245. 

148. Planorbis laevis, 261. 

149. Pisidium obtusale, 282. 

150. nitidum, 283. 

151. pulchellum, 284. 

152. cinereum, 286. 



INDEX. 



ABIDA, 197. 

secale, 197. 

Acarus Lhnacum, 114. 
Achatina,67. 110. 190. 
acicula, 26. 45. 49. 187. 

191. 

biearinata, 8. 
clavulus, 6. 

folliculus, 15. 

lubrica, 188. 

octona, 18. 195. 

Acicula, 191. 

Acme, 67. 221,222,223. 

fusca, 38. 49. 219. 223. 

lineata, 223. 

Acteon, 228. 

denticulata, 225. 

Alaea cylindrica, 201. 

marginata, 196. 

nitida, 1 99. 
,.. palustris, 204. 

revoluta, 200. 

substriata, 203. 

vulgaris, 202. 

Alasmodon, 69. 289. 293. 295. 

elongatus, 38. 48. 53. 

margaritifer, 294. 

margaritiferus, 293. 

Roissyi, 38. 53. 

Amphipeplea, 67, 230, 231. 243. 

246. 
glutinosa, 25. 39. 243, 244. 

involuta, 23. 38. 50. 53. 

245. 

Amplexus, 143. 

crenellus, 142. 

paludosus, 142. 

Ampullariadae, 57. 89. 
Ancylina, 247. 

Ancylus, 54. 66. 70. 230. 247. 
249, 250. 



Ancylus elegans, 42. 

fluviatilis, 41. 48. 219. 

249. 

lacustris, 250. 

sinuosus, 249. 

Anodon, 69. 289. 

cygneus, 26. 41. 46. 288, 

289, 290. 292. 
Anodonta anatina, 292. 

avonensis, 291, 292. 

cellensis, 289, 290. 292. 

complanata, 291. 

- compressa, 291. 

crassa, 292. 

intermedia, 292. 296. 

paludosa, 290. 

piscinalis, 290. 

. ponder osa, 291. 

rhombea, 291. 

rostrata, 291. 

sulcata, 289. 

ventricosa, 290. 292. 

Anomia, 73. 
Ansulus, Ansylus, 247. 
Aplexus, 67. 143. 181. 224. 230, 
231. 255. 

- hypnorum, 48. 255. 
< rivalis, 21. 

Arianta, 137. 

. arbustorum, 138. 
Arion, 104. 111. 

- antiquorum, 45. 

ater, 47. 103, 104. 106. 108. 

112. 

circum scrip tus, 107, 108. 

empiricorum, 105. 

hortensis, 51. 106, 107. 

subflavus, 105. 
Arionidaj, 101. 103, 104. 164. 
Ascidia, 73. 
Assiminia, 85. 



INDEX. 



313 



Assiminia Grayana, 23. 33. 51. 

54. 67. 78. 86, 87. 243. 
Auricula alba, 228. 

bidentata, 227. 

bullaeoides, 20. 

Carychium, 221. 

contformis, 2O. 

erosa, 227. 

lineata, 223. 

minima, 221. 

multivolvis, 20. 

myosotis, 225, 226. 

nitens, 21. 

ovula, 21. 

personata, 225. 

pusilla, 21. 

Auriculas, 21. 

Auriculidae, 56. 82. 101. 219. 

274. 
Azeca, 68. 110. 187. 189. 

Goodallii, 189, 190. 

Matoni, 190. 

tridens, 38. 49. 189. 

Balea, 110. 207. 

fragilis, 207. 

perversa, 47. 68. 2O7. 

Bithinia, 67. 74. 90. 

impura, 26. 33. 47, 

tentaculata, 41. 78. 92, 93. 

ventricosa, 33. 51. 87. 94. 

95. 

Books, list of, 53. 
Brachiopodes, 73. 
Buccinum Acicula, 191. 

auricula, 233. 

glabrum, 242. 

glutinosum, 244. 

leucozonias, 12. 

palustre, 239. 

peregrum, 233. 

roseo-labiatum, 237. 

terrestre, 191. 

truncatulum, 241. 
zebra, 7. 

Bulimus, 19. 67, 68. 110. 125, 
126. 181. 187. 189, 19O, 191, 
192. 207. 211. 223. 255. 

. Acicula, 191. 

acutus, 12. 18. 24. 27. 36.. 

45. 47. 185, 186, 187. 

antiguensis, 18. 



Bulimus articulatus, 20. 185. 187. 

aureus, 212. 

auricularius, 233. 

bicarinatus, 8. 

bidens,213. 

castellatus, 42. 

clavulinus, 6. 

clavulus, 6. 184. 

coniform is, 20. 

cylindrus, 20. 

decollatus, 5. 27. 52. 184. 

195. 

detritus, 12. 186. 

ellipticus, 42. 

exilis, 12. 18. 

fasciatus, 20 185. 

fontmalis, 251. 

fragilis, 19. 

fuscus, 1 9. 

Goodallii, 6. 

guadalupensis, 18. 

hajmastoma, 7. 

hordeaceus, 183. 

Lackamensis, 38.50.181. 

leucostoma, 242. 

limosus, 234. 

lineatus, 223. 

lubricus, 188, 189. 

Montacutus, 182. 

montanus, 182. 

muscorum, 194. 

" oblongus, 7. 

obscurus, 45. 49. 182, 183. 

198. 241. 
octonus, 18. 

ovulus, 21. 

papillaris, 14. 

perda, 251. 

pereger, 233. 

perversus, 216, 217. 

pupa, 13. 16. 184. 

. radiatus, 12. 19. 

rosaceus, 7. 

secale, 209. 

. sepium, 12, 

. similis, 13. 
stagnalis, 237. 

succineus, 178. 

tentaculatus, 93. 

tridens, 13. 

trifasciatus, 18. 
truncatus, 241. 



314 



INDEX. 



Bulimustuberculatus, 13. 62.184. 
. undulatus, 7. 

variabilis, 1 85. 

ventricosus, 12. 185, 186, 

187. 
zebra, 7. 

zigzag, 7. 

Bulin, 181. 255. 
Bulla akera, 246. 

bicarinata, 8. 

fluviatilis, 251, 252, 253. 

fontinalis, 251. 253. 

hypnorum, 255. 

zebra, 7. 

Bulla?, 229. 244. 

Cardium, 84. 

amnicum, 284, 286. 

corneum, 279, 28O. 

edule, 95. 

lacustre, 281. 

nux, 280. 

Carocolla albella, 9. 

bicolor, 195. 

elegans, 9. 

lapicida, 140. 

Carocolla?, 195. 

Carychiadce, 274. 

Carychia, 220. 

Carychium, 68. 221 . 222, 223. 

cochlea, 223. 

fuscum, 223. 

lineatum, 223. 

Menkeanum, 190. 

minimum, 40. 49. 219. 221. 

personatum, 225. 

politum, 222. 

Cephalopodes, 73. 
Chara aspera, 254. 
Chilotrema lapicida, 140. 
Chondrus secale, 197. 
Cionella, 187. 

acicula, 191. 

lubrica, 188. 

Clausilia, 66. 68. 110. 181. 189. 
193. 207, 208, 209. 211. 

bidens, 14. 46, 47. 103. 212. 

biplicata, 15. 24. 37. 50. 

214. 

dubia, 38. 53. 216, 217. 

Everettii, 217. 

fragilis, 207. 



Clausilia Iphigenia Rolphii, 215 

labiata, 14. 

lamellata, 213. 

laminata, 213. 

laminosa, 14. 

Montagui, 214. 

nigricans,47. 216,217,218., 

papillaris, 14, 15. 24. 

. parvula, 217, 218. 

perversa, 217. 

plicatula, 215, 216. 

Rolphii, 26. 37. 46. 5O. 

215. 

rugosa, 26. 216, 217, 218. 

similis, 214. 216. 

solida, 14. 

ventricosa, 15. 214. 

Clausiliae, 193. 

Clausium, 189. 208. 210. 

Clio, 73. 

Cobresia helicoides vitrea, 120. 

Cochlea, 255. 

fasciata, 131. 

nuda, 113. 

Pomatia, 135. 

unifasciata, 138. 

versicolor, 133. 

vulgaris, 128. 

Cochlicopa lubrica, 188. 
Cochlodina similis, 214 

ventricosula, 214. 

Cochlodonta secale, 198 
Cochlohydra putris, 178. 
Cochlostyla obtusa, 14. 
Conchifera, 73. 277. 3OO. 
Conchifers, 73. 
Cones, 82. 
Congeria, 300. 
Conovulus, 68. 220, 221. 224. 

albus, 50. 227, 228. 

bidentatus, 50. 227. 

coffee, 20. 

denticulatus, 49. 219. 225. 

228. 

Corbulse, 43. 
Cornucopia, 129. 

helicina, 129. 

monstrosa, 129. 

Crepidula, 248. 

lacustris, 249. 

oblonga, 250. 

Cyclada3, 277. 



INDEX, 



315 



Cyclas, 52. 57. 69. 279. 282. 

sequata, 280. 

amnica, 286. 

angulata, 44. 

appendiculata, 285. 

calyculata, 17. 50.281. 286. 

compressa, 280. 

cornea, 18. 41. 48. 278. 

elongata, 44. 

fontinalis, 284. 

gibba, 284. 

gibbosa, 280. 

lacustris, 17. 25. 281. 

major, 44. 

media, 43. 

membranacea, 43. 

obliqua, 286. 

obtusalis, 282, 283. 

palustris, 286. 

parva, 44. 

pulchra, 43. 

pusilla, 283. 

rivicola, 34. 48. 279 

stagnicola, 280, 281. 

subquadrata, 44. 

Cyclostoma, 67. 89. 222, 223. 
274. 

achatinum, 91. 

acutum, 51. 88. 

contectum, 91. 

elegans, 46. 48. 54. 70. 

273. 275. 

. ferrugineum, 18. 

impurum, 93. 

lineatum, 223. 

lineolata, 274. 

marmorata, 275. 

obtusum, 97. 

productum, 16. 

simile, 51. 94. 

sulcatum, 17. 

viviparum, 90. 

Cyclostomidse, 102. 
Cypra?a, 193. 
Cyrena, 287. 

consobrina, 42. 

trigonula, 42. 

Damaris, 293. 
Detracia bullasoides, 20. 
Diatropha contorta, 16. 
Dimyaria, 277. 



p 2 



Doubtful species, 5. 
Dreissena, 69. 300. 

polymorpha, 4. 299, 30O, 

301. 

Dreissenadae, 277. 299. 
Drilus flavescens, 134. 

Elisma, 185. 

fasciata, 185. 

Ena, 181. 

montana, 182. 

obscura, 183. 
Enopthalma, 79. 
Euglesa Henslowiana, 284. 
Euglesia, 282. 

Fusus Turtoni, 54. 

Gasteropodes, 72. 77. 
Genera, Table of, 66. 
Geographical distribution, 24. 
Gordius, 232. 
Gulnaria, 232. 

auricularia, 232. 

lacustris, 234. 236. 

peregra, 233. 

Gymnobranchiata, 77. 

Helices, 23, 198, 223. 229, 
Helicidae, 56. 101. 109. 164, 
Helicina, lia 
Helicodontae, 198. 
Helicolimax Audebardii, 121. 

elongatus, 9. 

pellucidus, 120, 121. 

Helicophanta brevipes, 9, 

Heligona lapicida, 140. 

Helix, 24. 66. 68. 86. 98. 100. 

141. 177. 181. 
aculeata, 49. 70. 142. 149, 

150. 

acuta, 12. 18. 14O. 185. 

196. 

alba, 259, 260. 

albella, 9. 163. 165, 166. 

albina, 158. 

arbor ea, 27. 

Alderi, 148. 171. 

alliacea, 169. 

alii aria, 169. 

aperta, 36. 53. 127. 

arbustorum, 23. 45. 47.J37. 



116 



INDEX. 



Helix aspersa, 11. 23. 27. 47. 

128. 134. 

auricularia, 232. 

austriaca, 11. 143. 

bidens, 212. 

bidentata, 24. 

bifasciata, 185. 

bilabiata, 139. 

brevipes, 9. 54. 174. 

buccinata, 182. 

bullaaoides, 251, 252. 

ca?spitum, 11. 

candidula, 10. 24, 25. 

162. 
cantiana, 27. 36. 45. 47. 

103. 144. 
caperata, 10. 45. 49. 161, 

162. 

carinata, 263. 

Carthusiana, 36. 50. 144, 

145, 146. 

Carthusianella, 146. 

castanea, 1 1 . 

cellaria, 170, 171. 

cespitum, 163, 164. 

cincta, 134. 

cinctella, 144. 

cingenda, 158. 161. 

circinata, 143. 155. 

cochlea, 141. 266. 

cochlicella clavulus, 6. 

cochlicella ventrosa, 12. 

cochlitoma folliculus, 15. 

cochlodina derugata, 212. 

complanata, 263. 265. 

. concinna, 12. 52. 154, 155, 

156. 
conspurcata, 10. 24. 

contorta, 270. 

contortuplicata, 264. 

cornea, 259. 

costata, 142, 143. 

crassa, 270. 

crenella, 142. 

crenulata, 162. 

cristata, 99. 

crystallina, 1 76. 

decollate, 5. 

delectabilis, 149. 

depilata, 38. 53. 154, 155, 

156. 
detrita, 12.18. 243. 



Helix diaphana, 120. 

- disjuncta, 161. 

Draparnaudi, 120. 265. 

elegans, 9. 161. 167. 

elliptica, 120. 

erica, 163. 

ericetorum, 11. 24. 26. 45, 

46, 47. 163. 266. 

excavata, 175. 

exilis, 1 8. 

explanata, 9. 

fasciata, 134. 

fascicularis, 97. 

foetida, 169. 

folliculus, 15. 

fontana, 269. 

fossaria, 241, 242. 

fragilis, 19, 237. 

fruticum, 24, 25. 

fulva, 24. 47. 148, 149. 

fusca, 23. 25. 38. 40. 45. 

50. 147. 152. 157. 
fuscescens, 1 20. 

Gibbsii, 10.146. 

glabella, 154, 155, 156, 157. 

glabra, 169. 

globosa, 42. 

globularis, 151. 

glutinosa, 244. 

gracilis, 15. 

granulata, 25. 50. 151. 153, 

154. 156. 

grisea, 128. 

guadalupensis, 18. 

Gypsii, 146. 

Helmii, 173. 

hispida, 10. 12. 40.48. 151, 

152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157. 

holosericea, 139, 140. 150. 

hortensis, 25. 27. 40. 45. 

47. 53. 56. 74. 128. 130, 131, 
132. 134. 

hyalina, 176. 

hybrida, 45. 53. 132. 134. 

incarnata, 24, 25. 144. 

intersecta, 162. 

irregularis, 7. 

- Isthmia cylindrica, 202. 
Kirbii, 167. 

. Lackamensis, 182. 

lamellata, 38. 52. 70. 150, 

lamellosa, 142. 



INDEX. 



317 



Helix lapicida, 47. 140. 266. 

lenticularis, 269. 

limacoides, 120. 

limbata, 25. 34. 53. 143. 

limosa, 178, 232. 234. 239. 

lineata, 271. 

lubrica, 1 88. 

lucida,170, 171. 174, 175, 

176. 
lucorum, 11. 128. 

lutea, 234, 235. 

lymnoides, 19. 

maculosa, 7. 

maritima, 161. 

minuta, 27. 142. 

Mortoni, 148. 

muscorum, 196. 

mutata, 1 1 . 

nana, 259. 

naticoides, 127. 

nautileus, 262. 

neglecta, 11. 

nemoralis, 11. 23. 26, 27. 

45, 46, 56. 131, 132. 134. 

neritoides, 127. 

nitens, 169, 170, 171. 

nitida, 120. 122. 169, 170. 

175. 271. 

nitidosa, 171. 

nitidula, 148. 169. 171, 172, 

173, 174. 

obliterata, 163. 

oblonga, 7. 

obvoluta, 34. 52. 139. 

octanfracta, 242. 

octona, 19L 242. 

Oliver!, 10. 147. 

pallida, 145. 

paludosa, 40. 142. 

palustris, 239. 

papillaris, 14. 

pellucida, 120. 

- peregra, 233. 
peregrina, 242. 

perversa, 214. 216, 217. 

petholata, 158. 

Pisana, 24, 25. 27. 37. 45. 

48. 158. 160. 

piscinalis, 97. 

planata, 262. 

planorbis, 263. 265. 267. 

i plebeia, 12. 

P 



Helix Pomatia, 35. 44. 46. 1 26 

131. 135, 136. 
pulchella, 24. 26, 27. 49. 

141, 142, 143. 

pupa, 13. 

pura, 171, 172. 

putris, 178, 179. 233. 

pygmea, 24. 167, 168. 

radiata, 12. 165. 

radiatula, 9. 171, 172. 174. 

revelata, 36. 53. 152. 

rhodostoma, 158. 

rhombea, 265, 266. 

rotundata, 24. 165. 

rufescens, 25. 4O. 46. 139. 

145. 154, 155, 156L 

rufilabris, 146, 147. 

rupestris, 45. 166. 

' scalaris, 136. 

Scarburgensis, 150. 

sepium, 12, 

' septemdentata, 2O4. 

sericea, 53. 151, 152. 153. 

156. 
serpuloides, 100. 

Somershamensis, 26O. 

spinulosa, 149. 

spirorbis, 259, 26O. 268. 

stagnalis, 139. 237. 239. 

striata, 10. 160. 162. 

striatula, 174. 

> strigata, 158. 

strigella, 24, 25. 

subalbida, 160. 

subcylindrica, 22. 188. 

subrufescens, 147. 

succinea, 178. 

sylvatica, 11.1 34. 

tentaculata, 93. 

tenuis, 175. 

terebra, 141. 266. 

trigonophora, 139. 

trochiformis, 40. 1 48. 

Trochilus, 148. 

Troehulus, 148. 

truncatula, 241. 

Turtoni, 165. 

turturum, 133. 

umbilicata, 49. 166. 168. 

270. 

j variabilis, 160. 

[ ventricosa, 91. 184. 198. 

3 



318 



INDEX. 



Helix Vindobonensis, 1 1 . 

virgata, 11. 27. 36. 45. 47 

147. 158. 160. 176. 186. 
vitrina, 174. 

vivipara, 90, 91. 

vortex, 267. 

-^ zebra, 7. 

Zenobia bimarginata, 147. 

Zenobia corrugata, 147. 

zonaria, 48. 158. 160. 

Hemithalamus lacustris, 271. 
Hyalina pellucida, 120. 
Hyalina?, 165. 
Hydrobia, 88. 95, 96. 
Hydromanes, 96. 143. 156. 

Introduction, 1. 
Iphigenia, 214. 
Iridina?, 300. 
Isthmia, 199. 

Jaminia edentula, 200. 
heterostropha, 205. 

marginata, 196. 

muscorum, 194. 

Lacuna, 242. 

Lapicida, 141. 

Latomus lapicida, 140. 

Lauria, 193. 

Leuconia, 227. 

Limacella concava, 106. 114. - 

obliqua, 117. 

Parma, 113. 

variegata, 107. 115. 

Limacellus obliquus, 117. 

Parma, 113. 

unguiculus, 116. 

Limacidae, 56. 103. 
Limacina, 111. 

Limax,40. 66. 73. 109. 111. 177. 

238. 

agrestis, 45. 47. 107, 108. 

117, 118. 

antiquorum, 103. 113. 

ater, 105. 113. 

brunneus, 37. 117, 118. 

carinatus, 25. 52. 115,116. 

cinereo-niger, 113. 

cinereus, 113. 

fasciatus, 107. 113. 

filans, 112. 117. 



Limax flavus, 47, 114. 

hortensis, 107. 

luteus, 105. 

maculatus, 113. 

marginatus, 108. 

marginellus, 105. 

maximus, 45, 46. 112, US. 

115. 

minimus, 42. 

rufus, 105. 

Sowerbii, 115. 116. 

subfuscus, 106, 107. 

succineus, 105. 

succino colore, 114. 

tenellus, 24. 

unguiculus, 1 16. 

variegatus, 114. 

Limnea elongata, 242. 

fontinalis, 251. 

' glutinosa, 244. 

lineata, 54. 234, 235, 236. 

palustris, 239, 240. 

succinea, 178. 

turrita, 255. 

LimnEeadae, 219. 229. 248. 
Limnseida?, 102. 248. 219. 257. 
Limnaeus, 67. 74. 127. 177. 181. 
224. 230, 231. 243. 248. 255, 
256. 278. 

acutus, 34. 

auricularius, 4O. 

columellarip, 42. 

fossarius, 26. 180. 240, 241. 

glaber, 26. 39, 40. 48. 242. 

longiusculus, 42. 

maximus, 42. 

palustris, 26. 48. 239. 

pereger, 26,34. 4O. 48. 179. 

249. 

pyramidalis, 42. 

scaturiginum, 51. 

stagnalis, 26. 46. 51. 254. 

truncatulus, 40. 50. 240, 

241. 

Limneus communis, 239. 
elongatus, 242. 

fragilis 237. 

glutinosus, 244. 246. 

involutus, 245. 

minutus, 240, 241. 

tinctus, 239. 

Limnophysa minuta, 241 . 



INDEX. 



319 



Littorina, 85. 87. 89. 95. 
- muriatica, 88. 
ulvae, 24 88. 

ventricosa, 95. 
Lottia, 69. 

Lucena pulchella, 142. 

Lutea, 243. 

Lymnsea auricularia, 232. 236. 

fasciata, 185. 

leucostoma, 242. 

lubrica, 188. 

minuta, 241. 

ovata, 234. 

peregra, 233. 

putris, 233. 

Lymnseus peregcr, 233. 

vulgaris, 233. 236. 
Lymnea fontinalis, 97. 

fossaria, 226. 241. 

fragilis, 239. 

lacustris, 234. 

marginata, 234. 

tentaculata, 93. 

truncatula, 232. 

Lymneada?, 56. 
Lymneus acutus, 234. 236. 

auricularius, 219. 232. 

detritus, 18. 

fragilis, 20. 

glaber, 15. 18. 

glutinosus, 246. 

Grayanus, 86. 

major, 1 J37. 

minutus, 241. 

ovatus, 234. 

pereger, 234. 236. 

speciosus, 238. 

stagnalis, 15. 19. 23. 236. 

237. 240. 

Macroceramus signatus, 20. 187. 
Melampus, 59. 226. 

ovulum, 21. 

Melania, 44. 85. 

costata, 43. 

fasciata, 42. 

helvetica, 44. 

Matonii, 22. 

virginica, 44. 

Melaniadas, 79. 85. 
Melanopsis, 44. 85. 
attenuata, 43. 



Melanopsis brevis, 43. 

carinata, 43. 

tricarinata, 43. 

Mollusca, classes of, 72. 

Brachiata, 73. 

Reptantia, 73. 

Subsilientia, 73. 

Molluscans, crawling, 77. 
Murex fuscatus, 22. 
Mya, 43. 

Batava, 296. 

- margaritifera, 293. 

ovalis, 298. 

ovata, 296. 298. 

pictorum, 295, 296. 

Mysca Batava, 296. 
ovata, 298. 

pictorum, 295. 

solida, 296. 298. 

Mytilus, 61. 299, 30O. 302. 

anatinus, 290, 291, 292. 

'area, 301. 

cellensis, 289. 

Chemnitzii, 301. 

cygneus, 289,290,291,292, 

293. 

dentatus, 29O. 
edulis, 84. 

Hagenii, 301. 

incrassatus, 291. 293. 

lineatus, 301. 

maculatus, 290. 293. 

piscinalis, 290. 

polymorphus, 301, 302. 

stagnalis, 29O. 

Toreyi, 301. 

Volga?, 301. 

Volgensis, 301. 

Myxas Mulleri, 244. 

Nanina, 164. 

Nautahypnorum, 255. 

Nautili, 229. 

Nautilus lacustris, 193. 271. 

Navicella, 80. 

Nerita, 80, 81. 97. 

aperta, 43. 

elegans, 275. 

fasciata, 90. 

fluviatilis, 83. 

globosa, 43. 

globulosa, 95. 



320 



INDEX. 



Nerita jaculator, 93. 

piscinalis, 97. 

sphaerica, 93. 

Syncera hepatica, 86. 

. valvata, 99. 

vivipara, 90. 

Neritida?, 79, 80. 
Neritina, 34. 68. 81. 

Dalmatica, 83. 

declivis, 22. 

. Fittonii, 43. 

fluviatilis, 33. 47. 78. 83. 

fontinalis, 83. 

virginea, 22. 

viridis, 81. 

Nux nigella. 280. 

Odostomia Carychium, 221. 

muscorum, 194. 

nigricans, 217. 

per versa, 20 7 . 

Onchidiada?, 56. 
Opercula, 78. 
Operculata, 272. 
Ossicula, 209. 
Ovatella, 225. 

Paludina, 19. 34. 41. 44 67. 89, 

90. 96. 
achatina, 23. 26. 33. 47. 87. 

91. 

acuta, 94, 95. 

Balthica, 24 

carinifera, 43. 

concinna, 43. 

crystallina, 26. 33. 9O. 

elongata, 43. 

fasciata, 91. 

fluviorum, 43. 

Gray ana, 86. 

humilis, 94. 

impura, 93. 

lenta, 43. 

octona, 24. 

similis, 24. 94, 95. 

stagnorum, 95. 

Sussexensis, 43. 

tentaculata, 93. 

ventricosa, 94. 

viridis, 95. 

vivipara, 27. 33. 47. 78. 90. 

vulgaris, 91. 



PaludinidcE, 79. 89. 

Patella, 69. 80. 229. 247. 249. 

fluviatilis, 249. 

lacustris, 249, 250. 

oblonga, 250. 

Pedipes, 21. 59. 
Pera, 282. 

appendiculata, 285. 

fluviatilis, 286. 

gibba, 282. 

Henslowiana, 285, 286. 

pulchella, 284. 
Phasianella, 81. 

angulosa, 43. 

xniuuta, 43. 

- orbicularis, 43. 
Philodromus Limacum, 114. 
Physa, 15. 67. 74. 212. 230,231. 

248. 251. 255. 

alba, 16. 62. 251. 254. 

acuta, 16. 251. 254. 

contorta, 16. 

disciformis, 16. 

fontinalis, 16. 48. 219. 245. 

251, 252. 254. 

hypnorum, 255. 

marmorata, 21. 

rival is, 251. 253. 

rivularis, 16. 

scaturiginum, 15. 238. 

subopaca, 251. 253. 

Physina, 251. 

Phytophaga, 77, 78. 

Pisidium. 26. 52. 57. 69. 279. 

282. 
amnicum, 41. 49" 285, 286, 

287, 288. 

cinereum, 23. 38. 53. 286. 

fontinale, 284. 

Henslowianum, 23. 34. 51. 

285, 

Jenynsii, 285. 

nitidum, 23. 34. 52. 283. 

obliquum, 41. 286. 

obtusale, 34. 52. 282. 

pulchellum, 23. 52. 284, 

285. 

pusillum, 41. 51. 283, 284. 

Planorbis, 68. 99. 127. 230. 255, 

256, 257, 258. 271. 
albus, 48. 70. 219. 259, 260 

261. 266. 



INDEX. 



321 



Planorbis bulla, 251. 

carinatus, 41. 50, 51. 262, 

263, 264, 265. 

clausulatus, 27 1 . 

complanatus, 263, 264, 265, 

266. 269. 

compressus, 267. 

contortus, 41. 48. 270. 

corneus, 33. 41. 48. 258. 

cristatus, 262. 

cylindricus, 42. 

deformis, 266. 

disciformis, 263, 264 

Draparnaldi, 265, 266. 

euomphalus, 42. 

fontanus, 269. 271, 272. 

glaber, 23. 259- 260. 

hispidus, 259. 

imbricatus, 41. 49. 261. 

lams, 24. 26. 38. 53. 261. 

lens, 42. 

lenticularis, 269. 

leucostomus, 267. 

lutescens, 16. 263. 

marginatus, 48. 257. 263, 

264, 265. 

nitidus, 41. 49. 268, 269. 

271. 

obtusus, 42. 

parvus, 261. 

planatus, 263, 264. 

purpureus, 259. 

reticulatus, 259. 

rhombeus, 265. 

Sheppardi, 265, 266. 

similjs, 259. 

spirorbis, 49. 257. 261. 268. 

turgidus, 265. 

turritus, 255. 

umbilicatus, 265. 

vortex,41.48. 157. 267,268. 

Pleurobranchi, 247, 
Pleurobranchiata, 77. 
Pneumobranchiata, 77. 
Podophthalma, 79. 
Pomatia antiquorum, 135. 

Dioscoridis, 127. 

Potamides, 44. 85. 

acutus, 43. 

cinctus, 43. 

duplex, 43. 

magnilucens, 43. 



Potamides pliculus, 43. 

ventricosus, 43. 

Psammobiae, 43. 

Pteropodes, 73. 

Pulmouifera, 248. 

Pupa, 66. 68. 110. 181. 192. 199. 

207. 

alpestris, 14. 201. 

anglica, 26. 38. 51. 193. 

195. 

antivertigo, 2O4. 

bidentata, 195. 197. 

Britannica, 189. 

cinerea, 1 3. 

costulata, 24. 

Draparnaudii, 194. 

edentula, 38. 193, 194. 199. 

fragilis, 2O7. 

germanica, 14. 

. Goodalli, 189. 

juniperi, 37. 46. 50. 197. 

labiata, 207. 

marginata, 40. 45. 50. 1 93. 

196, 197. 

minuta, 201. 

minutissima, 201. 

muscorum, 196. 201. 204. 

normalis, 13. 

obtusa, 14. 200, 201. 

pygmasa, 201. 

ringens, 1 95. 

secale, 197. 

sexdentata, 40. 1 93. 203. 

substriata, 203. 

tridens, 1 3. 

tridentalis, 195. 

tridentata, 14. 

umbilicata, 25. 47. 193, 

194. 

unidentata, 197. 

vertigo, 205. 

Pupilla, 196. 
Pyrula perversa, 212. 

Radix, 232. 

auriculatus, 232. 

Rissoa, 96. 

Scalaris, 266. 

Scarabus, 221. 

Segmentina, 68. 230. 269. 271. 

lineata, 25. 34. 49. 271. 



322 



INDEX. 



Segmentina nitida, 271. 

Sepia, 73. 

Serpula cornucopia, 129. 

helicina, 129. 

Sidula, 21. 

felis Catti, 21. 

Siphonaria, 247. 
Skenia, 96. 
Stagnicola, 239. 

communis, 239. 

elegans, 237. 

minuta, 241. 

octanfracta, 242. 

vulgaris, 237. 

Stenopus, 164. 
Strombi, 193. 

Strombiformis perversus, 1 4. 
Succinea, 67. 110. 117. 125, 126. 

177. 

amphibia, 40. 55. 178, 179. 

gracilis, 179. 

intermedia, 1 79. 

Levantina, 179. 

Miilleri, 178. 

oblonga, 37. 52. 179, 180. 

Pfeifferi oblonga, 40. 52. 

179. 
putris, 26. 47. 1 78, 1 79, 1 80. 

Tachea hortnsis, 131. 

nemoralis, 133, 134. 

Tapada, 127. 

putris, 178, 179. 

Teba Cantiana, 144. 

caperata, 1 62. 

cingenda, 158. 

fulva, 148, 149. 

hispida, 151, 152. 

rufescens, 156, 157. 

spinulosa, 149. 

Teeth, growth of, 198. 
Tellina amnica, 285. 
cornea, 279, 280. 

Henslowiana, 285. 

lacustris, 281. 
pusilla, 283. 

rivalis, 59. 280. 286. 

stagnicola, 280. 

Terms of shells, 70. 
Testacella, 110. 122.276. 

europsea, 124. 

Gallia?, 124. 



Testacella haliotoidea, 34. 45. 

103. 124. 
Maugei, 5. 

scutulum, 124, 125. 

Testacellina, 109. 
Testacellus, 66. 122. 
europaeus, 5. 

haliotideus, 1 24. 

Maugei, 5. 

scutulum, 55. 

Theodoxus Lutetianus, 83. 
Tichogonia, 300. 

Chemnitzii, 301. 

Tornatella bullaeoides, 20. 
Torquilla secale, 197. 
Tralia pusilla, 21. 
Trigonostoma, 139. 
Trochus, 98. 192. 

terrestris, 9. 148. 

Truncatella, 59. 223. 

subcylindrica, 22. 

truncata, 22. 

Turbo, 81. 96. 229. 

- achatinus, 91. 

Anglicus, 195. 

auricularis, 242. 

bidens, 14. 217. 

bidentatus, 225, 

biplicatus, 214. 
Carychium, 221 

chrysalis, 196. 

. cristatus, 99. 

cylindraceus, 194. 

edentulus, 200. 

elegans, 275. 

fasciatus, 185. 

fontinalis, 96, 97. 
formosus, 20. 

Francesia, 86. 

fulvus, 1 6. 

fuscus, 223. 
' glaber, 188. 

helicinus, 142. 

juniperi, 197. 

labiatus, 14. 

Ice vis, 93. 

Leachii, 94. 

marginatus, 196. 

muriaticus, 88. 

muscorum, 194. 200. 

nautileus, 262. 
nucleus, 93. 



INDEX. 



323 



Turbo Offlonensis, 199. 

paludosus, 142. 

perversus, 207. 217. 

quadridens, 13. 

quinquedentatus, 13. 

rupium, 183. 

sexdentatus, 202, 203. 

striatus, 275. 

thermalis, 97. 

trianfractus, 178. 

tridens, 13, 14. 189. 222. 

truncatus, 276. 

tumidus, 275. 

vertigo, 50. 206. 

Unio, 34. 44. 69. 82. 289. 293. 
300. 

aduncus, 44. 

ambiguus, 44. 

ater, 25. 

Batavus, 34. 50. 296. 298. 

compressus, 44. 

cordiferus, 44. 

crassus, 25. 

, elongatula, 296. 

elongatus, 294. 

Gaulterii, 43. 

limosus, 25. 

littoralis, 25. 42. 

Mantellii, 43. 

margaritifer, 294. 

margaritifera, 27. 294. 

margaritiferus, 293, 294. 

Martini, 43. 

ovalis, 296. 302. 

ovatus, 50. 

pietorum, 31. 41. 48.295, 

296, 297, 298. 

porrectus, 44. 

riparia, 294. 

Roissyi, 294. 

rostratus, 295. 298. 

sinuata, 294. 

Solandri, 43. 

subtruncatus, 43. 

tumidus, 34. 48. 296. 298. 

Unionidae, 277. 288. 296. 

Vallonia, 143. 

Rosalia, 142. 

Valvata, 67, 68. 97. 143. 
antiqua, 41. 



Valvata cristata, 17. 41. 49. 78. 
98, 99, 100. 261. 

depressa, 97, 98. 

minuta, 17. 97. 99, 1OO. 

obtusa, 48. 97. 287. 

piscinalis, 41. 97, 98. 100. 

planorbis, 54. 99. 

spinorbis, 17. 199. 

Valvatidae, 79. 96. 
Velletia, 66. 70. 230. 25O. 

lacustris, 41. 49. 250. 

Veneridae, 278. 

Verticellata?, 165. 

Vertigo, 68. 110. 199. 205. 

207. 

alpestris, 26. 38. 53. 2O2. 

anglica, 195. 

angustior, 23. 26. 37. 50. 

205, 206. 

cylindrica, 52. 200, 201. 

edentula, 51. 

heterostropha, 205. 

Montagua, 204. 

nitida, 199. 

palustris, 26. 37. 52. 203,204. 

pusilla, 52. 205, 206. 

pygmaja, 52. 201, 202, 203, 

204. 
quatuor, quinque dentata, 

203. 

secale, 197. 

sexdentata, 203. 

similis, 203. 

substriata,50. 202, 203, 2O4. 

vulgar is, 201. 

Vesicula multifida, 101.125. 132. 

134. 
Vitrina, 66. 74. 109. 118. 122. 

125. 174. 

beryllina, 120. 

depressa, 1 20. 

diaphana, 121. 

Dillwynii, 120, 121, 122. 

Draparnaudi, 120,121, 122. 

elongata, 9. 120. 125. 

margaritacea, 122. 

membranacea, 122. 

MUlleri, 120. 

pellucida,48. 103. 120. 123. 

Vitvinina, 109. 
Vitrinus pellucidus, 120. 
Viviparus fluviorum, 91. 



324 



INDEX. 



Voluta alba, 227. 

bidentata, 227. 

bullaeoides, 20. 

coffee, 20. 

denticulata, 54. 220. 225, 

226. 

hyalina, 226. 

reflexa, 225. 

ringens, 225. 

triplicata, 21. 

Volvaria alba, 228. 

Zonites, 54. 66. 110. 119. 122. 

125. 164. 177. 

alliarius, 51. 168. 175. 

cellarius, 26. 169, 170. 17S. 

175. 
- crystallinus, 51. 172. 176. 



Zonites ericetorum, 163. 

excavatus, 25, 32. 38. 175. 

lucidus, 40. 51. 170, 171, 

174. 176. 
nitens, 48. 

nitidulus, 51. 175. 

nitidus, 27. 139. 169. 172. 

purus, 25. 38. 52. 171. 

pygmaeus, 51. 167. 

radiatulus, 25, 26. 47. 51. 

165. 173, 174. 
rotundatus, 165, 166. 

umbilicatus, 1 66. 
Zoophaga, 77. 

Zua, 68. 110. 

lubrica, 24. 4O. 47. 188. 

Zurama, 141. 

pulchella, 142 



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CONVERSATIONS ON MINERALOGY. Third 

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6 



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Part XI. The Ox, No. 4. The Ayrshire, Alderney, Fifeshire, and Somer- 
setshire Breeds. 

Part XII. The Sheep, No. 5 (Nov. 30). 
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*#* A Supplementary Number will contain THE GOAT. 

Just published, by the same Author, 

ELEMENTS OF PRACTICAL AGRICULTURE ; 

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